Sunday, April 8, 2007

ACADEMY OF ARTS in Russia (it is based in Saint Petersburg in 1757, with 1764 Imperial AH), the maximum establishment in range of plastic arts. In 18 - nach. 19 centuries has played a given away role in education of Russian national art staff{frames}, has become the centre of art life of Russia. With it is grey. 19 century in AH have prevailed conservative tendencies, but due to I.E.Repina, A.I.Kuindzhi, P.P.Chistjakova's activity, etc. artists - teachers she saved value as school of professional skill. In 1918 it dissolved. In 1992 it is converted to Russian AH.
AKAEV Askar (r. 1944), the president of Kirghizia with 1990; physics, the academician (1987) and the president (in 1989-90) AN Kirghizia. Transactionses on physical optician and a holography.
ACACIUS (mind{wit}. 488), patriarch Konstantinopolsky (with 471), the participant evtihianskih chaffers. At a nem there was a first split between Roman and Konstantinopolskoj tserkvami (480-515).
ACACIUS Apamejsky, Miletsky (mind{wit}. ok. 321), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 28 (on August, 10).
ACACIUS Kappadokijanin, Byzantian (mind{wit}. 303), the Christian martyr, sotnik, damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana Galerija. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on May, 7.
ACACIUS OF CAESAREA (mind{wit}. 363), the pupil and heir Evsevija Kesarijskogo on bishopic stand, the adherent of arianism. The writer of explanation on biblical book Ekklesiasta.
ACACIUS Melitinsky (3 century), diocesan, the confesser damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 15 (28).
ACACIUS Melitinsky (mind{wit}. ok. 435), diocesan, chudotvorets. Struggled with nestorianstvom on 3-rd Ecumenical council. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
ACACIUS New, Kavsokalivit (mind{wit}. 1730), Saint, podvizalsja on Athos in Saint Maxim Kavsokalivita's monastery. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 12 (25).
ACACIUS New, Sjarsky, Afonsky (mind{wit}. 1816), prepodobnomuchenik, podvizalsja on Athos. It is killed by Turks - moslems. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 1 (14).
ACACIUS Prussian (mind{wit}. ok. 100, under other data - ok. 360), the presbyter in. Prussy in Vifinii (Minor Asia), the martyr. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 19 (on June, 1).
ACACIUS Ptolemaidsky (mind{wit}. ok. 273), the Christian martyr - soldier damaged in Ptolemaide in persecution of emperor Avreliana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 4 (17).
ACACIUS Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
ACACIUS Sinaisky (mind{wit}. In 1-st floor. 6 century), the Christian man of faith, Saint. It is mentioned by John Lestvichnikom as an example of patience and obedience ("Lestvitsa" 4, 110). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 7 (20) and on November, 29 (on December, 12).
ACACIUS Tver and Kashinsky (mind{wit}. 1567), diocesan (with 1522). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on 1 Sunday after June, 29 (on July, 12) (a cathedral Tver sacred).
ACACIUS Uglichsky (mind{wit}. 1609), prepodobnomuchenik, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 24 (on June, 6).
AKAMANT (Akamas), in the Grecian mythology son Teseja and Fedry. Participat in embassy to Troy, demanding to return Elena Menelaju. From Laodiki, daughters of Trojan tsar Priama, had son Munita. Eponim fily Akamantidy in Attica.
AKAN, one of kva tongues. Actuates closely related dialects (ashanti, fanti, etc.). Originally the term meant the group of the affine tongues which have received the title of "volt - kamoe".
AKANISHTHA, in the Buddhism one of celestial spheres in which the maximum entities sojourn.
ACANTHUS (akanf) (grech. akanthos), an ornamental form which is going back to drawing of leaves of like herbaceous plant. The motive of an acanthus is widely used in an ancient art.
AKANTARII, a class (on other system, order) Protozoa of a subtype sarcodic. The dimensions 0,1 - 0,3 see. Have a mineral skeleton and the lengthy pseudopodiums, capable to be pruned. St. 140 kinds{views}, are eurysynusic in seas and oceans.
AKANTOTSEFALEZY, invazionnye diseases (helminthiases) animal, sometimes the person, called by parasitic Acanthocephala worms - skrebnjami (akantotsefalami). Polymorphosises, filikollez are most distributed and hazardous for animal makrakantorinhoz.
AKANE, nerazlichenie in shock-free syllables vocal not upper rise. Compare [vada], [grass], but [waters], [grasses]. Typically for Russian literary language, his{its} austral dialects and the Byelorussian tongue. Compare. Okanje.
AKAPULKO (Acapulсo), city on a southwest of Mexico, a port on Quiet ok. 515 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. An international marine climatic health resort. It is based in 16 century.
AKAPULKO (Acapulсo), city on a southwest of Mexico, a port on Quiet ok. 515 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. An international marine climatic health resort. It is based in 16 century.
AKARIFORMNYE MITES, order of arthropods of a class of arachnids. Ok. 12000 kinds{views}. For most primitive group a body jointed. Are distributed widely. Many akariformnye mites - plant pests and farm products (ambarnye, gallic, web), parasites animal (hair, pen-type, dinoflagellata) and the person (psoric).
AKARITSIDY (from grech. akari - a mite and an armour. caedo - I kill), chemical drugs from group of pesticides for destruction of the mites harmful to agricultural plants and animal.
AKARNANIJA, country in Other. Greeces, in Epirus. Under the legend, has received the title from Akarnana. The by-word included love of inhabitants of this country to luxury and pleasures and their ability to think only six months in year.
ACAROLOGY (from grech. akari - a mite and... logija), the part of an arachnology, studies mites.
AKASI, city and a port in Japan, on about. Honshu, suburb Kobe. 275 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemical, a food-processing industry, a machine industry. Fishery. A health resort.
AKATUJSKAJA PRISON, unbearable, in Nerchenskom mountain okroes. Transbaikalia; it is constructed in 1888. After liquidation in 1890 Karijskoj penal servitudes one of the centres of political penal servitude. It is deleted after February revolution 1917.
The AKATHIST (pozdnegrech. akathistos, from and - a negative prefix and grech. kathizo - I sit), Christian laudatory church canticle. It is executed costing{standing} all present.
LIMA-BEAN POD BORER, the butterfly of a set of melonworms; the pest of an acacia and pulse crops of crops. It is distributed widely. Front fenders yellow or brown - grey, rear - light grey. Eats (caterpillars) seeds.
ACACIA, stem predominary woody plants of a set of pod-bearing plants. 750 - 800 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics, more than half - in Australia and Africa. A fine wood, for many acacias over bark hardening substances and a gum. An acacia silvery (t. n. A mimosa) - an ornamental plant. Silk the tree of a stem a silk tree, as an acacia yellow - a bush of a stem a pea tree, an acacia white - a tree of a stem a black locust calls as an acacia.
AKASHEV Konstantin Vasiljevich (1888-1931), the first commander-in-chief of aircraft of the USSR. Studied in Italy and in the Maximum school of an aeronautics in Paris, in the beginning of 1-st world war has entered the volunteer air force of France. Has returned to Russia in 1915, worked on an aircraft manufacturing plant. In December 1917 it is appointed as the chairman of the All-Russia board on steering of air fleet, in 1918 was 5-th armies commanding by air forces, since December 1918 is appointed as the chief of aircraft of an aerostation of Austral front. In the last years of life worked on managing positions on aircraft manufacturing plants of Leningrad and Moscow. It is repressed.
AKBAR Dzhelal-ad-din (1542 - 1605), governor Mogolskoj of empire.
AKVAVIVA (Aduaviva) Klavdio (1543-1615), the fifth general of order of jesuits (1581) under which supervision{observation} the guiding underlain jesuitical school education is constituted.
AQUADAG, drug on the basis of a suspension of black lead in water. Apply primarily to education of a conducting stratum on an internal or external surface of electronic devices.
AQUICULTURE (from an armour. aqua - water and cultura - cultivation, maintenance{drift}), cultivation and cultivation of aquatic organisms (fishes, mollusks, Crustacea, algae) in a controlled conditions for increase of efficiency of water reservoirs. World production of aquiculture permanently will increase. Cultivation of organisms in marine or a salty water calls as a mariculture.
AQUALUNG (from an armour. aqua - water and English lung - a lung), the independent{autonomous} back-pack apparatus for respiration of the person underwater, consisting of atmosphere storage tanks and a respiratory apparatus. It is invented in 1943 Frenchmen Z.I.Kusto and E.Ganjanom. It is applied to dipping on depth up to 40 m.
AQUAMARINE (from an armour. aqua marina - ocean water), a mineral, a diaphanous aeruginous or light-blue version of beryl; a gemstone.
AQUAMETRY (from an armour. aqua - water and... metrija), methods of a qualitative analysis of water in different substances.
AQUANITES, water-filled plastic blasting explosives on the basis of an ammonium nitrate and trotyl. Heat of explosion ok. 4,6 MDZH/KG. Are insensitive to mechanic influences. Apply in shafts and mines, not gas-hazardous and a dust.
AKVAPIM (self-title), people in Ghana. Number of 650 thousand person (1992). Tongues akvapim, chvi (tvi). Believers - presviteriane, methodists.
WATER COLOUR (frants. aquarelle, from an armour. aqua - water), paints (it is routine with glue), diluted in water and easily washed off by her{it}. The main{basic} qualities of painting by a water colour - transparence of paints, through which tint and the pattern of a fundamentals (more often papers), color purity appear through.
AQUARIUM (an armour. аquarium, from аqua - water), 1) a vessel for the content and cultivations water animal and plants. 2) Establishment where representatives marine and freshwater fauna and a flora are contained with the purpose of their study and demonstrating. The first public aquarium has been open{discovered} in 1853 in the London. The most known aquariums in Naples and Monaco; large aquariums are built in the USA, Japan, etc. countries. Major marine aquariums call as oceanariums more often.
"AQUARIUM", the Russian group, it is derivated in Leningrad in 1972 B.Grebenshchikovym. An original composition: B.Grebenshchikov (the gear quadrant, a vocal), Gunitsky (impact), A.Romanov (a flute, the gear quadrant, a piano, a vocal), Vasiljev (a bass, a vocal). The first studio album (" the Blue album ") (1981). In 1983-85 - the winner of festivals of the Leningrad fate - club ("Grand prix" of festival in 1985).
