Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • The AZOV MARCHINGS 1695-96 Russian armies and fleets led by Peter I during russko-turkish war 1686-1700 as a result of which Azov (1696) has been taken.
  • The AZOV FLEET, is built by Peter I in kon. 1695 - May 1696 on the rivers about Voronezh for actions on the Azov m. (the sailing ships{spacecrafts}, galery). Has played a main role in taking of Azov (1696). After Prutskogo a marching (1711) it is deleted.
  • The AZOV COSSACK ARMY, 1828-1864, is built from the cossacks who have come back from Zadunajskoj Sechi. It is lodged (up to 6 thousand person) on northwest a shore of the Azov m. In 60th the main body is moved on the Sowing. Caucasus.
  • AZOV the PEST (dr .-рус. - Surozhskoe the pest), in the south of East European plain. Kerchenskim prol. It is paired to Black m. 39 t. км2. Depth up to 15 m. Large zal.: Taganrog, Sivash. Run large rr. Don and Kuban. Solidifies for 2-3 months. Fishery (an anchovy, tjulka, a bream, a sandre). Primary ports: Mariupol, Taganrog, Yeysk, Berdyansk. Health resorts. As a result of man impacts the environmental setting has worsened; search of scientifically reasonable ways of restoration of natural complexes of the Azov m is conducted.
  • The AZOV SEAT, the defence the Don and Zaporozhye cossacks of strength Azov taken for the Turk in 1637. In 1641 cossacks have maintained osadu, in the summer 1642, having blasted strengthening, have abandoned Azov. It is reflected in the military story built on Don, - " the Story poetic " (1642).
  • AZO DYES, see. Azo compounds.
  • AZOLSKY Anatoly Alekseevich (r. 1930), the Russian writer. It is published with 1987 though many products{creations} are written earlier. In stories ("Stubs", 1993; " Berlin - Moscow - Berlin ", 1994; " War on the pest ", the "Cell", both 1996) and novels ("Stepan Sergeich", 1987; " the Lingering outrigger boom ", 1988) reverts to social - moral problems and conflicts of duties of the Soviet history. The collection of stories " the Legend about Travkine " (1990).
  • AZOMETINOVYE DYES, the organic dye keeping in a molecule azometinovye groups (-CH=N-). Apply primarily in a colour photography. Connections azometinovyh dyes with metals (azometinovye) use pigments at a staining of plastics materials and polyolefin fibres, in polygraphy.
  • The AZONAL VEGETATION, meets as inclusion in zonal vegetation, napr., meadows in bottom lands of the rivers of semideserts and deserts.
  • AZONALNOST (from a - a negative prefix and grech. zone - a belt, a zone), distribution{propagation} any natural the phenomena outside of communication{connection} with zonal features of the given terrain. It is routinely stipulated by geologic structure, tectonic a mode, morfostrukturoj a relief, etc. internal causes. Inquests azonalnosti - distinctions{differences} in a climate, a water relationships, soils and the organic world. Most brightly shows in mountains.
  • AZORES (Acores), in Atlantic ok., to the west from Pirenejskogo p-ova. Terrain of Portugal. Ok. 2,3 thousand км2. The population of 237 thousand person (1991.9 islands of a volcanic origin and some reefs. An altitude up to 2351 m (about. To peak). Ever-green forests and subtropical crops. An administrative centre and a port - Pontus - Delgada.
  • AZORSKY the ANTICYCLONE, a stationary value range of a high atmospheric pressure above subtropical and tropical areas Atlantic ok. In Boreal hemisphere.
  • AZO COMPOUNDS, the organic compounds keeping azo-group - N=N-, the bound with 2 hydrocarbon radicals. Receive restoration of nitro compounds, a diazocoupling, etc. Aromaticheski azo compounds use as azo dyes for a staining of textiles, leathers, papers, furs, plastics materials.
  • DIAZOCOUPLING, obtaining of azo compounds by interaction of diazo compounds with arylamines, phenols, etc., napr.: C6H5N2CI+C6H5OH - C6H5N - NC6H4OH+HCI. Apply to synthesis of azo dyes.
  • NITROGEN (an armour. Nitrogenium), N, chemical element V of group of a periodic system, atomic number 7, atomic weight 14,0067. The title from Grecian a - a negative prefix and zoe - life (does not sustain respiration and burning). Free nitrogen will consist of 2-nuclear molecules (N2); gas without colour and an odor; firmness 1,25 g/l, tпл - 210 °C, tкип - 195,8 °C. it is chemical rather inert, however reacts with complexes of transition metals. The main{basic} component of air (78,09 % of volume) which division receive industrial nitrogen (more than 3/4 goes on synthesis of ammonia). It is applied as an inert atmosphere to many production processes; liquid nitrogen - hladagentnyj nitrogen - one of the main{basic} biogenic elements, included in proteins and nucleic acids.
  • NITROGEN OXIDES: gemioksid N2O and monoxide NO (colourless gases), seskvioksid N2O3 (a blue liquid), dioxide NO2 (brown gas, at a usual terms mix NO2 and his{its} dimer N2O4), oxide N2O5 (colourless crystals). N2O and NO - not salifilable oxides, N2O3 with water gives nitrous acid, N2O5 - nitric, NO2 - their mix. All nitrogen oxide are physiologically awake. N2O - a means for narcosis ("laughing gas"), NO and NO2 - intermediate products in manufacture of a nitric acid, NO2 - an oxidant in a fluid propellant, smesevyh the explosive, the nitrating agent.
