Tuesday, May 22, 2007

  • VOLNOGORSK, city (with 1964) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Volnogorsk. 25,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Verhnedneprovsky mining-and-metallurgical integrated works (production and a thorough revision of titanium ores); glass, etc. an industry.
  • FREE SOCIETY of FANS of the RUSSIAN LITERATURE, literary society in Saint Petersburg in 1816-25. Among members: F.N.Glinka (chairman), K.F.Ryleyev, N. À. and A.A.Bestuzhevy, V.K.Kuechelbeker, N.I.Gnedich, A.A.Delwig, A.S.Griboedov, etc.
  • FREE ECONOMIC SOCIETY (VEO), the first Russian science foundation, is based in 1765 in Saint Petersburg. Has published the first statistiko-geographycal probes of Russia, promoted an introduction in an agriculture of a new agricultural engineering, conducted discussion of economic problems. Among figures: A.T.Bolotov, A.A.Nartov, admiral A.I.Sinjavin, G.R.Derzhavin, K.D.Kavelin, D.I.Mendeleev, V.V.Dokuchayev, A.M.Butlerov, P.P.Semenov-Tjan-Shansky. Because of afflictings authorities has actually stopped activity in 1915.
  • VOLNOOPREDELJAJUSHCHIJSJA, the serviceman in Russian and foreign armies in 19 - nach. 20 centuries, voluntarily proceeding on a military service after obtaining the maximum or secondary education and bearing a service on favourable terms.
  • FREEDMEN, in antique and rannefeodalnom a society slaves, tempered on freedom or the redeemed relations remaining in a miscellaneous degree to the former master.
  • FREEDOM POETIC, conceded in verses by tradition minor deviation from tongue norms: " From a flame and light the born word " (M.J.Lermontov).
  • FREE CITIES german, originally (with 13 - nach. 14 centuries) the cities released from under an authority of the feudal seigneur and achieving self-management. Were gradually balanced with imperial cities, become to call as free imperial cities (up to nach. 19 century). Longest (and in 20 century) Lubek, Hamburg, Bremen had the status of free city.
  • FREE SCAPES (frantirery), a kind of an irregular infantry in France in 15-19 centuries; led guerilla actions during ex - Prussian war. The title of participants of the French Resistance movement in 2-nd world war (see. Frantirery and guerrillas).
  • FREE GRAIN GROWERS, in Russia the peasants free from krepostnicheskoj of relation with ground under the Decree 1803, ground the voluntary agreement with landowners. To it is grey. 19 century 151 thousand shower of a male sex is free.
  • The FREE CITY, in the international law - the do-it-yourself territorial - political neutralized and demilitarized education, which legal regime is established by international treaties and guaranteed by the states or international organizations. Free cities were Krakow (under the Austrian tract 1815), Danzig (under the Versailles peace treaty 1919).
  • FREE VERSE, in sillabo-tonic stihoslozhenii, predominary in jambe, loose alternation raznostopnyh by quantity of lines. In Russian poetry the routine dimension basen, many elegy and messages nach. 19 century, poetic comedies and dramas. (to not admix with a loose verse).
  • VOLNJANSK, city (with 1966) on Ukraine, Zaporozhye region. A depot. 18 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: tool, plastic items.
  • VOLPIN Mark Efimovich (r. 1923), the Russian chemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on not benzenoid aromatic compounds, carbenes. Has discovered (1964, together with V.B.Shurom) a nitrogen fixation at ambient temperature nizkovalentnymi organometallic compounds. The lenin premium (1963), the State premium of the USSR (1982).
  • VOLS (Wols; an ice-film. A name and fam. Schultz Alfred) (1913-1951), the French artist. The native of Germany, with 1932 worked in Paris. The photographer of the ekspressivno-imaging direction is known as well as. Has become in 1940th the largest master informelja, creating some kind of "psychograms", painting and to the schedule, pathetically relaying nervous and melancholic life of creative intelligence.
  • VOLSINII (Volsinii), city etruskov (7 century - 264 up to n. e.) in Center. Italy. Residues of strengthening and temples.
  • VOLSK, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, the Saratov region, a port on Volga (Volgograd vdhr.). Depot (Privolskaja). 65,2 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of a cement industry; factories: "Metal worker", tanning, tannin extracts, etc. Theatre. 2 museums. It is known from 17 century.
  • VOLSKI, ancient nation in Center. Italy, probably, affine to umbers. In 2-nd floor. 4 century up to n. e. pokoreny Romans.
  • VOLSKY Anton Nikolaevich (1897-1966), the Russian metallurgist, academician AN the USSR (1960). The main transactionses under the theory of chemical equilibriums in melts. The lenin premium (1965), the State premium of the USSR (1949, 1953).
  • VOLSKY Arcady Ivanovich (r. 1932), the Russian political figure. With 1955 on technical-engineer activity. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1986-91. With 1991 vice-president of Inter-republican economic committee. With 1992 president of the Russian union of industrialists and businessmen. The state premium of the USSR (1971).
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