AQUARIAN FISHES, cultivate in aquariums with the decorative and scientific purposes. In vivo - inhabitants of tropical and subtropical fresh water reservoirs (gurs, mechenosets, neons, nannostomusy, rasbory, somiki, etc.). It is a lot of ornamental forms and breeds (barbusy, danio, skaljarija, golden rybka and its{her} forms - vualehvost, a telescope, shubunkin, etc.).
AKVATINTA (ital. acquatinta), a method of an engraving, founded on a treatment an acid of a surface of a metal plate with naplavlennoj an asphalt or rosiny dust and with the plotting marked with the help of a paintbrush by an acidproof varnish.
AQUATORY [from an armour. аqua - water and (terri) thorium], a plot of water surface in content boundary zones of ocean, starving, water reservoirs or a port. Minister for parking courts under unload and loading (port aquatory), for dostrojki and repair of courts (factory aquatory), for test of technique (water proving ground), etc.
AKVAFORTE (ital. acquaforte), the same, that an etching. Societies akvafortistov existed{breathed} in a number{series} of countries (the Society Russian akvafortistov is based in 1871 in Saint Petersburg, among members - N.N.Ge, I.N.Kramskoj, I.I.Shishkin).
AQUEDUCT (from an armour. aqua - water and duco - I lead), a structure by the way the bridge (or stockades) with a water duct (a pipe, a tray, the channel); build in places of traverse of a water duct with a gully, a gorge, the river, road, etc.
AQUILUM (Aquila, an ice-film. Name Adler) Kaspar (1488-1560), one of the nearest spodvizhnikov Luther.
AQUILEGIA, the same, that a drainage basin.
AKVILONOV Eugeny Petrovich (1861-1911), the Russian spiritual writer, the professor of the St.-Petersburg spiritual academy; with 1910 protopresviter military and marine clergy. The main{basic} composition: " Church. Scientific definitions of church and the apostolic doctrine about her as about a body Christly ".
AKVINK (Aquincum), city of Roman time (ok. 10 up to n. e - 409 n. e.), with 107 n. e. The centre Roman prov. Pannonija. Ruins in terrain of Budapest. Residues of craft quarters, an amphitheatre, defensive walls, the water-pipe, thermal sanctuaries{holy places}, a palace with Roman mosaic floors.
AQUITANIA (an armour. Aquitania), historical range on a southwest of France. In an antiquity - a Roman province. In Middle Ages - duchy, affixed in 1137 to possessions French, in 1154 - the English kings. Since 13 century title Gien.
AKVY SEKSTIEVY (Aquae Sextiae), drevnerimskoe settlement about the modern Aix-en-Provence, bliz Marseilles (France); about{near} Akv Sekstievyh in 102 up to n. e. The Roman army Maria has routed the German nation tevtonov.
AK-DOVURAK, city (with 1964) in the Russian Federation, Tuva, on r. Hemchik. 15,0 thousand inhabitants (1992). Asbestos combine.
AKEPSIM Naessonsky (Anissky), Arbelsky, Persian (mind{wit}. 380), the martyr, diocesan Naessonsky (in Persia), damaged in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 3 (16), in Roman catholic - on April, 22 and on November, 3.
AKEPSIM Antiochian, Syrian (4 century), the presbyter, a hermit, podvizalsja in a gate 60 flying. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on November, 3.
AKER, in egyptian mythology the godhood of ground, the promoter died, one of mates Ra in battles with Apopom. It was figured by the way a two-headed sphynx or a lion.
AKEST (Egest), for Vergilija the Sicilian hero, the son of river god Krimnisa and trojanki Egesty. Has hospitably accepted Eneja, arriving in Italy. The founder of. Egesty (Segesty) in Sicily.
AKILA (Aquilum) (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, the martyr. The jew, comes from Pontus, is ejected from Rome at emperor Klavdii. It is converted to the Christ together with wife Priskilloj apostle Pavlom in Corinth (Particular acts of apostles 18:2-3; the Message to Romans 16:3-4). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on July, 14 (27), in Roman catholic on July, 8.
AKILA Trapezundsky (mind{wit}. 305), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 21 (on February, 3).
AKILINA Junior (mind{wit}. ok. 310), the Christian martyress damaged in Sinop (on Black sea) in persecution of emperor Maksimiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 7 (20).
AKIM Jacob Lazarevich (r. 1923), the Russian nursery writer. Collections of verses: " are Always ready! " (1954), " Colour ogonki " (1963), " Spring, vesnoju, about spring " (1965), " Wash a valid siskin " (1971), " Wash brother Misha " (1986), " Pesenka in a wood " (1992), etc. The Collection of stories " the Dragon fly and lemonade " (1962).
AKIMOV George Vladimirovich (1901-53), fizikohimik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on metallic corrosion. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1945, 1946).
AKIMOV Ivan Akimovich (1754-1814), the Russian historical painter. The representative of a classicism (" Grand duke Svjatoslav... ", 1773). First istoriograf Russian art.
AKINAK (grech. akinakes), short (40-60 sm) an iron sword of skiffs.
AKINDIN I Pechersky (mind{wit}. 1164), the abbot, pogreben in Long-distance (Feodosievyh) caves Kievo-Pecherskoj laurels. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on 2 Sunday on the Pentecost (a cathedral of all sacred, in ground Russian beamed).
AKINDIN II Pechersky (mind{wit}. 1235), archimandrite (1219) Kievo-Pecherskogo a monastery, the addressee of "Message" of the Polycarp serving with basis{fundamentals} Kievo-Pecherskogo paterika. Pogreben in Long-distance (Feodosievyh) caves Kievo-Pecherskoj laurels. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 28 (on September, 10) and on 2 Sunday of quadragesima (cathedral Kievo-Pecherskih of fathers).
AKINDIN Nikomidijsky (mind{wit}. 303), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 18 (on May, 1) and on August, 22 (on September, 4).
AKINDIN Persian (mind{wit}. 341 or 345), the Christian martyr, court, damaged in persecution of tsar Shapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 2 (15).
AKINEZIJA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. kinesis - motion), absence of active motions owing to paralysises, pains, ainesias of joints, etc. the causes.
AKINO (Aquino) Korason (r. 1933), the president of Philippines in 1986-92. The widow of the outstanding figure of opposition F.Markosa B.Akino's to mode (it is killed in 1983).
AKITA, city in Japan, on about. Honshu, an administrative centre pref. Akita. 304 thousand inhabitants (1991). Petrochemistry, a woodworking, nonferrous machine industry. University.
AKIHITO (r. 1933), emperor of Japan with 1989. The son of emperor Hirohito. With 1952 crown prince.
AKKA LARENTIJA (an armour. Acca Larentia), in Roman mythology esteemed as the godhood the wife of shepherd Faustula, wet nurse Romula and Rema. The holiday larentalii, marked in Rome on December, 23 has been dedicated her.
AKKAD (Agade), ancient city in Mesopotamia, to a southwest from the modern bagdad. The precise site{position} is not known. In 24-22 centuries up to n. e. The centre of the state, plugging Mesopotamia and Elam. The title then has transfered Akkad on all boreal part JUzh. Mesopotamias. Ok. 2200 up to n. e. It is routed gutijami.
AKKERMAN, the title belgorod - Dnestrovsky up to 1944.
AKKERMANSKAJA the CONVENTION, between Russia and Turkey (7.10.1826, Akkerman). 1812. Turkey supplemented the Bucharest world undertook to respect privileges of Moldova, Walachia and Serbia. Russia has received the right of free trade in terrain of Turkey and navigation in its{her} waters.
The ACCLAMATION (an armour. acclamatio - cry, exclamation), 1) acceptance or deviation{rejection} collection of any solution without voting, on the basis of reaction of participants (replicas, an applause, etc.). 2) Adaptation of organism to artificially built conditions. Sometimes the term "acclamation" is used as a synonym of the term "acclimatization".
ACCLIMATIZATION (from an armour. ad - to, for and a climate), the adaptation of living organisms to new ecological conditions, to new biocenoses. Acclimatization happens natural (migrations animal, transmission of seeds of plants animal in new places, etc.) and synthetic (after an introduction animal and plants). Acclimatized organisms can give vigorous offspring in new conditions. With reference to the person acclimatization - the adaptation to new climatic conditions.
AKKOLADA, see. The musical letter.
ACCOMODATION (from an armour. accommodatio - the adaptation, prinorovlenie), in biology and medicine the term, close to the term "adaptation" and used in fixed events. An accomodation of an eye - the adaptation to clear vision of the subjects located on different distances from an eye; an accomodation of erethitic tissues (nervous, muscle) - the adaptation to action slowly a stimulus building up on force, etc.
ACCOMPANIMENT (frants. accompagnement, from accompagner - to accompany), 1) with harmonic and rhythmic tracking of the main{basic} melodic voice. 2) Tracking in one or several instruments, and also an orchestra of a solo consignment (the singer, the instrumentalist, chorus, etc.).
CHORD (frants. accord, characters. - the consent), in music - combination of several notes of the different altitude, accepted as acoustical unity. Notes in a chord place primarily on thirds. Distinguish a triad, septakkord, nonakkord.
The LETTER OF CREDIT (from an armour. accredo - I trust), 1) a kind{view} of the bank account on which clearing settlements implement. 2) the Nominal securities certifying the right of a face in name of which she is written out to receive the sum indicated in her in a credit institution.
ACCREDITATION, in the international law - a procedure of destination of the diplomatic representative (or the resident representative of the state at any international organization). The term "accreditation" is used also concerning the journalists lighting those or other international conferences, meetings of chapters of the states, and also concerning representatives of the foreign firms working in other state.
AKKRETSIONNYJ a DISC, differentially rotated disc formed around of a space body during an accretion of substance with major (concerning this body) a moment of momentum. Because of abrasion between adjacent layers the substance akkretsionnogo a disc gradually settles on attracting body (t. n. A disk accretion). Akkretsionnye discs are found around of white dwarfs and neutron asters in double sidereal systems.
ACCRETION (from an armour. accretio - increment, increase), fall of substance on a space body under action of gravity. The accretion is accompanied by secretion of a gravitational energy. Efficacyy of energy release at an accretion on neutron asters in tens times more, than in nuclear reactions.
ACCULTURATION (English acculturation, from an armour. ad - to and cultura - education, development), process of an intercoupling of crops, perceptions one people in full or in part crops of other people.