  • AZOTEMIJA (from nitrogen and grech. haima - blood), the exuberant content in blood of nitrogen-bearing products of a protein metabolism (a urea, uric acid, a creatinine, etc.) at renal diseases, reinforced disintegration of histic proteins, sharp reduction of a chloride content, etc.
  • NITRATION, saturation nitrogen of a surface of a metal goods (primarily steel and titanium) for increase of hardness, wear-resistance, fatigue{endurance} limit, rust resistance.
  • The NITROUS YPRITES, group of organic substances of general formula RN (CH2CH2Cl) 2, where R - CH3, C2H5, СH2CH2Cl; on obshchejadovitomu and to the strong blistering effect are analogous to yprite. Some derivative the nitrous yprites, suppressing cell-like division, apply as antitumoral drugs.
  • NITRIC ACID, HNO3, a colourless liquid with a sharp suffocating odor; firmness of 1,513 g / sm3, tпл-41,59 °C, tкип 82,6 °C. With water it is admixed throughout. In an industry receive catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Apply to obtaining fertilizers, nitrate celluloses, dyes, sulfuric acid, for etching metals and semiconductive materials, as an oxidant of a propellant, a component of "nitrosulphuric acid" (with sulfuric acid). Salt also nitric ethers - nitrates.
  • NITRIC INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTS of ORGANIC SYNTHESIS the INSTITUTE State (GIAP), is based in 1931 in Moscow. Probes on chemistry and technologies of nitrogen-bearing fertilizers, ammonia, a nitric acid, caprolactam, monomers for manufacture of polymeric materials, in range of hydrogenous energetics, etc.
  • NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS, the inorganic substances keeping nitrogen and used as a source of a nitrogen nutrition of plants. Nitrogenous fertilizers section on ammoniac (an ammonium a sulphate, an ammonium chloride, etc.), ammoniacal - nitrate (an ammonium nitrate, etc.), nitrate (sodium nitre, nitrate of lime and potassium nitrate) and amide (a urea, etc.). Nitrogenous fertilizers are effective on miscellaneous soils under different agricultural crops, especially in the Non-chernozem zone and in areas of an irrigation farming. Misapplication of nitrogenous fertilizers promotes accumulation of exuberant quantity of nitrates in agricultural production (fruits, vegetables).
  • AZOTOBACTER, stem of free living nitrogen-fixing aerobic bacteria. 4 kinds{views}, primarily in cultivated soils of different zones. Produce a number{series} of vitamins, antibiotics. From an azotobacter plot fertilizer - an azotobacterin.
  • AZOTOLS, arilamidy of some the aromatic acids, having affinity to cellulose fibers. Intermediates for obtaining azo dyes at t. n. Azoic dyeing.
  • AZOTFIXATION, binding of molecular nitrogen of an atmosphere and his{its} transfer{translation} in nitrogen compounds. The biological azotfixation implements the nodule bacteria living in symbiosis with higher plants (a symbiotic azotfixation), and also free living nitrogen fixers - an azotobacter, blue-green algae, spirillas, enterobakterijami, mycobacteria (not symbiotic azotfixation). The azotfixation plays the important role in a nitrogen cycle in a nature and soil enrichment and water reservoirs a bound nitrogen (the symbiotic azotfixation can annually dress 1 ga with soils on 200-300 kg of nitrogen, not symbiotic - on 15-30 kg). In an industry the azotfixation descends at synthesis of ammonia from gaseous H2 and N2 in conditions concerning a heat and pressure. The capability of an azotfixation is exhibited at ambient temperature and an atmospheric pressure under action of complexes of transition metals.
  • AZULENE, blue crystals, tпл 99 °C. It is contained in some essential oils, napr., camomiles, sage-brushes. Has anti-inflammatory action. Is part of tooth pastes, cosmetic flints.
  • AZURITE (from frants. azur - a glazing, blueing) (copper blue), a mineral of a class of carbonates, Cu2Cu [CO3] 2 (OH) 2. Deep blue, in groundy masses light-blue (a copper blue stain). Hardness 3,5-4,0; firmness of 3,8 g / sm3. It will be derivated in oxidation zones of deposits of copper. Copper ore, raw material for paints.
  • AZHAR (al-Azhar, al-Dzhami al-Azhar), a complex of Muslim religious and society higher educational establishments and research establishments in Cairo; actuates Academy islamovedenija, university al-Azhar with faculties of the Moslem law, engineering, agricultural, medical, etc. It is based in 10 century at a like mosque.
  • AZYHSKAJA the CAVE, parking ashelskoj crops (area Gadrutsky of Azerbaijan). Residues of home units, stone instruments; a sanctuary{holy place} - a hiding place with skulls of cave bears, a fragment of a maxilla of the fossil person (azyhantrop).
  • AID (Hades, Pluto), in the Grecian mythology the god of the underground world and a kingdom dead; Aid - also a kingdom dead.
  • AIJAL (Ajzaul), city in India, an administrative centre pieces. Mizoram. 154 thousand inhabitants (1991). Handicraft industries.
  • AIJANAR, tamilskoe the godhood of agriculture; it is figured routinely sitting on a horse.
  • AIL, 1) for Mongolian peoples nomadic family group. 2) In Kirghizia a village administrative and territorial unit.
  • AIO Fivaidsky (4 or 5 century), the Christian man of faith. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on Saturday cheese.
  • SWEETFLAG, stem of perennial grasses of a set aronnikovyh. 2 kinds{views}, in extratropical ranges of Boreal hemisphere, blossom from the beginning of summer{years} till the autumn. A rootstock (calamus - root) keeping an essential oil, etc. substances, apply in medicine (to improvement of digestion and as tonic), in perfumery, a confectionery industry.
