Wednesday, June 6, 2007

  • BONIFACHO (Bonifacio), a channel between islands Corsicas and Sardinia, bridges Tirrenskoe and Mediterranean mm. Length ok. 19 kms, width of 12-16 kms, depth up to 69 m. A port - Bonifacho (Corsica).
  • BONIFICATION (frants. bonification, from compare - eyelids. An armour. bonifico - I improve), in a civic right - the extra charge to content the agreement to the price if the goods of higher quality are put. It is most widely applied in export trade.
  • BONN (Bonn), city in Germany, on terrains of ground Rhine - Vestfalija, a residence of government of Germany (1949-94), a port on r. Rhein. 296 thousand inhabitants (1992). An international airport. A machine industry (including electrotechnical), pharmacological, polygraphic, alimentary, a furniture industry. Underground railway. University. Urban art collections, etc. Beethoven Dwelling - museum (was born in Bonnet). It is known from 1 century. In 1273-1794 residence Cologne kurfjurstov. A Romanesque cathedral (11-13 centuries).
  • BONNAR (Bonnard) Pierre (1867-1947), the French painter. Team member "Nabi". Decorative - lyrical contemplative household scenes spirit of serotinal{late} impressionism and "modernist style" (" Autumn. The tax of fruits ", 1912).
  • BONN (Bonnet) Charles (1720-93), the Swiss scientist and the philosopher, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1764). Experimental activities on a parthenogenesis and regenerations; has formulated a generality of an asexual reproduction, regeneration and a transplantation, has marked, that the sexual reproduction increases a diversification. Has paralleled between thickening of an organism in an ontogenesis and along a ladder of entities.
  • BONNSKY UNIVERSITY (the Rhine university him{it}. Fridriha Wilhelm), Germany, it is based in 1786. In 199040 thousand students.
  • BONNER Elena Georgievna (r. 1923), Russian public and the political figure, pravozashchitnitsa. The wife and the colleague of academician A.D.Saharova. The participant of Great Domestic war 1941-45. The writer of several books, memoirs. The winner of the premium of International fund him{it}. Raulja Vallenberga.
  • BONOMI (Bonomi) Ivanoe (1873-1951), one of leaders of Italian socialist party, in 1912 is eliminated from it{her} for support of italo-turkish war 1911-12; one of osnovatelej (together with Bissolati) the Socialist reformist consignment. In 1916-21 minister, in 1921-22 prime minister, in 1943-44, during occupation of Italy by a german troops, the chapter of Committee of national discharging, in 1944-45 prime minister.
  • BONTEMPELLI (Bontempelli) Massimo (1878-1960), the italian writer. The theorist "novechentizma" - a literary direction, close to futurism. Novels " the Son of two mothers " (1929), " People in time " (1937), combining a realistic manner with a grotesque fantasy.
  • BONUS (from an armour. bonus - good), in commerce - compensation, the premium.
  • BONDS - FRJAZIN, the italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. In 1505-08 has constructed the lower 3 storeys of a belltower of Ivan Great in Moskovsk the Kremlin.
  • BONHEFFER (Bonhoeffer) Ditrih (1906-45), the german Protestant seminary student and the church figure. One of chiefs " Ispovednicheskoj churches ", standing up to{countering;resisting} to a hitlerite mode and philosophy of national socialism. After arrest (April 1943) and the conclusions have been executed.
  • BONCH-BRUEVICH Vladimir Dmitrievich (1873-1955), the Russian political figure, the doctor of historical sciences. Brother M.D.Bonch-Bruevich. The organizer of lines bolshevistskih newspapers and publishing houses. In 1917-20 upravdelami Advice{Council} of National Commissioners. Then on scientific activity. Transactionses on a history revolutionary, religious - social movements in Russia.
  • BONCH-BRUEVICH Michael Aleksandrovich (1888-1940), the Russian scientist, one of pioneers of radio engineering, corresponding member AN the USSR (1931). Has organized the first domestic production{manufacture} of electron tubes (1916-1919). In 1918-28 chief of the Nizhniy Novgorod radiolaboratory. Under a guiding of Bonds - Bruevicha the first-ever potent radio broadcast station is built by him{it}. Komintern in Moscow (1922). Transactionses on many problems of radio engineering.
  • BONCH-BRUEVICH Michael Dmitrievich (1870-1956), the Russian commander, the general - lieutenant (1944), the doctor military and engineering science. Brother V.D.Bonch-Bruevich. In 1-¯ world war the chief of headquarters and vrid the commander-in-chief of Boreal front. After October revolution the chief of headquarters of Supreme commander in chief in 1917-18, the military chief of the Maximum military council, the chief of Field headquarters RVSR. Transactionses on tactics and geodesies.
  • BONCH-OSMOLOVSKY Glebas Anatoljevich (1890-1943), the archeologist and the anthropologist. Probeed a paleolith and mezolit Crimea. Has discovered in fuselage spine fairing Kiik-Koba burial of the neanderthal man and his{its} instrument (1923-24). The main{basic} transactionses about an early paleolith, a technique of archeology.
  • BONDS (from an armour. bonus - good, convenient), 1) near-term liabilities of exchequer, city governments and private concerns. Change{interchange} token coins... 2) the Impregnated-paper money, become invalid a legal tender; a subject of collecting.
  • BONDS, in military science - buoyant obstacles for protection of a stall of the ships{spacecrafts} or the important structures (bridges, dams, etc.) from penetration of the ships{spacecrafts}, torpedoes and swimming mines of the opponent.
  • BONJAK (? - after 1167), polovetsky khan. Wared against Russia and Byzantium. In 1096 has broken environs of Kiev. Participat in civil strifes of Russian princes. In 1107 and 1167 it is battered by Russian troops.
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