The ACCUMULATOR (from an armour. accumulator - the collector), the device for accumulation of power with the purpose of its{her} consequent use. 1) the Accumulator will transform{reform} electrical power in chemical and at will ensures a reconversion; use as an independent{autonomous} source of electrical power (napr., on the transport). 2) the Hydraulic (air-operated{air-powered;pneumatic}) accumulator accumulates a liquid (gas) acting{going} from pompes (air engines), and returns her{it} at the moment of the greatest charges; use for pressure equalization or a rate of flow (gas) in hydraulic and pneumatic plants. 3) the Heat accumulator stocks heat (napr., at the expense of a pressure boots of fallow in the boiler), which can be expended (with a pressure pumped down) for cover{coating} of peaks of a thermal load. 4) The inertial energy-storage device will transform{reform} activity of external forces to a motive energy with its{her} consequent use, most often in the capacity of such accumulator apply a rotated fly wheel.
The ACCUMULATOR BATTERY, group of of the same type accumulators, coherent electrically and structurally for obtaining necessary values of a current and pressure{voltage;stress}.
ACCUMULATION (from an armour. accumulatio - a congregating in a heap, accumulation), 1) process of accumulation above ground a friable mineral and organic rainfall. Distinguish volcanic and sedimental accumulation (see. Osadkonakoplenie). 2) Accumulation (accumulation) of the capital - metamorphosis{transformation} of a part of a surplus value into the capital.
AKKURATOV Valentine Ivanovich (r. 1909), the polar navigator, the deserved navigation officer of the USSR. In a polar aviation with 1934. Participat in I.D.Papanina's expeditions, S.A.Levanevskogo's searches, etc. The Writer of the tutorial on navigation, the creator of a new method of air navigation on t. n. To grid meridians.
AKKURGAN, city (with 1980) in Uzbekistan, the Tashkent region, in 16 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kuchluk. 10,8 thousand inhabitants (1991).
ACMEISM (from grech. akme - the maximum degree something, blossoming force), flow in Russian poetry of 1910th (S.M.Gorodetsky, M.A.Kuzmin, early N.S.Gumilev, A.A.Ahmatova, O.E.Mandelshtam); has proclaimed discharging poetry from simvolistskih gusts to "theoretical", from a multivalence and flowability of the modes{images}, the complicated metaphoricalness, return to a material world, a subject (or physical agents of "nature"), to a precise word meaning. "Earth" poetry of acmeism separate modernist motives, tendency to estetizmu, kamernosti or to poetizatsii feelings of the pristine person are peculiar.
AK-MOSQUE, the title Kzyl-Orda in Kazakhstan in 1820-53.
ACMITE (from grech. akme - a point), a mineral, a brown spicular version of an aegirine.
AKMOLINSK (the Kazakh. - Akmola) (to 1961-92 Tselinograd), city in Kazakhstan, the centre of region Akmolinskoj, on r. Ishim. A railway junction. 286 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry and metal working (factories: "Kazahselmash", pumping, car-repair, etc.), alimentary, a light industry; manufacture of a building materials, 4 high schools, theatre. Study of local lore and fine arts museums. It is based in 1830 as strength Akmola.
AKMOLINSKAJA RANGE, in Kazakhstan. 155,1 thousand in m2. The population of 794 thousand person (1991), urban 57 %. 6 cities, 12 urban settlements (1991). Adm. ts. - Akmolinsk.
AKMULLA Miftahetdin (1831-95), the Bashkir poet - educator; his{its} creative heritage also property of the tatar and Kazakh literatures. In verses expressed ideals of goods and justice, ridiculed faults znati.
AKMJANE (up to 1917 official title Okmjany), city (with 1956) in Lithuania. 3,6 thousand inhabitants (1990). It is known from 16 century.
AKOLLA (Acollas) Emil (1826-91), the French lawyer and the political figure. In days of the Commune of Paris decane of faculty of the right of the Parisian university. Transactionses on theory of law and a civic right.
ACONITE (fighter), stem of perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. Ok. 300 kinds{views}, in a moderate belt of Boreal hemisphere. Are toxicant. Many aconites cultivate as the decorative. Klubni some kinds{views} use in medicine as febrifugal and an anaesthetic.
ACONCAGUA (Aconcagua), the highest top of Andes and all JUzh. America, in Argentina. 6960 m. Icehouses in length up to 6 kms.
AKOPJAN Akop (1866-1937), the Armenian poet, the national poet of Armenia and Georgia (1923). Revolutionary fervor proniknuta a poem " the New morning " (1909). Poems " Gods have started talking " (1922), "SHir-channel" (1924), "Volhovstroj" (1925), verses.
AKOPJAN Arutjun Amajakovich (r. 1918), the performer, the national actor of the USSR (1982). The positioner acts with 1940 as the illusionist.
AKOPJAN Korjun Arutjunovich (r. 1908), the Armenian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1980). Residential buildings (1949), stadium "Razdan" (1967-72, with co-authors), a sports - concert complex (1977-1983, with co-authors) - all in Yerevan. The state premium of the USSR (1987).
AKOSTA, (yes the Costa) (Acosta, da Costa) Uriel (ok. 1585-1640), the Netherlands thinker - freethinker of the jewish origin. For performances{statements} against dogmas of a judaism, belief in immortality showers has undergone to persuits, has committed suicide.
ACRE (English acre), a unit of area in system of the English measures. 1 акр=4840 sq. ярдам=4046,86 m2.
AKRI (Acre), staff in northwest of Brazil. 154 thousand км2. The population of 417 thousand person (1991). Adm. ts. - Rio Branco.
ACRIDIC DYES, dyes of the yellow and orange colour, derivative an acridine. Apply to a staining of a leather, a paper, wood, etc.
ACRIDIC DYES, dyes of the yellow and orange colour, derivative an acridine. Apply to a staining of a leather, a paper, wood, etc.
ACRYLIC ACID, CH2=CHCOOH, a colourless liquid with pungent odour, tкип 141 °C. Use for obtaining poly(acrylic acid) and different copolymers, acrylates.
ACRYLIC FIBER{FILAMENT}, the same, that a polyacrilic fiber.
ACRYLIC VARNISHES (acrylic varnishes), solutions of polyacrylates or their derivative in organic solvents. Will derivate sveto-, atmosfero-and a moisture-resistant coating with good adhesion to metal. Apply to anti-corrosion protection of aluminium and his{its} alloys; enamel colours on the basis of acrylic varnishes - for furnish of airplanes, automobiles{cars}, etc.
ACRYLONITRILE, CH2=CHCN, a colourless liquid, tкип 77,3 °C. Raw material in manufacture of polyacrylonitrile{PAN}, butadiens - butadiene-nitrile rubbers, ABS-plastic, etc. copolymers.
AKRITY, loose peasants - soldiers in eastern areas of Byzantium, oboronjavshie borders{limits} from arabs and the Turk - seldzhukov.
ACROBATICS (from grech. akrobateo - I walk on tsypochkah, I climb up), 1) a kind{view} of physical exercises such as gym. 2) the Genre of a circus art (acrobatics power, pryzhkovaja, etc.). 3) the Kind{View} of sport (see. Sporting acrobatics).
AKROJD (Ackroyd) Peter (r. 1949), the English poet and the prose writer. Novels " the Major London fire " (1982), " the English music " (1992), " the Dwelling of the doctor of Dee " (1993). Biographic books about T.Chattertone, C.Dickens, O.Uajlde, T.S.Eliot, etc.
ACROLEIN, CH2=CHCHO, a colourless liquid with a sharp aroma, tкип 52,7 °C. Acrolein - raw material for obtaining many products of organic synthesis. The strong lachrymator.
ACROMEGALIA (from grech. akron - an extremity and megas, a stem. Item meg-alu - major), the endocrine disease stipulated by exuberant production of a growth hormone, primarily at an adenoma of a hypophysis. Arises predominary post termination growth of an organism: increase of extremities, a mandible, etc.
ACRON (Akron), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Ohio. 223 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs of 690 thousand inhabitants). Machine-building, metal-working, chemical, bus, a printing industry. University.
ACROPETAL GROWTH (from grech. akron - top and an armour. peto - I direct), development of branches, leaves, etc. parts of a plant in a direction from the grounding to top therefore more pullet{more young man} parts place closer to top, and aged - to the grounding. Compare. Bazipetalnoe development.
AKROPOLIT George (1217-82), great logofet at a yard of the byzantian emperor; the writer of the chronicle circumscribing events from seizure of Constantinople latinjanami before discharging by his{its} Michael VIII Paleologom (with 1204 on 1261), doctrinal and rhetorical compositions.