  • AIRMED, in irish mythology the goddess of practice of medicine, the daughter of god - healer Diana Kehta. With the help of a holy well returned life and forces to soldiers during battle with fomorami.
  • STORK'S-BILL (heron's - bill), stem annotinous or perennial grasses of a set of a geranium family. The form of a fruit is similar to a head of a stork. St. 80 kinds{views}, in a moderate belt of Eurasia and in the Mediterranean. Will grow in dry meadows, steppes, piedmonts. A stork's-bill tsikutovyj - a routine weed of fields and gardens; a drug plant.
  • AISTOOBRAZNYE, the same, that long-legged.
  • STORKS, set of birds of order long-legged. 18 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Dwell{live} in places, affluent water; nests on trees, roofs{covers}. In Palearktike 3 kinds{views}: white (length up to 110 sm), black and Far East. 2 last are guarded.
  • AITA, in etrusskoj mythologies htonicheskoe the godhood, identified with Grecian Aidom.
  • AIFAL (Antillag) Arbelsky (Persian) (mind{wit}. 380), the martyr, the deacon in Naessone (in Persia); has suffered in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 1 (14) and on November, 3 (16). AJ, the river on JUzh. Ural, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Ufa. 549 kms, the area of basin of 15 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 80 m3 / with. A drainage zaregulirovan. On r. Aj-. The Chrysostom.
  • AJ CIN (r. 1910), the Chinese poet. A poem " To the sun " (1938), collections "North" (1939), " the Message about a dawn " (1943), "Spring" (1956), etc. - about Rhodinum and socialist construction. The collection " the Ode of recurring " (1980). The book " About poetry " (1940).
  • AJBEK (an ice-film. Name Musa Tashmuhamedov) (1904/05-68), the Uzbek writer, the national writer of Uzbekistan (1965), academician AN of Uzbekistan (1943). Novels " Sacred blood " (1943) about events of 1-st world war, "Navoi" (1945), the autobiographical story "Childhood" (1962), verses. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • QUINCE, stem of trees and bushes of a set pink, a fruit crop. 1 kind{view} - a quince dace. Cultivate in Europe, the Sowing. To America, the Sowing. To Africa, Vost. And Compare. Asia. From fruits (40-100 kg from a tree) - jam, etc.
  • AYVAZOVSKY Ivan Konstantinovich (1817-1900), the Russian painter - marine painter. In romantic cloths ("Highest wave", 1850; " Black sea ", 1881) Ivan Konstantinovich [17 (29) July 1817, Feodosiya - on April, 2 (14) 1900, in the same place], the Russian artist figured the pest, bravery of people contending with stihiej, marine сражения.* * *АЙВАЗОВСКИЙ. One of the best painters - marine painters of 19 century. The native of family of the Armenian merchant, on all life has saved proof communication{connection} with ancient traditions of armjano-Christian crop. Studied in the Petersburg Academy of arts for M.N.Vorobjeva. With 1845 it was justified in Feodosiya. Traveled across Russia and countries of Europe, the Near East, Asia and Africa much. Ayvazovsky early patterns testify to close assimilation of canons of the marine landscape which is going back to painting Lorrena, about M.N.Vorobjeva's influence and serotinal{late} Silvestra Schedrin. Specific accuracy is bridged here with klassitsistskoj a rationality of composite plans (" the View on a beach in environs of Petersburg ", 1835, Tretjakovskaja passageway) .CH Only romantic attitude, delight immense, perpetually volatile stihiej starving finds mature expression in activities of 1840th when the artist conquers european popularity. A number{series} of foreign academies elects his{its} honorary member, Dzh. Turner writes an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his{its} patterns. The famous product{creation} of this season{term} - a pattern "Highest wave" (1850, Russian museum). Sample for ikonografii romanticism the theme of wreck is given here in a surrounding of the strong shadow effects intensifying a general impression of infinity of the turbulent space. The artist it is unusual prolific, Ayvazovsky often resorted to composite and color title block. However in the best patterns - such, as "Black sea" (1881, Tretjakovskaja passageway), - is bled through{appeared} with the best features of his{its} bestowal: sensitive comprehension of an aesthetics raised, the thin skill of a tone transmission of light which is diving through a strata of water. Among major figure of the earth landscapes plump by Ayvazovsky, cycles of patterns, navejannye impressions of travelings across Ukraine and Caucasus (1850-60-С) are secreted with bravura panoramicheskimi effects . Not time he reverted to biblical scenes of creation of the world and a deluge, to gospel and antique motives - as well as for Dzh. Turner, figured figures look small-sized staffazhem among stately, "space" landscapes. Created cloths on themes of the Armenian crop (" Visitation Dzh. G.Byron of a monastery mhitaristov bliz Venice ", 1880, Picture passageway of Armenia, Yerevan). To figure of liked writers of Ayvazovsky A.S.Pushkin in which verses he found poetic expression natural marinizma belonged. In the serotinal{late} season{term} the artist not time reverted to a mode{an image} of the great poet - " Pushkin on oceanside " (the figure of the poet is written to I.E.Repinym, 1897,) .Vazhnuju the chapter in Ayvazovsky inheritance compounds{makes} A.S.Pushkin's Museum, Saint Petersburg a battle-piece painting. With 1844 he was the artist of Main marine headquarters, has written many the considerable patterns on themes of a history of Russian military fleet (" CHesmensky crocked eggs ", 1848, Feodosijskaja picture passageway of a name And. To. Ayvazovsky) .Buduchi one of the most affluent artists of Russia, he has much made for the native city: on his{its} means buildings of aboriginal picture passageway, an archeologic museum have been built, major activities on an accomplishment of Feodosiya, construction of a port and the railway are conducted. From the workshop built by him{it} in 1845, there was a lot of given away masters of a landscape (A.I.Kuindzhi, K.F.Bogaevsky, etc.). Creativity of the master is the most full is submitted{shown} in founded him{it} Feodosijskoj to the picture passageway nowadays wearing his{its} name. Литература:Айвазовский: Documents and materials. Yerevan, 1967. Barsamov N. Seconds. I.K.Ayvazovsky. М., 1967. Wagner L.A., Grigorovich N. Seconds. I.K.Ayvazovsky. М., 1970. Pilipenko V. N. I.K.Ayvazovsky: the Album. Л., 1983. M.N.Sokolov
  • AJVAN, ejvan (persian)., ivan, Lebanon, 1) in the Central Asian home units, mosques, etc. - terrace with flat cover{coating} on columns or piles. 2) the Domical hall discovered on the part of an aula (receiving{acceptance} halls in palaces Parfii and sasanidskogo Iran, in mosques and palaces medieval Compare. Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, etc.).
