Tuesday, May 22, 2007

  • The VOLGA COSSACKS, originally from sketchy peasants on N.Volge in 16 century. In 1733-77 existed Volgskoe the Cossack army with the centre in Dubovke (ok. Tsaritsyn); the part of the Volga cossacks has been moved on the Sowing. Caucasus (in Terskoe the Cossack army), the part is adjoined in nach. 19 century to the Astrakhan army.
  • VOLGA, city (with 1954) in the Russian Federation, the Volgograd region, a port on Volga, for the beginning of Akhtuba. A depot. 281 thousand inhabitants (1992). Has arisen in 1951 in connection with construction of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Oil refining, petrochemical, chemical, machine-building, etc. an industry. A museum of a history of city.
  • VOLZHSKO-KAMSKY RESERVATION, in Tatarii. It is based in 1960. The area 8040 ga. 2 plots: Raifsky - to northwest from Kazan - 200-years woods, characteristic for a mean strip of the European part of the Russian Federation, and Saralovsky - on coast Kujbyshevskogo vdhr. - piny and mixed forests. The moose, the fox, a marten, a raccoon dog; a lag bolt, a hazel grouse, a grey crane.
  • The VOLZHSKO-CASPIAN MILITARY FLOTILLA, existed in July 1919 - July 1920. It is built by interflow of the Volga and Astrahano-Caspian military flotillas. Participat in the defence of Astrakhan, discharging of Transcaucasia and the Caspian m. from White Guards and interventionists.
  • The VOLZHSKO-FINNISH TONGUES (the Volga Finno-Ugric tongues), the conditional classification title Mordovian and mari the tongues relating Finno-Ugric family.
  • VOLIN (Wolin), city in Poland, on a like island in a mouth r. Odra. Has arisen in kon. 8 century, in 10-12 centuries - the trading - craft centre and a port, urban republic. Residues of strengthening, derevoljutsionnyh constructions and bridge.
  • The WOLF (the grey wolf), predatory mammalian sets wolf. Length of a body 105-160 see, a tail - up to 50 see. Colour of a wool is more often grey. Has been eurysynusic in a temperate zone of Boreal hemisphere, but in many places has vanished. Dwells in steppes it (is most numerous), tundra, woods, mountains. The strong, tireless and clever predator. Eats ungulate, rodents, hares, in summertime willingly eats birds and different fruits. Are kept one by one, pairs (will be derivated on all life) or family groups; are sometimes integrated in flights till 10-12 individuals. In a dung routinely 4-6 volchat. Hybrids with dogs - volkosobaki - cause essential damage to the hunting fauna. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • VOLKENSHTEJN Lyudmila Aleksandrovna (1857-1906), revolutionary narodnitsa. The participant of attempt at Kharkov governor D.N.Kropotkina. In 1884 it is sentenced to 15 years of penal servitude. The participant of Revolution 1905-07. Has perished in Vladivostok at shooting demonstrating.
  • WOLFS, a stem of carnivora of a set wolf. 7 kinds: the wolf, a jackal, a coyote, the yellow wolf, a domestic dog, etc. In Eurasia, Africa, Center. To America, Greenland; in terrain of Russia 2 kinds - the wolf and a jackal. 3 kinds and 1 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources. Do-it-yourself stems (in each on 1 kind) - red wolfs and guatas.
  • WOLFS Alexander Aleksandrovich (r. 1948), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1985), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1985). Flights on "Soyuz T-14" and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (September - November 1985), on " Soyuz TM-7 " and an orbital complex "World" (November 1988 - April 1989), on " Soyuz TM-13 " and an orbital complex "World" (October 1991 - March 1992).
  • WOLFS Alexander Aleksandrovich (1905-65), the Russian designer of air automatic weapons. Together with S.A.Jartsevym has created in 1940 air pappus of templet of 23 mm with firing rate of 600 outrigger booms one the minute called "VJA" (an abbreviation from Wolfs and JArtsev). The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • WOLFS Alexander Melentjevich (1891-1977), the Russian writer. On education mathematician. It is most known as the writer of a cycle of fantastic stories for children: " the Wizard of Emerald city " (1939, in the basis - the book of American nursery writer F.Bauma " the Wise man from country the Eskar "), " Urfin Dzhjus and his wooden soldiers " (1963), " Seven underground kings " (1964), " Igneous god Marranov " (1968), etc. Stories (" Two brothers ", 1950; " Adventures of two friends in country past ", 1963; " TSargradskaja the captive ", 1969) and novels ("Architects", 1954; "Wanderings", 1963, about Dzh. Bruno) on historical scenes. Books of popular scientific stories (" the Earth and the root ", 1957, etc.).
  • WOLFS Alexander Nikitovich (r. 1929), the Russian state and military figure, marshal of aircraft (1989). With 1948 in the Soviet Army, on command positions in air force. With 1979 commanding the Military-transport aviation, with 1986 deputy of the commander-in-chief of air force. In 1987-90 minister for the Civil aviation of the USSR.
  • WOLFS Alexander Nikolaevich (1886-1957), the Russian and Uzbek painter, the national artist of Uzbekistan (1946). Saturated colour decorative - inking cloths (" Granatovaja chajhana ", 1924), national characters ("Collective farmer", 1933).
  • WOLFS Boris Ivanovich (1900-70), the Russian theatrical artist, the national artist of the USSR (1965). Combined picturesque and volumetric decorations, introduced lyrical landscapes (opera " Family Tarasa " Kabalevskogo at the Musical theatre him. Stanislavsky and Nemirovich - Danchenko, 1951). The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1951, 1952).
  • WOLFS Valentine Viktorovich (1881-1964), the Byelorussian painter, the national artist of Belarus (1955). Theme compositions ("Vuzovtsy", 1947; " Minsk on July, 3-rd 1944 ", 1946-55).
  • WOLFS Vladislav Nikolaevich (1935-71), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1969), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1969, 1971 - posthumously). Flights on "Soyuz - 7" (October 1969), "Soyuz - 11" and orbital station " Salute " (June 1971). Has perished at return to the Earth.
  • WOLFS Lion Ivanovich (r. 1930), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on complex mathematical modelling and an assessment of nonlinear dynamic systems of flying space and rocket-propelled apparatuses.
  • WOLFS Oleg Vasiljevich (1900-1996), the Russian writer. " Dipping in darkness " (1987; the State premium of the Russian Federation, 1991) - a documentary narration about tragical destinies of people - victims of Stalin reprisals. A theme of natural protection in stories, stories, publicism. The book " Each stone in her lives. From a history of the Moscow streets " (1985). Transfers.
  • WOLFS Feodor Grigorjevich (1729-63), the actor and the theatrical figure. In 1750 has organized in Yaroslavl amateur troupe (actors I.A.Dmitrevsky, J.D.Shumsky) on the basis of which in 1756 in Saint Petersburg the first permanent professional Russian public theatre has been built. Played A.P.Sumarokov tragedies.
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