ACROPOLIS (grech. akropolis), a raised and reinforced part of ancient greek city, t. n. The upper city; strength (a shelter on an event of war). The Acropolis in Afinah.---is most known
The ACROPOLIS in Athenes, a reinforced part of ancient Athenes where there were main relics of city, is well-known for the cult block constructions of the classical season{term}. A history sozdanijaAfinsky an Acropolis representing a 156-meter rocky hill with cavicorn top (ok. 300 m in length and 170 m widthway), - a place of the most ancient settlement in Attica. In mikensky the season{term} (15-13 centuries up to n. e.) Was a reinforced imperial residence. In 7-6 centuries up to n. e. On the Acropolis major construction was led. At tyrant Pisistrate (560-527) at-sight an imperial palace the temple of the goddess Athenes Gekatompedon (i.e. a temple dlinoju in hundred walks has been constructed; fragments of sculptures of frontispices were saved, the base) is revealed. In 480 during the greko-persian wars temples of the Acropolis eroded by persians. Inhabitants of Athenes swore to reduce relics only after expulsion{relegation} of enemies from Ellady. In 447 under initiative Perikla on the Acropolis began new construction; the guiding of all activities was entrusted to well-known sculptor Fidiju who, probably, and was the writer of the art program underlain all complex, his{its} architectonic and sculptural appearance. Propilei and temple Niki the road ApterosSvjashchennaja on which from agory to a temple of the goddess - patroness it was shaded slide during a main holiday Great panafinej a procession of athenians, conducts to Propilejam, having 5 passes and to antiquities the outflanked two equestrian statues Dioskurov. In left-handed, their prominent side panel, placed Pinakoteka (the collection of the patterns - pinak brought in gift to goddess Afine), in the right was storehouse of manuscripts and a room for a pylorus and watchmen. To the right of Propilej on pirgose (a projection of a reinforced rock) there is a small, mild and refined temple ionicheskogo the warrants, dedicated Afine-Nike, known as temple Niki Apteros (Wingless Victory; 443-420, architect Kallikrat) .ErehtejonPosle how participants of a procession passed Propilei and entered on sacred terrain, before them the panorama of a central part of a complex was unclosed. In the foreground, hardly more to the left roads, the titanic bronze statue Athenes Promahos (Voitelnitsy), cast Fidiem raised. For her the temple Athenes and Posejdona at-sight spore of these gods for possession has been in the distance seen by Attica Erehtejon (the architect is unknown). The temple has unique in the Grecian architecture the asymmetric plan; three his{its} porticoes are located at miscellaneous levels: from the western party - a portico master in a temple Athenes of the Polyade (Urban), with boreal - an orifice in sanctuary{holy place} Posejdona-Erehteja, for an austral wall of a temple - a well-known portico of caryatids; all building was laced up with a frieze with superimposed white figures (was not saved). In Erehtejone, the most aged sanctuary{holy place} of Athenes, was sacred ksoan Athenes (a wooden statue), under the legend fallen with the root, altars Gefesta and the hero of the Rough stone, a tomb of legendary Athenian tsar Kekropa, from the west the sanctuary{holy place} of the attic goddess of dew Pandrosy bordered on. In yard Erehtejona the sacred oliva presented to city Afinoj, beaters a brine-spring which has cut trident Posejdon grew. Parthenon Ease of forms, special refinement of the decorative furnish and complicatedness of a composition small on dimensions Erehtejon contrasts with stringent and majestic, pointed out monumental Parthenon (a temple of the Athenes - maiden; 69,5 m in length and 30,9 m widthway, an altitude of columns - 10,5 m; 447 - it is consecrated in 438; architect Iktin with the participation Kallikrata), representing doric peripter. The building is accepted from Propilej in three quarters - spectators saw not one of his{its} fronts, and all volume of a structure, received submission about his{its} appearance as a whole and before to see main, eastern front, should bypass a temple outside. In the temple, in naose, there was hrisoelefantinnaja a statue Athenes Parfenos (Virgos) of activity Fidija, in opistodome sacred money of the goddess and treasury of the Athenian marine union remained deposited. In frontispices the sculptural groups representing most significant in a stump Athenes of event - its{her} birth and spores with marine god Posejdonom for possession Attica placed. Reliefs metop on perimeter of the building figured scenes of mythological battles. Architectonic component parts, a sculpture and reliefs have been brightly colored. The plan and the order solution of Parthenon also differ from traditional a number{series} of features: the front naosom was a hall - the maiden hall (parfenon, given the title to all temple), on a wall naosa went ionichesky a frieze with plotting Panafinejskogo of procession. In front of Parthenon, on a right side from Propilej, Artemis Bravronii's sanctuaries{holy places} and Athenes Ergany (Craft), storehouse of weapons and a sacred armour - Halkoteka (450) placed also. The open space of the Acropolis numerous altars and gifts to gods - took statues, steles. The temple and theatre Dionisa bordered on to a northwest downslope of the Acropolis (6 century up to n. e. - It rearranged{reconstructed} in 326), Odeon Perikla (the covered circular building for the musical contest{races}) (2-n a floor. 5 century up to n. e.), theatre Geroda Attica (2 century n. e.), Sanctuary{Holy place} Asklepija, Costing{Standing} (Portico) Evmena. Band AkropoljaAkropol raises above all Athenes, his{its} outline profile forms an outline profile of city. Parthenon raising above a hill in an antiquity could be seen from any extremity of Attica and even from islands Salamin and Egina; to seafarers swimming up to coast already from afar luster of a spear and a top section Athenes - Voitelnitsy has been seen. In an antiquity the sanctuary{holy place} was known not only as the well-known cult centre, but also as the monument of great art verifying glory of Athenes as "school Ellady" and the most perfect{fine} city. The thought over composition of all band, perfectly retrieved general proportions, nonrigid combination of different warrants, the most thin{finest} artistic molding of architectonic component parts also it is unusual their precise drawing, close interrelation of the architecture and sculptural furniture - do{make} structures of the Acropolis the maximum achievement of the ancient greek architecture and one of the given most away monuments of world art. An acropolis in consequent epoch In 5 century. Parthenon has become church of the Birth-Giver of God, the statue Athenes Parfenos has been transported to Constantinople. After seizure of Greece by Turks (in 15 century) a temple turned into a mosque to which have attached minarets, then - in an arsenal; Erehtejon has become a harem turkish plough, temple Niki Apteros has been disassembled, from his{its} units the wall of a bastion is combined. In 1687 after hit of a nucleus from the venetian ship{spacecraft} explosion has deleted almost all central part of a temple of the Athenes - maiden, at an abortive attempt of venetians to remove sculptures of Parthenon some statues have been battered. In the beginning of 19 century an Englishman lord Elgin has broken out a number{series} metop, tens meters of a frieze and almost all kept sculptures of frontispices of Parthenon, a caryatid - from portico Erehtejona. After a declaration of independence of Greece during restoration activities (basically in kon. 19 century) The ancient appearance of the Acropolis has been whenever possible recovered{restored}: all serotinal{late} site development in his{its} terrain is liquidated, temple Niki Apteros, etc. is anew laid out. Reliefs and sculptures of temples of the Acropolis are in the British museum (London), in the Louvre (Paris) and the Museum of the Acropolis. Sculptures remaining open-air are substituted now by copies. Литература:Колобова K.M.Drevny city Athenes and his{its} monuments. Л., 1961. G.I.Akropol's falcons in Athenes. М., 1968. Pavsany. Description Ellady. SPb., 1996. V.E.Suslenkov
AKROSTIH (grech. akrostichis, characters. - kraestishie), a poem in which initial characters of verses (lines) will derivate the word or a phrase (often a name of the writer or the addressee of a poem).
AKROTERY (grech. akroterion), a sculptural dressing (a statue, a palmette), placed above angles of a frontispice of an architectonic structure.
CROCQ'S DISEASE (from grech. akron - an extremity and a cyanosis), cyanotic colour of extremities, predominary at circulatory disturbances.
AKSAJ (up to 1968 settlements. Kazakhstan), city in Kazakhstan, the Western - Kazakhstan region. A depot (Kazakhstan). 20,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: bricky, kombajnoremontnyj.
AKSAJ, city (with 1957) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, on r. Don. A depot. 33,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemical, glass, a canning industry.
AKSAKAL (from the turki. ak - white and sakal - a beard), the chapter of a stem, the elder, the respectable person in Compare. Asia and on Caucasus.
AKSAKOV Alexander Nikolaevich (1832-1903), the Russian scientist, nephew S.T.Aksakov. Has laid foundation to probe of occult phenomena in Germany and Russia, especially mediumizma and spiritism (the composition " the Animism and spiritism ", t. 1-2, 1890). Emitted in Leipzig a monthly " Psychische Studien " (1874-99).
AKSAKOV Ivan Sergeevich (1823-86), the Russian publicist and the public figure. Son S.T.Aksakov. One of ideologists slavjanofilstva. The editor of newspapers "Day", "Moscow", "Russia", the log-book " Russian conversation ", etc. In 1840-50-Х supported cancellation of serfdom. Within russko-turkish war 1877-78 organizer of campaign for discharging of slavs of a turkish yoke.
AKSAKOV Konstantin Sergeevich (1817-60), the Russian publicist, the historian, the linguist and the poet. Son S.T.Aksakov. One of ideologists slavjanofilstva. Supported cancellation of serfdom at conservation of a monarchy.
AKSAKOV Nikolay Petrovich (1848-1909), the Russian orthodox seminary student, the historian and the canonist. The compositions justifying necessity of transformations{conversions} in Russian church. The member of a commission of St.. Synod on preparation of a church cathedral.
AKSAKOV Sergey Timofeevich (1791-1859), the Russian writer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1856). In the autobiographical book " the Family chronicle " (1856) and " the Childhood of the Bagrova-grandson " (1858) - a panorama "usadebnoj" life kon. 18 century, formation nursery showers, pathetic poetry of a nature. " The note about fishing of a fish " (1847), " the Note of the rifle hunter... " (1852).
AKSAKOV A.F., cм. Tyutchev A.F.
AKSAKOVO, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Bashkiria. A depot. 2,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Klimatokumysolechebnyj a health resort. Bliz Aksakovo there was S.T.Aksakov manor.
FIGURED VELVET (from grech. - from six filaments), an arcaded dense fleecy tissue handmade from silk and prjadenoj a golden or silver filament. Figured velvet reminds a velvet. It is known in Russia from a far antiquity, it{him} imported from Byzantium.
ACCELERATOR, adjuster of quantity of the combustion-mixture acting{going} at cylinders of an internal-combustion engine. It intended for a frequency drift of rotation of the bank of the engine (travelling speed of the transport machine).
ACCELERATOR (from an armour. accelero - I accelerate) (booster), the economic parameter defining communication{connection} between a gain national income (or end production) and volume of investments. It is applied at construction of macroeconomic models of economic growth together with an intensifier.
ACCELERATION (acceleration) (from an armour. acceleratio - speedup), 1) in developmental biology - speedup of formation of separate parts of a germ at a fixed stage of development (napr., a precocious development of the stomatic apparatus for fishes and the anurans, a feed ensuring them after exhaustion of reserves of a yolk). 2) In anthropology - speedup of growth and a puberty of children and adolescents as contrasted to precedent generations. The last 100-150 flying is supervised in economically developed countries.
ACCELEROMETER (from an armour. accelero - I accelerate and... Meter), a gauge meter of speedups (overcharges) of flight vehicles, etc.
" AKSEL SHPRINGER FERLAG a HORIZ " (Axel Springer Verlag AG), newspaper and publishing concern in Germany, the largest in Zap. To Europe. Hamburg is based in 1947 A.Shpringerom. About 1970 joint-stock company.
AIGUILETTE (a nem. Achselband), a filar strand of rope (golden, silver or colour) with metal tips. The aiguilette for the first time is entered in armies Zap. Europe in it is grey. 17 century, in Russia - 1762. In Russian and foreign armies a fitting of the form of clothes{clothing} of aide-de-camps, officers of the General Staff and gendarmes. In Armed forces of some countries - a fitting of a full dress of clothes{clothing} of staff of companies of a guard of honour and participants of military parades.
AXELROD (Axelrod) Dzhulius (r. 1912), the American pharmacologist. Probeed the mechanism of action of the substances which are blocking out realization of nervous impulse in synapses. The Nobel Prize (1970, together with B.Katsem and U.Ejlerom).