  • AJVASEDAPUR, the river in Zap. Siberia, dextral component r. Pur. It will be derivated by interflow rr. Erkalnadejpur and Etypur. Length from headstream Erkalnadejpura of 601 kms, the area of basin of 26,1 thousand км2.
  • AJVZ (Ives) CHarlz (1874-1954), the American composer. One of founders of the modern American music. 5 concordances, kamerno-tool{kamerno-instrument} products{creations}, songs.
  • AJGI Gennady Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian poet, a translator. Writes also in the Chuvash tongue. In poetry (collections " the Name of fathers ", 1958, " Verses 1954 - 1971 ", 1975, " Noted winter ", 1982, 2 last are published abroad), affecting French poetic crop, philosophy of existentialism and Russian religious idea, communication{connection} of the person, sometimes excruciating, with irrational depths of life is uncovered. The anthology " Poets of France XV - XX centuries " (1968, in the Chuvash tongue).
  • AJGUNSKY the AGREEMENT, between Russia and China (it is signed 28.5.1858. Ajgun), established{set} border{limit} across Amur. Thus, Russia the terrain, ottorgnutaja tsinskim government on Nerchinskomu to agreement 1689 returned. Float on rr. Amur, Sungari and Ussuri was authorized to only Russian and Chinese courts.
  • IDAHO (Idaho), staff in the west the USA. 216 thousand км2. The population 1,1 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Boise.
  • AJDIT (Aidit) Dipa Nusantara (1923-65), the chairman of a Central Committee of Communist Party of Indonesia (KPI) in 1959-65 (in 1954-59 secretary general of a Central Committee). After rout of anti-government mutiny on September, 30 1965 has been killed.
  • AJDUKEVICH (Ajdukiewicz) Kazimezh (1890-1963), Polish logik and the philosopher. Belonged to the lvovsko-Warsaw school in logic. Has developed the semantic theory of tongue. Activities on philosophical interpreting logic.
  • AJE-AJE, a stem poluobezjan; the same, that rukonozhka.
  • AJER (Ayer) Alfred Dzhuls (r. 1910), the English philosopher, the representative neopozitivizma. Propagandized ideas Austrian a mug; the tendency to linguistic philosophy is characteristic for serotinal{late} activities.
  • EISENACH, city in Germany, see. Ejzenah.
  • AJZENBERG Grigory Zaharovich (1904-94), the Russian scientist, the expert in range of the theory and technique of antennas for radio communication, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1946), the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1965). Under guiding Ajzenberga all domestic broadcasting and cohesive apparatuses, including for SV, DV and KV ranges are developed almost. The state premium of the USSR (1947, 1984). The lenin premium (1957).
  • AJZENHJUTTENSHTADT (Ejzenhjuttenshtadt) (Eisenhuttenstadt), city in Germany, ground Brandenburg. 50 thousand inhabitants (1988). A port on the channel Oder - SHpre. Integrated iron-and-steel works " East wind ", shipbuilding.
  • AJZENSHTEJN Seeds Moiseevich (1884-1962), Russian radio engineerings, one of pioneers of a domestic radio telegraphy. In 1907 has based and has headed the Society of wireless telegraphs and earphones where has developed civil-engineering designs of radio stations in Moscow and Tsarskoe Selo, in 1914-17 has created the first domestic electron tubes and radio equipment. In 1912-14 emitted the first Russian radio log-book " the Bulletin of telegraphy without wires ". With 1922 - in England.
  • AJZERMAN Mark Aronovich (1913-92), the Russian scientist in range of control theory, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1947). The honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1965). Transactionses under the theory of automatic regulation and the theory of differential equations. Under his{its} guiding the comprehensive system of elements of industrial pneumoautomatics is built. The lenin premium (1964).
  • AJZKRAUKLE (Aizkraukle) (up to 1990 Stuchka), city (with 1967) in Latvia, on r. Daugava, bliz. zh.-d. An item. Ajzkraukle. 10,3 thousand inhabitants (1990). Pljavinskaja a river plant. Factories: telephone apparatuses, an asphaltic concrete.
  • AJZMAN David Jakovlevich (1869-1922), the Russian writer, the playwright. Stories and stories from life of the jewish poor (many of them were typed in collections of company " Knowledge "). In tragedy " the Thorny bush " (1907; in Russia it is published in 1920) the romantic pathetics of revolutionary extirpation combines{blends} with a stylization of biblical motives. Modernist winnowings in stories " the White novel ", " the Black novel " (both 1908).
