Wednesday, June 6, 2007

  • BOMBAY (Major Bombay), city, one of the main economic centres of India, administrative centre pieces. Maharashtra. 9,9 million inhabitants (1991). A port on the Arabian m. (freight turnover ok. 30 million t.). An international airport. The large centre of cotton industry. A machine industry and metal working, petrochemical, chemical, mild, alimentary, a woodworking industry, motion picture industry. University. Near to Bombay - atomic power station Tarapur. The largest centre national-liberation and working-class movement. It is known from 16 century.
  • The BOMBAY UNIVERSITY, India, is based in 1857. In 1990 over 570 thousand students.
  • BOMBELLI (Bombelli) Raffaele (ok .1526-72), italian mathematician and the engineer. In "Algebra" (1572) for the first time regularly developed the theory of complex numbers.
  • MORTAR, 1) the instrument of short-range crocked eggs (templet from 20 up to 152 mm), similar on the device on a mortar, but as against him{it} was charged from treasury. It was applied in 1-¯ world war... 2) the Ship mortar - antisubmarine weapon of surface ships for shooting by depth charges on submersibles.
  • The BAUME (Baume) Antoine (1728-1804), the French chemist, the pharmacist and the technologist. Has invented (1708) areometer called as his{its} name. Has organized (1770) manufacture of muriate of ammonia (chloride of an ammonium). Has introduced improvements to manufacture of porcelain. In books " Elements of a theoretical and practical pharmaceutics " (1762) and " Experimental and regular chemistry " (t. 1-3, 1773) it is detailed cramps on chemistry of the extremity of 18 century from an item of the theory flogistona are stated.
  • BOMON (Beaumont) William (1785-1853), the American doctor and the physiologist, one of the first physiologists in the USA. For the first time has conducted (with 1822) regular probes on a stomach of the person for which as a result of a wound not healing fistula was formed. Outcomes of probes has extended in fundamental transactionses " Experiments and supervision{observations} above a gastric juice and physiology of digestion " (1833).
  • BEAUMONT (Beaumont), city in the south the USA, pieces. Texas, seaport (freight turnover ok. 50 million t annually) on r. Neches. 114 thousand inhabitants (1990), with suburbs of 360 thousand inhabitants). Oil refining and a petrochemical industry. Shipbuilding. University.
  • BOMA (Bomu), an oil deposit in Nigeria (gulf of Guinea oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open{discovered} in 1958. Deposits on depth of 1,9-2,3 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum ok. 75 million t.
  • BONDS, the former title Annaba, in Algeria.
  • BOND DEA (an armour. Bona Dea - the kind goddess), in Roman mythology the goddess of fertility, goddess - mother which name was known only dedicated, was identified with JUnonoj, Gekatoj. The holiday in its{her} honour, surrounded with a secret, managed{consulted} in Rome in the beginning of December, on a nem there could be only women.
  • BONAVENTURA (Bonaventura) (sobstv. Giovanni Fidantsa, Fidanza) (1221-74), the philosopher - mistik, the representative avgustinovskogo platonizma; the chapter of franciscan order, a cardinal bird. Has been consecrated a saint (1482), to figure 10 of the greatest teachers of Christian church (1587). Taught at the Parisian university. The main{basic} composition - " the Guidebook showers to the God ".
  • BONALD (Bonald) Lui Gabriel Ambruaz (1754-1840), the French philosopher, the political figure and the publicist. In the main composition " the Theory of a political and religious authority in a civil society " (1796) from clerical items argued against with philosophy of the French Enlightenment; shadowed idea of a heavenly origin of a monarchy. Views Bonalda have received the title traditsionalizma.
  • BONAPARTISM, initial notation of dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte and Lui Napoleon, manoeuvring between social groups; combined demagogy with policy of approach to democracy and revolutionary movement. In a more comprehensive sense - the dictatorship manoeuvring between social groups in conditions of unstable social balance.
  • BONAPARTISTY, adherents of restoration in France Bonaparte dynasties after fall of the First empire (1814) and the Second empire (1870). Promoted Lui Bonaparte coming to power (Napoleon III).
  • BONAPARTES (Bonaparte), a dynasty of the French emperors in 1804-14, 1815 (Napoleon I) and in 1852-1870 (Napoleon III). In board of Napoleon I in the chapter conquered France or the states derivated by him{it} had been put representatives of a stem of Bonapartes (Zhozef Bonaparte - in 1806-08 Neapolitan king, in 1808-13 king of Spain; Lui Bonaparte - in 1806-10 king of Holland; Zherom Bonaparte - in 1807-13 king of Westphalia, etc.).
  • BONATTS (Bonatz) Paul (1877-1956), the german architect. Worked together with T.Fisherom. With 1908 taught in Stuttgart. With 1943 worked in Turkey. Construction in style of constrained and attenuatous neo-classicism with elements of the national architecture of austral ranges of Germany (the library of University in Tjubingene, 1909-12; passenger depot in Stuttgart, 1913-1927).
  • BONGARD-LEVIN Grigory Maksimovich (r. 1933), the historian, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on a history Other. India, Central Asia, problems of old indian crop. The state premium of the USSR (1988).
  • BONGO (Bongo) the Ale - Hadzh the Lobster (up to 1973 Albert Bernard Bongo) (r. 1935), the president of Gabon with 1967. The founder (in 1968) Gabonskoj democratic party. In 1973 has accepted moslem faith.
  • BOND (Bond) George Phillips (1825-65), the American astronomer. The director of the Harward observatory in Cambridge (with 1859). Together with father U.K.Bondom (1848) eighth guide of Saturn - has discovered the Hyperion and a crepe ring of Saturn (1850), for the first time has applied (1848) photo in astronomy. Has entered concept (1861) orbicular albedos (" an albedo of the Bond ") as a lobe reflected a planet of a sunlight.
  • BONDAREV Jury Vasiljevich (r. 1924), the Russian writer, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1984). In stories " Batallions ask fire " (1957), the novel " Hot snow " (1969) - war by eyes of the ordinary participant, psychology of the person on war, his{its} moral dignities uncovered in case-hardened drama situations. In "Tishin" (1962) novels, "Shore" (1975), "Selection" (1980) - interpreted neottorzhimost destinies of the person from fate of a country, the composite zoetic conflicts of duties of people of military generation. A prosaic cycle of "Instant" (1981-87). Activities for theatre and kino (including sharing{participation} in building a film-epopee "Discharging", 1970-72); the Lenin premium (1972), State premiums of the USSR (1977, 1983).
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