AXELROD (literary psevd. An orthodox) Love Isaakovna (1868-1946), the Russian philosopher and the literary critic. With 1892 adherent of marxist group " Discharging of transactionses ", with 1903 menshevik, in nach. 1917 member of a Central Committee menshevikov. Transactionses on a history of german philosophy, criticism neokantianstva and empiriokrititsizma. In the last years of life was engaged in sociology of art.
AXELROD Pavel Borisovich (1850-1928), the participant of the Russian revolutionary movement. With nach. 70th the populist, the member a mug "chajkovtsev". In 1883 one of osnovatelej groups " Discharging of transactionses ". With 1900 member of edition of "Spark". With 1903 one of leaders of Menshevism. October revolution 1917 has met in a hostile way; has emigrated. One of leaders of 2-nd Internatsionala.
AKSENENOK George Aleksandrovich (1910-89), the Russian lawyer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1966). Transactionses under the land and collective-farm right.
AKSENOV Vasily Pavlovich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. Son E.S.Ginzburg. One of leaders t. n. The confessional prose using a urban youth slang: the story of "Colleague" (1960), the novel " the Sidereal ticket " (1961). Irony and satyr in stories " the Overstocked with goods cooperage " (1968). The experimental novel " Searches of a genre " (1978). With 1980 lives abroad. Novels "Burn" (1980), " the Island Crimea " (1981), stories, the book about America " In searches sad bebi " (1986).
AKSENOV Vladimir Viktorovich (r. 1935), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1976), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1976, 1980). Flights on "Soyuz - 22" (September 1976), "Soyuz T-2" and orbital station " Salute - 6 " (June 1980).
AKSENOVA Ogdo (Evdokija Egorovna) (r. 1936), dolganskaja the poetess. The collector of national folklore. Collections of lyrical verses "Baraksan" (1973), " Patterns of tundra " (1976; both with parallel transfer{translation} on Russian).
ACCESSORIES (frants. accessoire), a fitting something; the auxillaries attending something main, concomitant something subjects (at theatre - accessories - subjects of properties or the property, in fine arts - secondary, auxillaries of the plotting; accessories of a W.C. - the subjects adding a costume{suit}).
AKSY Solovetsky, Kashkarensky (17 century), Saint. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 9 (22) (cathedral Solovetskih sacred).
AXINITE (from grech. axine - an axe; under the form of crystals), a mineral, borosilikat, Ca2 (Fe, Mn) Al2 [BO3] [Si4O12] (OH). Reddish, violet, etc. crystals, druses, masses. Hardness 6,5-7; firmness ok. 3,3 g / sm3. Meets basically in kontaktovo-metasomaticheskih and hydrothermal deposits.
AKSIOLOGIJA (from grech. axia - value and... logija), the doctrine about values.
POSTULATE (grech. axioma), the rule{situation;position} received without the logic proof by virtue of a direct cogency; a true home position of the theory.
POSTULATIONAL METHOD, way of construction of the scientific theory by the way systems of postulates (postulates) and the production rules (axiomatics) permitting by logic deduction to receive the statements{confirmations} (theorem) of the given theory.
HOG DEER, a cloven-hoofed animal of a set of deers. Length up to 1,5 m, an altitude up to 1 m. India, Sri Lanka, JUgo-Vost. Asia. It is acclimatized in a number{series} of places in Australia, JUzh. To America, etc. Dwells{Lives} in woods. 2 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
AXOLOTL, larva caundal amphibian - ambistom; it is capable to reproduction (see. Neotenija). In vivo sometimes does not turn to the adult form. Object of experimental activities.
AXON (from grech. axon - a shaft) (a neurite, the axial cylinder), the process of a nervous cell (neurone) conductive nervous impulses from a body of a cell to innerviruemym to organs or other nervous cells. Bunches of axons will derivate nerves. Compare. A dendrite.
AXONOMETRY (from grech. axon - a shaft and... metrija), a way of the plotting of subjects on the drawing through the parallel projections, consisting in a volume, that the subject is figured on a plane together with a space system of coordinates to which he is referred, and his{its} projection to one of coordinate planes.
AKSTAFA, city (with 1941) in Azerbaijan, in a valley of the Hen. A depot. 10,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A cotton-mill, vinodelcheskie the enterprises.
AKSTAFA (Agstev), the river in Armenia and Azerbaijan, dextral in-leak{influx} of the Hen. 121 kms, the area of basin of 2,5 thousand км2. It is used for an irrigation.
AKSU, the river in Kazakhstan. 316 kms, the area of basin 5040 км2. Runs into an eskar. Balkhash. It is used for an irrigation.
AKSUMSKOE the KINGDOM, the ancient state (2-11 centuries) predominary on terrains of the modern Ethiopia, the title on main city Aksum.
AK-SUU (up to 1985 settlements. May Day), city in Kirghizia. Depot (Belovodskaja). 9,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). Alimentary, a building materials an industry. It is based in 1939.
" AKSON FRANSEZ " (L'Action francaise), reactivity monarchic organization in France, founded in 1899. Its{her} armed orders - " Royal swells " - participants of fascist putsch in February 1934. Existed{breathed} up to 1944. Cooperated to fascist occupiers.
The CERTIFICATE{ACT} (from an armour. actus - action, actum - the document), 1) an act, action. 2) the Diploma. The deed, is emited by a state organ, the official within the limits of their competence of the statutory form (the law, the decree, the decree, etc.). 3) the Concluded part of drama product{creation} or theatrical submission. The same, that action.
The CERTIFICATE{ACT} (a nem. Akt), in fine arts the plotting of an exposed human figure; the same, that a nu.
The CERTIFICATE{ACT} AND POTENCY (a real and a capability), the grades of philosophy Aristotelja perceived by thomism; the certificate{act} (power) - active implementation something, a potency ("djunamis") - force, ability to such implementation; were considered the same as the form and a matter. " The clear certificate{act} ", i.e. a real keeping full implementation of all capabilities, - "mind{wit}" (nus), in scholasticism - the god.
AKTASH, city (with 1967) in Uzbekistan, the Samarkand region. Depot (Zirabulak). 30 thousand inhabitants (1991). Hlopkoochistitelnyj, dairy - cheese-making factories.
AKTASH, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Mountain Altai, 3,6 thousand inhabitants (1989). Production of mercury. Timber loggings; a wood raw reprocessing.
AKTG, the reduced title of a corticotropin.
The CERTIFICATE{ACT} (Achte) Emmi (1850-1924), the Finnish singer (soprano), the teacher. Solistka opera theatre in Helsinki, the chief of natural opera troupe (1891-1922).
The CERTIFICATE - JALANDER (Ackte-Jalander) Ajno (1876-1944), the Finnish singer (a drama soprano). Solistka opera theatres of Paris, New York, the London. The certificate - JAlander one of osnovatelej (1911) opera theatres in Helsinki (with 1914 " the Finnish opera ").
ASSET (from an armour. activus - active), 1) the most active part of any organization, collective. 2) One of the parties of balance accounting; shows structure, disposition and draft on funds which are assorted to an attribute of their functional role in an economy.
ACTIVATION ANALYSIS (radioactivation analysis), method of a quality and quantitative ultimate analysis of substance, founded on probe of a radioactive radiation of the nuclides derivated under influence of neutron flux, protons, g - quanta, etc.
ACTIVATED COMPLEX, in chemistry - the same, that a transient state.
ABSORBITE, the same, that active charcoal.
The ACTIVE ZONE in a nuclear reactor, the space in which as a result of chain reaction of division of nucleus of heavy elements (U, Pu) it is secreted a nuclear energy (predominary by the way heat).
ACTIVE DESIGN, syntactical design in which the subject of action expresses subject at a transient verb in the true (active) lien, and object of action - a direct object to the same verb, napr. " The boy reads the book ".
ACTIVE POWER, mean for the season{term} value of ac power; defines an average speed of transformation{conversion} of an electromagnetic energy and in other forms (thermal, mechanic, light, etc.). It is measured in watts. For a harmonic current it is peer to product{creation} of the operational (efficient) values of current I and pressure{voltage;stresses} U on a cosine of phase angle between them: P = IUcos.
ACTIVE MEDIUIM, substance, in which distribution of particles (atoms, ions, molecules) on energy state is not equilibrium (see. Boltsmana distribution), and even for one pair{vapour;couple} of levels of power exists{breathes} inversion of densities of population.
The IMPULSE TURBINE, the turbine in which potential energy of a propulsive mass (gas, fallow, a liquid) will be converted to kinetic in fixed channels (nozzles), and on rotor bladings descends only metamorphosis{transformation} of a motive energy into mechanic activity.
The ACTIVE ELECTIVE FRANCHISE, the right of citizens to participate in elections of the chief of state and representative bodies of an authority (parliament, municipality, etc.). In the Russian Federation it is granted all citizens who have reached{achieved} 18 flying (behind eliminations, foreseen the constitutional law). See also the Passive elective franchise.
PURE RESISTANCE, the value defining resistance of an electric circuit (or its{her} plot) to a current flow, stipulated by irreciprocal metamorphosises{transformations} of electrical power into other forms (predominary in thermal). It is measured in ohms.
SOURCE ACTIVITY (in a nuclear physics), figure of disintegrations of radioactive nucleus in unit of time. Activity units - becquerel (1 Bk = 1 disintegration / c) and curie (1 Ki = 3,7.10-10 Bk).
ACTIVITY THERMODYNAMIC, the value, permitting to represent in convenient for practical use to the form a concentration dependence of chemical potential of components of a substantial solution. With the help of this value it is possible to apply the thermodynamic relation relating a regular solution to a substantial solution if to substitute in them concentration activities. Attitude{relation} of thermodynamic activity of a component to his{its} concentration calls as an activity coefficient.
REACTIVE DYE, the organic dye which are generatrix a strong chemical bond with a fiber{filament}. On chemical grading - predominary monoazo dye and their metal complexes, anthraquinone and ftalotsianinovye dyes. Are applied to a staining of cellulose fibers, a wool, natural silk, less often - polyamide fibers. Colour are resistant against washing, abrasion, a dry-cleaner.
ACTIVE ACCOUNTS, the main accounts of book keeping reflecting a condition and motion of separate kinds{views} of a means (the main{basic} and turnaround) economies.
ACTIVE CHARCOAL (absorbite), the cellular body received from minerals or wood charcoals by removal of resinous matters, and also a charring of polymers. Use as adsorbent in breathing masks, a vacuum technology, medicine and as the carrier of catalysts.