  • AJZPUTE (Aizpute) (up to 1917 official title Gazenpot), city in Latvia, on r. Tebra. 6,3 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture of hardware, the alimentary enterprises. Has arisen in 1248.
  • "AJKAP" ("Mirror"), the Kazakh political and literary - critical log-book. It was emitted in 1911-15 (88 numbers) to Troitsk, nowadays by the Chelyabinsk region.
  • AJ-KJU, see. Quotient of intellectuality.
  • AILANTHUS, stem of deciduous trees of a set simarubovyh. Ok. 10 kinds{views}, in JUzh. And Vost. Asia and in a north of Australia. An ailanthus highest (Chinese ash) cultivate in the south of Europe, on Caucasus and in Compare. Asia. In China on leaves of an ailanthus cultivate an ailanthus worm. Medicinal and ornamental plants. Wood use in construction, for hand-made articles, manufacturing of a paper.
  • AJLIL, in irish mythology the marital partner of queen Medb who have argued with her about a volume, whose stem ancient and the richman. Conflict between them has become a scene of the central saga of a cycle about hero Kuhuline " Abduction of the bull from Kualnge ".
  • AJLISLI to Acres (an ice-film. fam. And name Naibov-Ajlisli to Acres Nadzhaf ogly) (r. 1937), the Azerbaijan writer. Collections of stories (" Of heart do not joke ", 1973, etc.). A cycle of stories " People and trees " (1966-68) about life of the Azerbaijan village during Great Domestic war and in post-war years. Transfers{translations}.
  • AJMAK, 1) a stem, nation for Mongolian and Turkic peoples. 2) the Administrative and territorial unit (area) in Buryatiya and Republic Altai. 3) the Main{Basic} administrative and territorial unit of Mongolia.
  • " AJMAN SHOLPAN ", Kazakh national liriko-epicheskaja a poem 1-st floor. 19 century; glorifies a mode{an image} of the courageous and magnanimous Kazakh girl.
  • AJMANOV SHaken Kenzhetaevich (1914-70), the Kazakh actor and the film director, the national actor of the USSR (1959). With 1933 at the Kazakh theatre him{it}. Auezova (Alma-Ata). One of the first producers of national kino. Films: " we here live " (1957), " our lovely doctor " (1958), " the Earth fathers " (1967), " the End of the ataman " (1971), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1952).
  • AJMARA, American Indian people in Bolivia, Peru and Chile. An aggregate number 2,55 million person (1992). Tongue ajmara. Believers - roman catholics.
  • AJMARA, tongue of people ajmara. One of 3 official languages of Bolivia. Traditionally falls into to family kechumara (kechua-ajmara) American Indian tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • AJMEDOVA Majagozel (r. 1941), a Turkmen actress, the national actress of the USSR (1987). With 1964 in Turkmen TJUZe. Acted in film. The state premium of the USSR (1973).
  • AJMURZAEV ZHolmurza Murzauly (r. 1910), the Karakalpak writer, the national writer of Uzbekistan (1981). Stories, stories, novels " On coasts Amu-Darji " (1958), " I like you, people " (1978). Verses, poems. Plays.
  • AJNAZHI (up to 1917 official title Gajnash), city (with 1928) in Latvia, on coast Riga a hall. A depot. 1,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A museum of seaworthy school.
  • AJNALOV Dmitry Vlasjevich (1862-1939), the Russian historian of art, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1914). Transactionses are dedicated aesthetic and historical and cultural interpretation of the byzantian, Russian, italian art.
  • AJNI (an ice-film. Name Sadriddin Said-Murodzoda) (1878-1954), the Tadjik writer, the scientist, the public figure. The first president (with 1951) AN Tadjikistan. Stories; in novels "Dohunda" (it is published 1930) and "Slaves" (1934) are reflected life of Tadjik people during a century; "Memories" (kn. 1-4, 1949-1954). Transactionses on a history and the literature of peoples Compare. Asia. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • AJNSKY TONGUE, tongue ajnov. Genealogical communications{connections} are not established{installed}. For 20 century has quitted from the alive use.
  • AJNY, people on about. Hokkaido, in Japan. 20 thousand person (1992). Tongue ajnsky. Believers - Buddhists.
  • IOWA (Iowa), staff in Compare West the USA. 146 thousand км2. The population 2,8 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Des Moines.
  • AJOWAN, stem of herbaceous plants of a set umbrella. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, in Africa and Asia. Odorous (the ajowan, or an ajowan) cultivate an ajowan (including in Compare. Asia) as a spicy plant and for obtaining an essential oil (in fruits), keeping a thymol.
  • AJON, an island in the East - Siberian m., for an orifice to Chaun bay. Ok. 2 thousand км2. An altitude up to 64 m. The arctic tundra prevails{dominates}.
  • AJOTSDZORSKY the BACKBONE (Daralagezsky hr.), in the south of the Armenian mountains, within the limits of Republic Armenia. Length of 70 kms. An altitude up to 3120 m. Mountain meadows and steppes.
  • AJ-PETRI, top of the Main patch of Crimean mountains, in area Alupki. 1233 m.
  • AJRAVATA, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies the elephant who has appeared in the beginning of creation, acts as well as fitting Indry.
  • AJRAPETJAN Boris Aleksandrovich (r. 1955), the Russian scripter and the producer. Has delivered under natural scripts films: " There, where the root lays on ground " (1988), "Killer" (1993), etc. The Founder and the president of competition of national premiums " St.. Anna " among film-schools of Russia, the CIS and the Baltics.
  • AJRENY, monostroficheskaja the poetic form of the Armenian medieval poetry. Will consist of four 15-composite verses. See Kuchak Naapet.
