Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ADAPTATION social, process of interaction of the personality or social group with medium social; actuates mastering norms{standards} and values of medium in process sotsializatsii, and also change, transformation{conversion} of medium according to new conditions and the purposes of activity.
  • The ADAPTER (from an armour. adapto - prisposobljaju), in technique - 1) a coupling arrangement, an adapter connector. 2) the Additive cartridge to the camera, permitting to apply not foreseen his{its} design light-sensitive mediums of other formats and phylums. 3) the Device for installation on the camera of accessory lenses with the nonstandard rim. 4) the Same, that a sound pickup.
  • ADAPTIVE SYSTEM, the same, that samoprisposablivajushchajasja system.
  • The ADAPTED TEXT, the alleviated text literary and art, etc. products{creations}, fitted for insufficiently prepared readers or children; it is applied more often at study of foreign languages.
  • The ADAT (the arab. - custom), for some Muslim peoples the customary law.
  • ADASHEV Alexey Fedorovich (? - 1561), okolnichy, the member Selected rads. Brother D.F.Adasheva. With kon. 40th supervised over eastern Russian policy, with it is grey. 50th - all diplomacy. The initiator of reforms is grey. 16 century, ukrepljavshih a central authority. Headed drawing up of digit books and annals. With 1560 in an opal.
  • ADASHEV Daniel Fedorovich (? - ok. 1563), okolnichy. Brother A.F.Adasheva. The participant of the Kazan marchings and Livonskoj wars. In 1559 first voevoda in the Crimean marching. With 1560 in an opal. It is executed.
  • ADASHEVSKY Konstantin Ignatjevich (1897-1987), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1985). With 1925 at the Leningrad theatre of a drama him{it}. Pushkin. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ADVAJTA-VEDANTA (vedanta nedvojstvennosti), indian religious - philosophical doctrine, one of the main{basic} versions vedanty, developed SHankaroj (8-9 centuries); occurrence{appearance} of this doctrine contacts a name of wise man Gaudapady (5 century). Asserts{approves} nerazdvoennost the main{basic} spiritual beginning (brahmana-atmana), his{its} unique reality and illusiveness of the empirical world (majja).
  • ADVECTION (from an armour. advectio - delivery), horizontal conveyance of air from one areas of the Earth in other. Compare. A convection.
  • ADVENTITIOUS PLANTS, the same, that prishlye plants.
  • ADVENTISTS (from an armour. adventus - coming), Protestant church (primarily in the USA, has arisen in 30th of 19 century). Preach affinity{proximity} of " second coming of the Christ " and approach to the Earth " a thousand-year kingdom bozhija ". Adventists of the seventh day (in Russia since 1880th) are most numerous.
  • ADVERBIALIZATSIJA (from an armour. adverbium - an adverb), transition in adverbs of words (or their separate word forms) other parts of speech. Napr., adverbializatsija nouns: Russian "at home", in "evening", german abends.
  • The ATTORNEY (an armour. advocatus, from advoco - I invite), a face, which trade - rendering of legal assistance to citizens and organizations, including protection of their interests in court. One of the most ancient trades. See. Protection judicial.
  • ADVOCACY, voluntary homing organization of attorneys. As a rule, in all countries there are associations (associations, boards) advocacies (in regional, regional or other scale) for protection of rights of attorneys. In Russia the advocacy has been established by the judiciary reform 1864.
  • ADHESION (from an armour. adhaesio - a sticking), coupling of surfaces of heterogeneous ph. Due to an adhesion coagglutination, a weldment, etc., and also education of top skins (napr are possible{probable} deposition of the galvanic and paint coatings., oxide).
  • ADDA (Adda), the river in a north of Italy, the left-handed in-leak{influx} r. On. 313 kms. The area of basin of 8 thousand км2. Headstreams in the Alpes, weeps through an eskar. Komo, in a lower reaches - on plain Padanskoj. Average discharge of water 250 from a river plant. The channel up to Milan departs. During the Italian marching Russian and Austrian troops under a command of general - field marshal A.V.Suvorova 15-174.1799 on Adde have divided the French army of general Z.Moro.
  • ADDAMS (Addams) Jane (1860-1935), one of organizers of motion for social rights of citizens the USA. The founder (1889) and the director (up to 1935) "Hull-House" in Chicago - first in the USA a charitable foundation on moving deprived immigrants in the comfortable home units. The vice-president of the American association for the elective franchise of women (1911-14). The president of International women league for the world and freedom (1919-29). The Nobel Prize of the world (1931, together with N.M.Butler).
  • ADDIS-ABEBA, capital (with 1889) Ethiopia, an administrative centre of like administrative terrain. 2,4 thousand in m. 1,7 million inhabitants (1989) is located at the altitude. An international airport. Metal-working, alimentary, mild, wood-working, a cement industry. University. Headquarter of the Economic commission of the United Nations for Africa and Organizations of African unity (OAE). It is based in 1887. Palace Menelika II (1894), the Dwelling of Africa (1963, the stained glass - A.Tekle).