The ACTIVE LEG, in astronautics - a flight segment of a missile or a space vehicle with running engines. On the active leg mission control of a missile (space vehicle) implements.
ACTIVE CENTER, in enzymology - a plot in molecules of the ferments, directly interacting to substrate. The structure of an active center includes functional groups of amino asids (a histidine, cysteine, serine, etc.), and also in many events atoms of metals and coenzymes. In an immunology - a plot of a molecule of the anti-body, contacting an antigen.
The ACTIN, protein, which fibrillar form will derivate with a miosin the main{basic} sokratitelnyj an element of muscles - an actomyosin.
ACTINIDIA, stem of lianes of a set aktinidievyh, a fruit crop. Ok. 40 kinds{views}, in Asia. Cultivate basically an actinidia kolomiktu (the amurense gooseberry). From edible fruits (it is a lot of vitamin C) - jam, "raisin". An actinidia ostrozubchataja - an ornamental plant.
ACTINIDES, the same, that actinoids.
ACTINIA (marine anemones), order of marine Coelenterata of a class of coral polyps. Ok. 1500 kinds{views}. The dimensions from several millimeters up to 1,5 m. The solitary polyps, denuded a skeleton; feelers with nettle cells. Primarily in tropical and subtropical seas. Some actinia - symbiotes of cancerous - hermits.
ACTINIUM (an armour. Actinium), Ac, a chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 89, atomic weight 227,0278. It is radioactive, most stable isotope 227Ac (a half - life 21,8 years). The title from Grecian aktis - a ray. Siver-white metal, tпл ok. 1050 °C. Meets in a nature in ores of uranium and thorium. A mix 227Ac and 9Be - a neutron-source.
ACTINISM, in a photo - an emissive ability to render photographic action on a light-sensitive medium.
AKTINO... (from grech. aktis, a stem. Item aktinos - a ray), the part of the composite words conforming on value to words "radiative", "radial" (napr., actinomorphous), to a word-combination "radiant energy" (napr., an actinometry).
AKTINOBATSILLEZ, a chronic illness animal, rarely the person, called by actinomyces. Symptoms: abscesses in mild tissues of a head, a neck and in lymph nodes.
ACTINOIDS (actinides), set from 14 chemical radioelements (metals), atomic numbers 90-103. Fall into to III group of a periodic system in which follow an actinium. Are close on a structure of electronic shells of atoms and chemical properties. All isotopes of actinoids are radioactive; the majority of them is received{obtained} artificially as a result of nuclear reactions. The actinoids located after uranium, fall into to transuranic elements.
ACTINOMETER (from aktino... And... Meter), a gauge meter of intensity of a direct sunshine (radiance) on an intensity of temperature absorptive radiation zachernennoj surfaces.
ACTINOMETRY, section of meteorology in which are studied transmission and metamorphosises{transformations} of solar, atmospheric and earth radiances into an Earth's atmosphere.
ACTINOMYCOSIS, chronic illness animal, less often than the person, called by actinomyces. Symptoms: purulent tumours - granulomas in any organs and tissues.
ACTINOMYCES, the order of the bacteria which are generatrix branching cells, or a hypha. To aktinimitsetam attribute naturally actinomyces, mycobacteria, streptomitsety, etc., all ok. 700 kinds{views}. Are distributed in soil, water reservoirs, in air and on plant residues; some - parasites animal, the person (invoke{produce} diseases - an actinomycosis, a tuberculosis, a diphtheria and so forth) and plants. The kinds{views} which are generatrix antibiotics (primarily streptomitsety), pigments, vitamins, etc., are used in a microbiological industry.
AKTUALIZM, a comparative-historical method in geology according to which, studying the modern geological processes, it is possible to judge analogous processes of the remote past. It is applied with allowance for a course of development of the Earth and changed geologic conditions{situation}. As a scientific principle aktualizm put forward{introduced} in 1-st floor. 19 century the English geologist C.Lajelem.
ACTUAL DIVISION of the PROPOSAL, semantic partitioning of the proposal at which are secreted known, given (the basis{fundamentals}, a theme), that intercommunicates about given, new (a nucleus, rema) and (some scientists) elements of transition. Expresses a word order, intonation, etc. a means; it is contrasted a formal analysis{disassembly} of the proposal on sentence parts.
URGENCY (from pozdnelat. actualis - actually existing, true, the modern), importance, significance something for the true moment, a modernity, topical character.
AKTUARIUS, in Russia 18 century the clerk in the official bodies, recording certificates{acts} or their amounting.
CERTIFICATES OF REGISTRATION, the facts legal (a birth, mors, the conclusion and divorcing, vicissitude of a name, a patronymic and a surname) which registration in statutory organs (in the mayoralty, registry offices, etc.) are subject.
AKTYUBINSK (up to 1891 Aktjube), city in Kazakhstan, the centre of the Aktyubinsk region, on r. Ilek. A depot. 267 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: ferro-alloies, chromium connections, an agricultural machine industry, rentgenoapparatury, etc.; software "Aktjubinskhimplastmass". Mild, a food-processing industry. 3 high schools, theatre. 2 museums. It is based in 1869.
The AKTYUBINSK RANGE, in Kazakhstan. 298,7 thousand км2. The population of 753 thousand person (1991), urban 54 %. 7 cities, 3 urban settlements (1991). Adm. ts. - Aktyubinsk.
The AKTYUBINSK OPERATION, see. The Orsko-Aktyubinsk operation.
AKTYUBINSK FOSFORITONOSNYJ BASIN, in Kazakhstan. The area of 25-30 thousand км2. Basically of 3 large deposits (main - CHilisajskoe). One layer sedimental zhelvakovyh phosphorites (power 0,6-1,0 м). Common stocks 700 million t. Content P2O5 in ore of 9-11 %.
AKULINA IVANOVNA, a name of three t. n. "Mothers of God" in sect of whips.
AKULICHEV Victor Anatoljevich (r. 1939), Russian a geophysics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses on mechanics of heterogenous mediums and geophysics of undular processes.
AKULOV Nikolay Sergeevich (1900-76), Byelorussian physics, academician AN of Belarus (1940). Transactionses under the theory of a ferromagnetism, a magnetic flaw detection, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941).
SHARKS, superorder plastinozhabernyh fishes. Length from 0,2 m (a black acanthous shark) up to 20 m (basking shark). 21 set, ok. 250 kinds{views}. Are distributed widely, primarily in tropical seas. Ok. 10 kinds{views} (including a colewort), in Black, Barentsevom, Baltic and Far East seas. Object of a craft (meat use in I peep, from a liver receive a fish oil, from a skeleton - glue). Large sharks are hazardous to the person.
AKUNDINOV Timotheus (1617-53), the Russian poet. The representative of Russian Baroque, the poet t. n. " prikaznoj schools ". CHetvertovan in Moscow as the impostor.
ACUPUNCTURE (from an armour. acus - a needle and punctura - an injection) (acupuncture, a stylostixis), a method of reflex treatment (see. A reflexotherapy) many nervous, allergic, etc. diseases by injections (special needles) in fixed points of a body. Exists{breathes} ok. 5000 flying, goes back to the Chinese national medicine.
SOUNDMAN (from grech. akustikos - acoustical), in a broad sense - the section of physics probing elastic waves from the low frequencies up to highest (1012 - 1013 Hz); in fine-bored sense - the doctrine about a note. General and theoretical soundman their interactions with medium are engaged in study of regularities of radiance and distribution{propagation} of elastic waves in different mediums, and also. Soundmen concern to sections electroacoustics, an architectural acoustics and building soundman, an aero-acoustics, a geoacoustics, the sonarman, physics and technique of ultrasonic sound, psychologic and physiological soundman, the musical of soundman.
The ACOUSTIC CHARGE, the gear effecting sound waves very{very much} of low frequency, capable to collapse load-carrying structures of buildings; in the person invokes{produces} the strongest nausea. Renders relaxing influence on a digestive tract, stimulates an internal ear and upsets a coordination of motions, a herpes of the person of ability to stand on legs.
ACOUSTIC TRAUMA, the damage of an acoustic organ called by action of a note of major intensity or duration; results in drop of ear.
ACOUSTIC WIND (acoustic streaming), regular flow of medium (a liquid, gas), generatrix in a sound field of major intensity. At sound intensity ok. 100 W / sm2 speed of an acoustic wind in water can compound{make} tens sm / seconds.
The SOUND RANGER, the hydroacoustic device for definition of distances up to submerged objects. Action of the sound ranger is based on definition of time which expends a ultrasonic signal radiated by him{it} on transit of distance up to object and back.
ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE, complex impedance which represents attitude{relation} of complex amplitude of a noise load to voltage of volumetric vibratory speed. It is introduced by consideration of oscillations of a speaker system (radiators, horns, pipes, etc.).
ACOUSTIC INSTITUTE him{it}. N.N.Andreeva of Russian Academy of Science (AKIN), is built in 1953 in Moscow. Theoretical and experimental researches in range soundmen, ultrasonic sound, etc.
ACOUSTIC LOGGING, method of geophysical investigations in chinks, founded on study of acoustic properties of rocks (rates of propagation and decay of elastic waves), crossed by a chink.
ACOUSTO-OPTICS, section soundmen in which interaction of optical waves with sound waves in solid is studied and fluid bodies on the basis of that there are different devices.
ACOUSTOELECTRIC EFFECT, originating of a permanent electric field in metals and semiconductors at distribution{propagation} to them of ultrasonic sound or a hypersound. The field is directed along a wave direction. The acoustoelectric effect is connected excitedly charge carriers by a sound wave.
ACOUSTOELECTRONICS, section of science and technique on the joint soundmen of a solid, physics of semiconductors and radio electronicses. Studies problems of intensifying and generation of elastic waves at interaction last with charge carriers during their distribution{propagation} to semiconductors, transformations{conversions} and machining of radio signals by acoustic methods, and also building of the conforming devices.
AKUTAGAVA Rjunoske (1892-1927), the Japanese writer. "Mysteriousness", unpredictability of human consciousness - in short stories - parables (not without influence estetizma) "Rasemon" (1915), " In a thicket " (1922); tragical conflicts of duties of goods in the world of social evil - in psychologic short stories "Autumn" (1920), "Cold" (1924). Social - fancy allegory " In country water " (1927). Loneliness of the person, his{its} impotence before time, a history - in a final story - confession " Life of the idiot " (1927).