  • " AJRON MEJDEN " (Iron Maiden), the English rock group, is derivated in 1976 in the London. Structure: Steve Harris (bass - gear quadrant), Dejv Mjurrej (gear quadrant), the Floor of Dee Anno (vocal), Arches the Simpson (impact). Activities of group have laid foundation to style hevi-metal, in particular{personally}, "spid-metal" and partly "trash". At products{creations} of group there are elements of art - fate. Has received the title " groups of incentive metal ". One of the best discs - " The Number Of The Beast " (1982). In an album " Somewhere In Time " (1986) many original arrangements, beautiful transitions from "hevi" to art - fate. The main{basic} composer of group - Steve Harris, the master of improvising.
  • AYRTON (Ireton) a Henry (1611-51), the ideologist moderate independentov during the English revolution of 17 century; spodvizhnik O.Cromwell. With 1650 lord - viceroy of Ireland.
  • ICEBERG (English iceberg), the masses which have broken away from an icehouse of the different form; can be afloat or sit aground. An altitude above a water plane up to 70 m (Arctic regions), 100 m (Antarctic Region); a large part of volume underwater. The main{basic} areas of education - ice shelfs of Antarctica, an island Canadian Arctic arh., Greenland.
  • AJSORY, see. Assyrians.
  • AJSTIS (Aistis) (an ice-film. fam. Aleksandravichjus; Kossu-Aleksandrishkis) Jonas (1904 - 73), the Lithuanian poet. Since 1930th of cable cores in Zap. To Europe, with 1946 - in the USA. Poetry elegicheskih moods: collections " Quenched eyes of a chimera " (1937), " In a crystal coffin " (1957), "Katarsis" (Vilnius, 1988). Books of an essay.
  • AJTAKOV Nedirbaj (1894-1938), the political figure. With 1923 vice-president, the chairman of the Turkestani Central Electoral Committee. With 1925 chairman of the Central Electoral Committee Turkmen SSR. It is groundlessly repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • AJTVARAS, in the Lithuanian mythology the igneous snake, giving to people oof.
  • AJTIEV Gapar Ajtievich (1912-84), the Kirghiz painter, the national artist of the USSR (1971), corresponding member AH the USSR (1973), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1982). Epicheski hangover, poetic landscapes (" Midday on Issyk Kul ", 1954), portraits (" Passageway of portraits of contemporaries ", 1979), paintings, etc.
  • AJTMATOV Ilgiz (r. 1931), the Kirghiz scientist, the academician (1989) and the president (with 1990) AN Kirghizia. Brother C.Ajtmatova. The main{basic} transactionses in range of geomechanics of rock masses. The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • AJTMATOV CHingiz (r. 1928), the Kirghiz writer, the national writer of Kirghizia (1968), the academician (1974) AN Kirghizia, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1978). Writes in the Kirghiz and Russian tongues. In stories "Dzhamilja" (1958), " the Parent field " (1963), " Farewell, Gulsary! " (1966), " the White motorship " (1970), " Skewbald pes, running an edge{a boundarouse} starving " (1977), in the novel " And longer eyelid lasts day " (" Burannyj an optional stop ", 1980), "Half-timber" (1986) - acute philosophical, ethical and social issues of our time. Prose Ajtmatova combines the psychologic analysis with traditions of folklore, mythological figurativeness, gravitates to a genre of a parable. The managing editor of the log-book " the Foreign literature " in 1988-90. The lenin premium (1963), the State premium of the USSR (1968, 1977, 1983).
  • AJ-TODOR, headland on Austral coast of Crimea, in 8,5 kms to a southwest from Yalta. A calcareous rock. Clasp " Edible bird's-nest " (kon. 19 century) and residues of Roman camp Haraks.
  • AJTHOZHIN Murat Abenovich (1939-87), the Kazakh biochemist, the academician (1983) and the president (1986-1987) AN Kazakhstan. The main{basic} activities on a biosynthesis of protein and his{its} regulation for higher plants. The lenin premium (1976).
  • AJTYS. (Kazakh). (ajtysh), song - improvising in the form of a dialogue - contest of two akynov for tjurkojazychnyh peoples Compare. Asia and Kazakhstan.
  • AJFE, in irish mythology the queen - voitelnitsa who has trained Kuhulina to battle art and given birth him of the son (the saga " Courtship to Emeras ").
  • AJH (Ejh) (Eich) Gjunter (1907-72), the german writer. The member " Groups 47 ". The humanistic lyrics using methods of modernist poetry (collections of " the Message of a rain ", 1955, " To business ", 1964). Stories, radioplays.
  • AJHAL, a urban settlement in Yakutia. 13 thousand inhabitants (1991). It is derivated in 1962 in connection with discovering almazonosnoj tubes "Ajhal".
  • AJHENVALD July Isaevich (1872-1928), the Russian critic and the publicist. The representative t. n. impressionisticheskoj criticism. In activities on the Russian and Western-European literature ("Pushkin", 1908; " Etudes about western writers ", 1910; " Poets and poetesses ", 1922) he{it} uses a method of intuitive "comprehension". In the book of an essay " Outline profiles of Russian writers " (1906) - revision of literary reputations (including M.Gorkogo, V.J.Bryusov). In poslerevoljutsionnoj to publicism estimated bolshevistsky tumble as tragically the objective ending of a history of empire. It is deported abroad (1922).
  • AJSHA-BIBI, a mausoleum of 11-12 centuries in a seconds. Golovachevka, bliz Dzhambul (Kazakhstan). Bricky, kupolno-tsentrichesky, with columns on angles and an affluent decor from carved terra-cotta.