  • ADDISON (Addison) Joseph (1672-1719), the English writer. "Spectator" (1711-14) participated in the issuing of educational log-books "Talker" (1709-11); has put in pawn a fundamentals nravoopisatelnogo an essay and the realistic novel of 18 century.
  • ADDISON Thomas (1793-1860), the English doctor. Has described bronze disease (Addisonovu disease) and a pernicious anaemia.
  • ADDISONOVA DISEASE, the same, that bronze disease.
  • ADDITIVITY (from an armour. additivus - added{gained}), the property of values consisting in a volume, that the value of value conforming to the whole object, is equal to the sum of values of the values conforming to his{its} parts by what a mode{an image} the object has been battered. Napr., additivity of volume means, that the volume of the whole body is peer to the sum of volumes of his{its} parts.
  • ADEQUATE (from an armour. adaequatus - equal, equal), conforming, valid, precise; in theory knowledges - valid reproduction in intellection of communications{connections} and attitudes{relations} of the objective world.
  • ADELAIDE (Adelaide), city and a port in Australia, in a hall. Saint Vincent, an administrative centre pieces. JUzh. Australia. 1,1 million inhabitants (1991, with suburbs). A machine industry, oil refining, chemical, flavoring, a light industry. University. An observatory. It is based in 1836.
  • ADELES GROUND (Terre Adelie), a part of terrain Vost. Antarctica, between 136 and 142 °v. d. An ice depth up to 2000 m. It is open{discovered} in Z.Djumon-Djurvilja's 1840 French expedition, it is called by name his{its} wives.
  • ADELUNG Feodor Pavlovich (1768-1843), the Russian historian, the bibliographer, corresponding member (1809), the honorary member (1838) Petersburg AN. The first Russian probe on book statistics, the bibliography of notes of aliens about Russia, etc.
  • ADELGEJM, brothers: Robert Lvovich (1860-1934) and Raphael Lvovich (1861-1938) Russian actors, national actors of Russia (1931). Acting in classical repertoir in many cities, promoted raising of scenic crop of theatres of a rim.
  • ADELFY Onifissky (Egyptian) (mind{wit}. Between 337-361), diocesan, the confesser. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 21 (on June, 3), in Roman catholic on September, 21.
  • ADEN, economic capital of Yemen, administrative centre muhafazy Aden. 318 thousand inhabitants (1984). A transit port on the Arabian m. An international airport. Oil refining, textile, a food-processing industry. A ship repair. University. In an antiquity it is known under the title of Adant (Asana). In 1839 - 1967 English military base.
  • ADEN, colonial possession of the Great Britain in November, 1839-1967.30 1967 in terrain of Aden the independent state is built. See. Yemen.
  • ADENAUER (Adenauer) Konrad (1876-1967), the federal chancellor of Germany in 1949-63. In 1917-33 ober-burgomaster of Cologne, in 1920-32 chairman of a Prussian Council of state. One of osnovatelej (1946) and with 1950 chairman of the Christian Democrat union. Has introduced the considerable investment in building of the Fundamental law (constitution) and the state Germany. In 1951-55 Minister for Foreign Affairs. Has achieved method of Germany in the West-European Soyuz and the NATO. In 1955 government Adenauera has placed{installed} diplomatic relations with the USSR.
  • ADEN LE RUA (Adenet le Roy) (ok. 1240 - ok. 1300), the French poet. Last from great truverov, the writer of poetic novels " Berta Bolshenogaja ", etc.
  • ADENINE, purine base. It is contained in all living organisms in structure of nucleic acids (one of 4 "characters" of a genetic code), adenosin phosphates, some coenzymes, etc. biologically important substances.
  • ADENOVIRAL DISEASES, acute contagions of the person and animal, called by adenoviruses. Weep in the form of acute respiratory diseases or with a primary defeat of mucous membrane of eyes, an intestines.
  • ADENOVIRUSES (from grech. aden - gland and viruses), a set of the DNK-KEEPING viruses triggering in the person and animal adenoviral diseases.
  • ADENOZINMONOFOSFAT CYCLICAL (TSAMF), a nucleotide, one of the major biochemical adjusters. Participates in molecular mechanisms of action of many hormones, drives of nervous exaltation, a vision, a muscle contraction, etc.
  • ADENOZINTRIFOSFAT (ATF), a nucleotide; will consist of a purine base of an adenine, a monosaccharide of a ribose and 3 residues of a phosphoric acid. In all living organisms executes{designs} a role of the generalpurpose accumulator and a carrier of power. Under action of special ferments tip phosphate groups are eliminated with energy release which goes on a muscle contraction, synthetic, etc. processes of vital activity. Drugs adenozintrifosfata apply at vasospasms, a muscle dystrophia.
  • ADENOIDS (from grech. aden - gland and eidos - a kind{view}), growth of a pharyngeal almond; more often for children 4-8 flying; hinder nose respiration, quite often depress ear.