AKUTAGAVA JAsusi (1925-89), the Japanese composer. Operas " Dark mirror " (1960), " Orfej in Hiroshima " (1967), ballets of " the Dream of lake " (1950), " Lost paradise " (1951), the Triptych for a string band, etc.
AKUTION (Akuty, Akusty) Puteolsky (mind{wit}. ok. 305), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 21 (on May, 4).
The MIDWIFE (from frants. accoucher - to help at stems), the medical officer with the mean professional education, having the right self-contained to assist pregnant and to parturient women.
OBSTETRICS, the most ancient, alongside with therapy and surgery, a medical trade and range of clinical medicine (and also a veterinary science), investigator the bound with pregnancy and stems processes in an organism of woman and a fruit, a pathology of this season{term} and treatment-and-prophylactic measures (an obstetrics - with reference to agricultural animal). The scientific obstetrics develops from 17-18 centuries in connection with successes of anatomy, an embryology, physiology and clinical medicine. The modern obstetrics and gynecology compound{make} unified discipline.
ACCELERATION, the same, that an acceleration.
ACCENT (from an armour. accentus - shocking), 1) see. Shocking. 2) the Features of a pronunciation which are inherent speaking not on the native language. 3) the Mark by which shocking is marked. 4) In music - secretion, underlining of a note or a chord by his{its} dynamic intensifying or increase of duration, changeover of harmony, tone, a direction of melodic motion and so forth.
ACCENT VERSE (striker), ground form clean - tonic stihoslozhenija; a verse with approximately settled quantity of shocking in a line and the arbitrary quantity of shock-free syllables between them. In Russian literary poetry it is common with nach. 20 century (V.V.Majakovsky, etc.). Compare. Raeshnyj a verse.
AKTSENTOLOGIJA (from an armour. accentus - shocking and... logija), the section of linguistics investigator a nature and functions of shocking.
The ACCEPTANCE (from an armour. acceptus - adopted), 1) in a civic right - the consent to conclude the agreement on the conditions indicated in the proposal (offer). 2) One of forms of clearing settlements between organizations.
ACCEPTANCE CREDITS, the external trade credits granted by banks the form of the acceptance of bills of exchange (drafts), put out on banks their clients.
ACCEPTOR (from an armour. acceptor - accepting) in semiconductors, foreign atom which can "seize{catch}" electrons from a valence band for donors, derivating thus the vacant electron sites participating in electric conductivity (an example of an acceptor - atom Ga in crystal Ge).
AKTSEPTUATSIJA (from an armour. acceptare - to accept, approve; to suppose, suffer), 1) making contract according to the proposal other стороны.2) the Obligation to pay the presented account{invoice}, the bill in the agreed time 3) the Consent of bank to guarantee payment indicated in the bill or the account{invoice} of the sum.
AKTSESSIONNYJ the AGREEMENT (from an armour. accessio - apposition), the agreement for apposition of the state to the agreement earlier encased between other states.
ACCESSORY MINERALS (from medieval an armour. accessorius - additive), the minerals included in rocks in very trace amounts (<1 %), but being their objective part; on character of accessory minerals the alliance and an origin of rocks can be established{installed}.
JOBBING WORKS, in Russia 1-st floor. 18 century incomes prikaznyh and the office officers who were not receiving the salaries, from a voluntary rate chelobitchikov. Are forbidden to government with introduction of the salaries.
JOBBING WORK (jobbing panel), polygraphic reproduction of small forms (forms, certificates, labels, letters, etc.), posters, posters, etc.
JOBBING WORK (from an armour. accidentia - an event), the philosophical term meaning random, transitory, unessential property.
The EXCISE (frants. accise), a kind{view} of an indirect tax, predominary for mass consumption, and also service. It is actuated in the price of the goods or fares for services. The important source of incomes of a public finance.
SHARES, headland for escaping Artskogo a hall. In Ionicheskom m. In 31 up to n. e. During a civil war in Rome for the Share of fleets Oktaviana has divided fleet of Anthony and Kleopatry.
SHARES (Accius) Lutsy (170 up to n. e. - after 90 up to n. e.), the Roman playwright and the philologist. The bloom of Roman scenic tragedy is connected to a name the Share. St. 40 tragedies on the Grecian scenes; "Brut", "Eneady" - on themes of a Roman history.
The SHAREHOLDER, the natural or legal face, holding shares the given joint-stock company.
JOINT-STOCK KOMMANDITA, in civil and the commercial law - the kind{view} of company bridging elements of joint-stock company and limited partnership. The part of participants (investors) answers for obligations joint-stock kommandity all property, and a part (shareholders) only within the limits of the contribution.
JOINT-STOCK COMPANY, in civil and the commercial law - the kind{view} of company, which authorized capital separate into fixed figure of shares of an equal nominal value. It is recognized as the legal person and answers for obligations within the limits of inhering to him property. The responsibility of each shareholder is limited to cost of his{its} shares. The law of the Russian Federation from December, 25 1990 " About the enterprises and enterprise activity ", determining joint-stock company as associations of citizens and (or) legal persons for joint economic activities, sections them into inset-type joint-stock companies (the authorized capital will be derivated only at the expense of contributions (shares) of founders) and open joint-stock companies (stock trading implements in the form of the open subscription).
The SHARE CAPITAL, fixed capital of joint-stock company, which dimension is determined by his{its} charter. It will be derivated at the expense of share issue.
The SHARE (from an armour. actio), action, the performance{statement} undertaken for achievement of any purpose (napr., political action, diplomatic action).
The SHARE (from niderl. aktie, a nem. Aktie), the securities indicative of entering of the share in the capital of joint-stock company. Gives its{her} master the right on obtaining of a part arrived in the form of the dividend, on a participation in the management affairs of joint-stock company, etc.
AKCHAKAJA, a drainless hollow in northwest of Kara Kum. Length ok. 50 kms, depth of 200 m, a bottom are located on 81 m below a level of ocean.
AK-SHYJRAK, a hills in Tjan-Shang. An altitude up to 5126 m. The area of a glaciation over 400 км2.
AKYLBEKOV Sabyrbek Mambetsadykovich (1914-68), one of the first Kirghiz painters. Lyrical emotional landscapes ("Evening", 1967).
AKYN, the poet - improvisator, and also the initiator of the both national products{creations} epicheskogo and lyrical character for tjurkojazychnyh peoples Compare. Asia.
It SCARLET - AD-DIN HILDZHI, the governor in 1296-1316 Delhi sultanata. Has conquered Deccan and JUzh. India, having aggregated under the authority practically all India. Pursued{adopted} a policy a centralization of the government.
SCARLET - CENTRAL ASIAN JUNIPER, natural national park, in Kirghizia, on boreal downslopes Kirghiz hr., in a valley r. A scarlet - Central Asian juniper. It is based in 1977. The area 19400 ga. Archovniki, woods from fur-trees tjan-shanskoj, Alpine meadows, icehouses. The Siberian roe deer, a snow porpoise; a mountain patridge, ular, etc.
ALABAMA (Alabama), staff in the south the USA. 133,7 thousand км2. The population 4,1 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Montgomery.
ALABJAN Karo Semenovich (1897-1959), the Armenian architect. Main activities - Central theatre of the Soviet Army (1934-40), pavilion of Armenia on VDNH (1939 and 1954) in Moscow.
ALAVERDI, city (with 1938) in Armenia, on r. Debed. A depot. 27 thousand inhabitants (1991.) Center of a copper industry. Gornometallurgichesky combine; the enterprises mild and a food-processing industry. Dwelling - museum Anastasa and Artem Mikoyans.
ALAVERDI, a cathedral church of 1-st chetv. 11 century, a monument of the Georgian medieval architecture in 20 kms to northwest from. Telavi. In the plan the elongated cross; in sredokrestje a dome on a high drum. Paintings of 15 century.
ALAGEZ, a mountain in Armenia, see. Aragats.
ALAGIR, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Sowing. Ossetia, on r. Ardon, on the Military - ossetic road. A depot. 21 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood-working combine, factory on manufacture of recalcitrances, the alimentary enterprises. A study of local lore museum.
ALAGOAS (Alagoas), staff on north-east of Brazil. 27,7 thousand км2. The population of 2420 thousand person (1985). Adm. ts. - Maceio.
ALAD (Shad), in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies a demon, a kind spirit - saver of each person.
ALADZHA, a mountain on Karsskom a tableland, to the east of Kars. During russko-turkish war 1877-78 in area Aladzhi 20.9-3.10.1877 Russian troops of general M.T.Loris-Melikova have defeated turkish army Muhtar-plough, and then have precipitated Kars.
ALADZHADZHJAN Stepan Egiaevich (r. 1924), the Armenian writer. In 1946 has moved to Armenia (from Syria). The collection of verses " Flowers of grief " (1942). Stories " In desert " (1952), "Defeat" (1956) about extirpation of arabs against the English colonialists, the collection of stories " the Yellow-green Milky Way " (1981); the historical novel " Canes were not declined " (kn. 1-2, 1966-67).
ALADOV Nikolay Iljich (1890-1972), the Byelorussian composer, the national actor of Belarus (1955). The writer of the first Byelorussian products{creations} symphonic, etc. genres. Opera " Andrey Kostenja " (1947), concordances. One of organizers of music education in Belarus. The professor of the Byelorussian conservatory (with 1946).
ALAZANI, the river to Transcaucasia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of the Hen (runs in Mingechaurskoe vdhr.). 351 kms, the area of basin of 10,8 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 98 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
ALAZANSKAJA the VALLEY (plain Alazan-Agrichajskaja, plain Alazan-Avtoranskaja), along B.Kavkaza's austral foot. An altitude of 200-450 m. It is showered rr. Alazani and Agrichaj. In Georgia calls as plain Kahetinskoj. Wine growing. Tourism.
ALAZEJSKOE the TABLELAND, in Yakutia. An altitude up to 954 m.
ALAZEJA, the river on north-east of Yakutia. 1590 kms, the area of basin of 64,7 thousand км2. Average discharge of water in the lower flow 300 m3 / with. The m runs in East - Siberian.
ALAZONY, Scythian agricultural nations a bass. JUzh. Bug (7-2 centuries up to n. e.).
ALAJSKAJA the VALLEY, an intermountain hollow in limits Gissaro-scarlet, between Alajskim and Zaalajskim hr., in Kirghizia. Length of 150 kms, an altitude from 2240 m in the west up to 3536 m on the orient. It is showered r. Kyzylsu and its{her} in-leaks{influxes}.