  • AJJUB the STORAGE - N-NUN (r. 1908), the Arabian writer and the publicist (Iraq). One of initiators of a genre of the realistic story in the national literature (the collection "Workers", 1939). Novels, including anti-war publicistic " the World on ground " (1972).
  • AJJUB KHAN Mohammed (1907-74), the president of Pakistan in 1960-69, the leader of Muslim league in 1963-69. In 1951-54 and 1956-58 commander-in-chief armed forces; after a coup d'etat 1958 chapter of a military mode.
  • AJJUBIDY (Ejjubidy), a dynasty setting in kon. 12-13 centuries in Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, JUzh. Arabias. It is based in 1171 Grease ice - ad-dinom. Led successful wars with crusaders. Main{basic} (egyptian) branch Ajjubidov in 1250 is liquidated mamljukami.
  • AJJA, headland on Austral coast of Crimea, in 13 kms to a southeast from Balaklavy.
  • AJJA DE A\C the TORR (Haya de la Torre) Victor Raul (1895-1979), one of organizers (1924) and the leader of natsional-reformist Peruvian people party (up to 1945 American national - revolutionary alliance - APRA).
  • AJJAM the AL-ARAB (characters. - days of arabs), a genre of the Arabian epos about interbreeding wars; developed in 5-7 centuries; it is known in records of 8-10 centuries (cycles " War Basus ", " War Abs and Zubjan ").
  • AKA GJUNDJUZ (1885-1958), the turkish writer. Novels " Aster Dikmena " (1928), " the Unknown soldier " (1930) about national-liberation extirpation. Social - ethical novels (" Daughters of this ground ", 1935).
  • AQABA (Ale - Akaba), city and port in Jordan, on coast a hall. Aqaba Red m. Ok. 40 thousand inhabitants. An international airport. Fishery. Handicraft industries.
  • AQABA, bay of Red m., between p-ovami Arabian and Sinaisky. Length of 180 kms, width up to 28 kms, depth up to 1828 m. A port - Aqaba.
  • ACADEMISM (frants. academisme), 1) only theoretical direction, traditsionalizm in science and education. 2) Isolation of science, art, education from life, public practice. 3) In fine arts the direction which has been usual in art academies of 16-19 centuries: followed to external shapes of classical art of antiquity and Revitalization, implanted the conditional idealized modes{images}, far from life the scenes, the abstracted norms{standards} of beauty.
  • ACADEMIES MILITARY, higher educational establishments; plot command, technical-engineer, etc. staff{frames} for Armed forces.
  • ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES the BACKBONE, in Zap. Pamir, in Tadjikistan. Length ok. 110 kms. An altitude up to 7495 m (Communism peak). Icehouses (the area of a glaciation 660 км2).
  • ACADEMIES the ART, scientific - creative centres in range of plastic arts (predominary official bodies), the maximum art schools (sometimes private{individual}). Have arisen in Italy in 16 century. In 1648 the Royal academy of painting and a sculpture in Paris on which sample in 17-18 centuries it is built AH in Vienna, is based Berlin, the London, etc. In 1757 the Academy of arts in Russia (St.-Petersburg is based; existed{breathed} up to 1918; in 1947 it is recreated in Moscow as the Academy of arts of the USSR, with 1992 Russian academy of arts).
  • The ACADEMICIAN, a rank of the member of academy. In academies with two-stage structure of membership a rank the academician - the maximum (in difference, napr., from the member - correspondent). In academies of some countries there is a rank the honorary academician.
  • The ACADEMIC GRAMMAR SCHOOL, first in Russia the society mean general educational educational institution (1726-1805) at AN in Saint Petersburg, prepared pupils for receipt{entry} in the Academic university. In 1758-65 academic grammar school headed M.V.Lomonosov.
  • BOAT RACING, kind{view} of rowing - races on the academic courts. Has engendered in 1-st floor. 19 century in the Great Britain. In International federation of rowing societies (FISA, it is based in 1892) 71 country (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1900, world championships with 1962, Europe with 1893.
  • ACADEMIC COURT, sporting fine-bored elongated light boats with borne tholes for sides for it is cheerful also mobile banks - seats; racing - type a skiff, educational - type a clinker. Distinguish twin academic court (sportsmen row two paddles) - singletons, the two, the four; raspashnye (each rows one paddle) - the two, the four, an eight. Adapted to boat racing on a direct route on a still water.
  • The ACADEMIC UNIVERSITY, first in Russia society higher educational establishment (1726-66) at AN in Saint Petersburg. In 1758-65 Academic university headed M.V.Lomonosov.
  • "ACADEMY" ("Academia"), publishing house in the USSR in 1922-38, Leningrad - Moscow. Issued a series of books " Treasures of the world literature ", " Classics of the world literature ", etc. Has drained with Goslitizdatom.
  • The ACADEMY of the ARCHITECTURE of the USSR, the maximum scientific institute in range of the architecture, is based in 1934 in Moscow. In 1956 it is converted to academy of construction and the architecture of the USSR (it is abolished in 1964).
  • ACADEMY DEL CHIMENTO (Accademia del Cimento), academy of experiment (Tuscany, 1657-67). The statement{confirmation} of an experimental direction is connected to her in natural sciences.
  • The ACADEMY of NATURAL SCIENCES of the Russian Federation, is based in 1990 in Moscow as the Russian academy of natural sciences (with 1991 - the modern title). In 19916 sections: physics; chemistry; sciences about the Earth; mathematics, computer science, cybernetics; biology and medicine; " the Russian encyclopedia ".