ALAJSKY the BACKBONE, in system Gissaro-scarlet, predominary in Kirghizia. Length ok. 400 kms, an altitude up to 5539 m. The area of a glaciation 811 км2.
ALAKALUF, see. Ognezemeltsy.
ALAKOK (Alacoque) Margarita Maria (1647-90), the French nun vizitandinskogo a monastery in Fallow - le-Monjale. Its{her} mystical visions 1673-74 stated to her{it} in the composition " Adoration heart of Jesus " (it is published 1698), were an incitement to originating a cult of St.. Heart of Jesus officially adjudicated by the Latin church in 1765. Memory{remembrance} in the Latin church on October, 17.
ALAKOL (Alakul), drainless brine lake on the orient Balkhash - Alakolskoj hollows, in Kazakhstan. Ok. 2650 км2, depth up to 54 m. Fishery.
ALALIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. lalia - speech), absence or limitation of speech for children because of a underdevelopment or a defeat of voice zones of major hemispheres of a brain.
LACTAMIC ACIDS LILLE (Alain de Lille, latinisen form Alanus ab Insulis) (mind{wit}. 1203), the French philosopher - sholast, the seminary student and the poet, the outlet box - cistercian. The writer of " the Bleeding of a nature " - filosofsko-moralistic vision in art prose and verses - and an allegorical epopee in hexameters "Antiklavdian".
ALAND ISLANDS (Ahvenanma) (the Swede. Aland, fin. Ahvenanmaa), ok. 6,5 thousand granite islands and shher in Baltic m., for an orifice in Botnichesky a hall.; in structure of Finland. 1,5 thousand км2. The population ok. 25 thousand person (1992). Fishery, seaside resorts. Up to 1809 under an authority of Sweden, then (till December 1917) - Russia. In 1921 Advice{Council} of League of the Nations has recognized the sovereignty of Finland above islands Alandskimi. Under the Geneva convention of 1921 islands Alandskie are demilitarized and neutral. After 2-nd world war are again demilitarized (1947).
ALANDSKY the CONGRESS, representatives of Russia and Sweden (on islands Alandskih, May 1718 - October 1719). Attempt to end Boreal war by a bilateral agreement without intermediary of the third mandatory powers. It is interrupted in view of variance of the Swedish government to concede Lifljandiju.
The ALANINE, aliphatic amino asid, a-alanine, CH3CH2 (NH) 2COOH, is part some many proteins, a b-alanine, Н2NCH2CH2COOH, - in structure of some biologically active connections (a coenzyme an alanine, pantothen, etc.).
ALANIJA, in kon. 9 - nach. 13 centuries the state alanov in a central part the Sowing. Caucasus; it was secured{discharged} from Hazarskogo kaganata; has broken up as a result of mongolo-tatar irruption.
ALANSKIE the GATE, the ancient title of Daryal pass by name alanov.
ALANS, iranojazychnye nations of a Sarmatian origin. From 1 century lived to Priazovye and Ciscaucasia. The part alanov participat in Great resettlement of peoples. Caucasian alany (in Russian jasy) - ancestors the osset.
ALAPAEVSK, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, Sverdlovsk region, on r. Neiva. A railway junction. 50,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Integrated iron-and-steel works; factories: machine-tool constructing, "Strojdormash", etc.; a woodworking industry. It is based in 1704.
ALARIH I (Alaricus, Alarich) (ok. 370-410), king vestgotov with 395. In 410 has trapped and has plundered Rome.
ALARKON (Alarcon) Pedro Antonio de (1833-91), the spanish writer. Verses in romantic spirit, realistic short stories about heroic of antinapoleonic extirpation. The comic story from life of a spanish society nach. 19 century " the Triangular hat " (1874), novels.
ALASTOR, in the Grecian mythology a demon pursuing the criminal, "evil eye".
ALASTRIM, version of a natural smallpox with lighter flow.
ALASY (Yakut)., flat kickdowns in areas of distribution{propagation} of the permfrost rocks, generatrix in outcome protaivanija and depressions of a ground. From tens meters up to several kilometres in a diameter.
ALAT, city (with 1982) in Uzbekistan, Bukhara region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Alat. 9,4 thousand inhabitants (1991).
ALA TAU (alatoo) (the turki. - motley mountains), mountain hrebty on which downslopes the epines coated{obtected} with vegetation, alternate with white spots snow and stony stream gravels (napr., Zailijsky Ala Tau in Compare. Asia).
ALA TAU, urban settlement in Kazakhstan, the Alma-Ati region of 4,2 thousand inhabitants (1991.) scientific research institutes of nuclear physics AN of Kazakhstan.
MYTHICAL STONE, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, Chuvashia, landing stage on r. Sura, at a lockin r. A mythical stone. A depot. 7,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Electrotechnical, wood-working, boot, a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum. It is known with 1552.
MYTHICAL STONE, the river to the Volga region, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Sura. 296 kms, the area of basin of 11,2 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 36 m3 / with. Driveable.
ALAUITY (Alavity, Filalidy, Filalijskie sheriffs), a dynasty of anthuruses (since 60th of 17 century), then (with 1957) kings of Morocco. In the season{term} of the French protectorate (1912-1956) have lost a substantial authority. Since March 1956 have again headed steering of country.
"ALASH", the political party in Kazakhstan, 1917-20. Achieved an autonomy of Kazakhstan. In December 1917 has created the centre "Alash-horde" and " Alashskuju an autonomy " (in November 1918 it is abolished by the Ufa directory).
ALASHAN, desert in Central Asia, in a north of China. Ok. 170 thousand км2, an altitude of 800-1660 m. Plain with island blocks, epines melkosopochnika, drift sands, solonchaks. Nomadic animal husbandry.
ALASHAN (Helanshan), backbone in China, along southeast surburb of desert Alashan. Length of 270 kms, an altitude up to 2855 m. Stony semideserts.
ALASHEEV Jury Timofeevich (1923-59), the pilot - verifier, the lieutenant colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1960, posthumously). Tests of some airplanes of the KB of A.N.Tupolev, including the first Soviet reactive passenger aeroplane That - 104. Has perished at airplane test.
"ALASH-HORDE", the centre of consignment "Alash" and " Alashskoj autonomies ", December 1917 - March 1920. Center - Orenburg, the chapter - cadet A.Bukejhanov; had some branches. Orders alashordyntsev were part of a White Guard troops. It is liquidated Kirghiz (Kazakh) revkomom.
ALBAZIN, Russian strength on the left-handed coast of Amur in 1651-89. E.P.Habarovym is based. About 1684 centre voevodstva. On Nerchinskomu to the agreement it is abolished.
ALBAN (3 century), the first Christian martyr of Britain, is executed during persuit of christians at Diokletiane (ok. 305). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 23 (on September, 5), in Roman catholic - on June, 22.
ALBANIA (Shqipёria), Republic Albania (Republika e Shqipёrisё), the state in JUzh. To Europe, on Balkan p-ove, it is washed against by the Adriatic m. of 28,7 thousand км2. The population 3,4 million person (1992), ok. 98 % - Albanians. A urban population - 35 % (1990). The official language - Albanian. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}, are roman catholics and orthodox. Administrative territorial division: 26 reti. Capital - Tirana. The chief of state - the president. The supreme body of the government - unicameral Public assembly. A central part of a shore - plain; the remaining terrain is occupied in mountains - the Sowing. The Albanian Alpes, hr. Tomori, Korabi (up to 2764 м). A climate subtropical Mediterranean. Mean temperatures of January 8-9 °S, July 24-25 °S. A rainfall of 800-2000 mm annually. Large lakes (in Albania - in part) - SHkoder (Skadarskoe), Ohridskoe, Prespa; r. Drin. St. 38 % of terrain it is coated{obtected} with woods and bushes, ok. 1/4 - mountain meadows. The most ancient population - illirijtsy. In 2 century up to n. e. - 4 century n. e. In structure of Roman empire, then Byzantium, in 15 century it is seized by Ottoman empire. In 1443 extirpation against osmanli domination has headed Skanderbeg, basing in 1444 Lezhskuju league of the Albanian princes. In 1912, after a defeat of Turkey in 1-st Balkan war, it is professed by an independent state. In 1924 in Albania there was a bourgeois-democratic revolution which has been suppressed{quenched} at support of the foreign mandatory powers. Albano-italian contracts and agreements 1926, 1927, 1936 have consolidated political and an economic dependence of Albania from fascist Italy. In 1939 Albania is occupied by fascist Italy, in September 1943 - fascist Germany. In November 1944 country is free by National-liberation army of Albania; in January 1946 the national republic is professed. In December 1976 the National Socialist Republic Albania, since May 1991 - Republic Albania is professed. At extraordinary elections (1992) in parliament victory was gained by Democratic party (it is based in 1990). In February - March 1997 in Albania the civil commotions accompanied with omnipresent events of capture of weapons, failure{refusal} of subordination to authorities, the president, accused by rebels in the implication in a crime to financial manipulations have begun. President S.Berishe did not manage to take a situation under the supervisory control. In view of threat of full chaos and mass emigration in countries of Europe (first of all, to Italy), the European Community has made a decision about introduction to Albania of armed forces of countries - members of NATO. Albania - agrarian-industrial country. After 1949 have been incorporated by a fundamentals of a national industry. Ok. 45 % national the income form in an industry and 33 % in an agriculture. Production of chromites (over 1 million t annually), double-humped iron-nickel, copper ore, brown coal, petroleum, native bitumen. Manufacture of the electric power 4,1 billion in kw. A h (1990), primarily on a river plant on r. Drin. Petroleum industry, black and nonferrous machine industry, metal working, a machine industry, chemical, textile, a flavoring industry, the enterprises wood-working and a paper industry. The basis{fundamentals} of an agriculture - a plant growing (ok. 2/3 gross agricultural production). In structure of agricultural lands a ploughland over 83 % (48 % of her{it} are under grain). Cultivate wheat, corn, rice, sunflower, sugar-beet, tobacco, a cotton. A subtropical fruit growing, wine growing. Gornopastbishchnoe animal husbandry. Length (1988) railways of 684 kms, pitch motorways of 18,5 thousand in km (1991). Main seaports: Durres, Vlera. Export: a chromium ore, ferrochrome, farm products (tobacco, olives, citrous). The main{basic} foreign trade partners: Italy, Greece, Turkey, Germany. Monetary unit - lek.



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