  • ACADEMY of COMMUNIST EDUCATION by him{it}. N.K.Krupskoj (AKV), in 1923-35 maximum pedagogical educational institution in the USSR, is based in 1919 in Moscow. Prepared teachers of mean educational institutions, executives of national education. In 1934 it is transferbed{translated} to Leningrad. In 1935 it is converted to Communist pedagogical institute by him{it}. N.K.Krupskoj. In 1942 it is joint with Pedagogical institute him{it}. A.I.Gertsena.
  • ACADEMY of MEDICAL SCIENCES of the USSR (AMN the USSR), the maximum medical scientific institute of the USSR in 1944-91 (Moscow); in 1992 it is converted to the Russian academy of medical sciences.
  • The ACADEMY OF NATIONAL ECONOMY of USSR (ANH), is based in 1978 in Moscow (with 1992 at government of the Russian Federation). Preparation of the managing managerial personnel. At ANH (1993) Higher school of international business, etc. educational subdividings act.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of AZERBAIJAN, is based in 1945 in Baku on the basis Azerbaijan branch AN of the USSR. In 19916 branches, 29 scientific institutes. Centres of science in Nakhichevan and Gandzha.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of ARMENIA, is based in 1943 in Yerevan on the basis Armenian branch AN of the USSR. In 19916 branches, 32 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of BELARUS, is based in 1929 in Minsk. In 19915 branches, 32 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of GEORGIA, is based in 1941 in Tbilisi on the basis Georgian branch AN of the USSR. In 19919 branches, 49 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of KAZAKHSTAN, is based in 1946 in Alma-Ata on the basis Kazakh branch AN of the USSR. In 19916 branches (including 1 regional), 31 scientific institute.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of KIRGHIZIA, is based basically in 1954 in Frunze on the basis Kirghiz branch AN of the USSR. In 19913 branches, 18 scientific institutes.
  • ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of LATVIA, see. The Latvian academy of sciences.
  • ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of LITHUANIA, see. The Lithuanian academy of sciences.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of MOLDOVA, is based in 1961 in Kishinev on the basis Moldavian branch AN of the USSR. In 19913 branches, 16 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of the USSR (AN the USSR), the maximum scientific institute of the USSR, is based in 1724 (up to 1917 Peterburskaja an academy of sciences, since May 1917 Russian AN, with 27.7.1925 AN the USSR, with 1934 in Moscow). 323 academicians, 586 members - correspondents, 138 foreign members (1989.18 branch branches, 3 regional branches: Siberian, Far East and Ural; centres of science; in total over 295 scientific institutes, over 200 scientific advices{councils}. A research fleet. Prepared scientific staff{frames} (6,5 thousand post-graduate students). Through publishing house " Science " published the scientific literature. Adjudged medals and premiums for proceedings. At AN there were science foundations. Presidents: A.P.Karpinsky (1917 - 36), V.L.Komarov (up to 1945), S.I.Vavilov (up to 1951), A.N.Nesmeyanov (up to 1961), M.V.Keldysh (up to 1975), A.P.Aleksandrov (up to 1986), G.I.Marchuk (1989-91). In 1991 it is converted to the Russian academy of sciences.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of TADJIKISTAN, is based in 1951 in Dushanbe on the basis Tadjik branch AN of the USSR. In 19913 branches, 19 scientific institutes.
  • ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TURKMENII, is based in 1951 in Ashkhabad on the basis Turkmen branch AN of the USSR. In 19913 branches, 15 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of UZBEKISTAN, is based in 1943 in Tashkent on the basis Uzbek branch AN of the USSR. In 19917 branches, the Karakalpak branch, over 30 scientific institutes, 6 designer organizations, etc.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of UKRAINE, is based in 1918 in Kiev. In 199113 branches, 6 regional centres of science, over 80 scientific institutes; the engineering centres, etc.
  • The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES of ESTONIA, is based in 1946 in Thalline (up to 1989 title AN Estonian SSR). In 19914 branches, 19 scientific institutes.
  • The ACADEMY of PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES of the USSR (NPA of the USSR), the maximum pedagogical scientific institute of the USSR, is based in 1943 in Moscow (up to 1966 NPA of RSFSR). In 1992 on its{her} base the Russian Academy of education is built.
  • ACADEMY PLATONOVSKAJA, ancient greek philosophical school, is based Platonom ok. 387 up to n. e. In Athenes; existed{breathed} till 1 century up to n. e. Tradition Platonovskoj of academy was reinstated at the Athenian school of mean platonizma (it is grey. 1 - 2 centuries) and neoplatonizma (4 - it is grey. 6 centuries). In Renaissance Platonovskaja the academy is established in Florence (1459 - 1521) led by M.Fichino.
  • ACADEMY RUSSIAN (the Russian academy), a centre of science on study of Russian and literature in Saint Petersburg (1783 - 1841). In 1841 it is transformed{reformed} to 2 Branch AN, then in Branch of Russian and literature. Members of the Russian academy were D.I.Fonvizin, G.R.Derzhavin, P.A.Vjazemsky, V.A.Zhukovsky, I.A.Krylov, A.S.Pushkin, etc. The Russian academy has manufactured{issued} the Explanatory dictionary of Russian (1789 - 1794, 2 issuing, 1806 - 22).
  • ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES him{it}. V.I.Lenina All-Union (VASHNIL), the maximum agricultural scientific institute of the USSR in 1929-92 (Moscow). It is converted to the Russian academy of agricultural sciences.
  • The ACADEMY of TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES of the Russian Federation, is based in 1990. In structure of academy Uralo-Siberian, Pacific, etc. branches, the republican centres, associations, concerns.



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