  • ADENOCARCINOMA (from grech. aden - gland and karkinoma - a tumour), a malignant tumour from an epithelium of ferruterous organs (a mammary gland, a mucous membrane of a stomach, etc.).
  • ADENOMA (from grech. aden - gland and... An ohm), a benign tumour milk, peltate, etc. glands, and also glands of mucous membrane, napr., a stomach; saves a structure of an initial{a starting} glandular epithelium.
  • ADENOMA of the PROSTATE GLAND, disease of men of advanced age; increase of the gland, the hindered urination, speeded up desires to a urination; complication - an acute ischuria.
  • ADENOS BAY of the Arabian m., between p-ovami Arabian and Somalia. Depth up to 4525 m. Intercommunicates Skull crackers - el-Mandebskim of prol. With Red m. A main port - Aden.
  • ADENTIA (from and - a negative prefix and an armour. dens, a stem. Item dentis - a tooth), absence of all or many tooths owing to violation{disturbance} of formation of dental germs in embrionalnom the season{term}.
  • The ADHERENT (from an armour. adeptus, characters. - reached{achieved}), 1) dedicated in secrets of any doctrine, sect. 2) the Zealous adherent of any doctrine, idea.
  • ADZHA EKAPAD (sanskr. One-legged rebound landing), vedijskoe the godhood, the intermediary between heaven and earth.
  • ADZHAMETSKY RESERVATION, in the west Georgia. It is based in 1935. The area 4849 ga. Woods from relict species: an oak imeretinskogo, oak Gartvisa, a zelkova grabolistnoj, etc.
  • ADZHANI (Adjani) Izabel (r. 1955), the French film actress, the producer. In 17 flying has received the premium of criticism as an actress of the Parisian theatre " Komedi Fransez ". At kino the History debuted in F.Trjuffo's film " Adeles Г. " (1975). A.Teshine, V.Gertsoga, K.Saury, P.Shero ("Queen Margo") was taken out in films. Premium "Sezar" for the main part in film " Kamilla Klodel " (1988).
  • ADZHANI (Adjani) Izabel (r. 1955), the French film actress, the producer. In 17 flying has received the premium of criticism as an actress of the Parisian theatre " Komedi Fransez ". At kino the History debuted in F.Trjuffo's film " Adeles Г. " (1975). A.Teshine, V.Gertsoga, K.Saury, P.Shero ("Queen Margo") was taken out in films. Premium "Sezar" for the main part in film " Kamilla Klodel " (1988).
  • ADZHARIJA (Autonomous republic Adzharskaja), in Georgia, in a southwest part of Transcaucasia. 3,0 thousand км2. The population of 382 thousand person (1991), urban 48 %; Georgians (325 thousand person, 1991), Russian, Armenians. 5 areas, 2 cities, 7 urban settlements (1991). Capital - Batumi. It is washed against by Black m. The large part is occupied in piedmonts and M.Kavkaza's mountains. A climate the wet subtropical. Mean temperatures of January on a shore 4-6 °C, in mountains from 2 up to-2 °C, July accordingly 20-23 and 16-20 °C. A rainfall of 1000-2800 mm annually. River CHoroh. St. 50 % of terrain it is coated{obtected} with broad-leaved and elovo-firry woods; in a bayshore strip subtropical vegetation. Kintrishsky reservation. In 6-4 centuries up to n. e. Adzharija - part Kolhidskogo of a kingdom, then Iberia. Since 4 century n. e. In Lazike, since 10 century in consolidated Georgia. In 11 century has undergone to irruptions seldzhukov, in 13 century - the mongolo-tartar. Since 17 century under an authority of Turkey. In 1878 it is adjoined to Russia (the Batumi region). In 1918-20 it is occupied turkish, then the English troops. 16.7.1921 it is built Adzharskaja ASSR in structure Georgian SSR. Since December 1990 Autonomous republic Adzharskaja. Main industries: oil refining, machine-building (electrotechnical items, the equipment for a food-processing industry, shipbuilding), flavoring (tea, tobacco, vinodelcheskaja, canning, etc.), mild, wood-working. Adzharistskalskaja a river plant. The main{basic} agricultural crops: tea, citrous, tobacco, tung; vineyards; crops of corn. Cultivate a large horned stock, ovets, she-goats. An oil pipeline from Baku. Bayshore health resorts: Batumi, Kobuleti, TSihisdziri, cape Verde, Mahindzhauri, Hordes.
  • ADZHARIANS, see in an item. Georgians.
  • ADZHATASHATRU (5 century up to n. e.), old indian tsar, the contemporary of the Buddha.
  • ADZHEMI ibn Abu Bekr (1120th - nach. 13 century), the Azerbaijan architect. The representative of the Nakhichevan architectonic school. Monumental structures with refined partitionings forms and a decor (mausoleum JUsufa ibn Kusejira, 1162, and Momine-hatun in Nakhichevan).
  • ADZHEMJAN Vartan Mkrtichevich (1905-77), the Armenian producer, the national actor of the USSR (1965), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1975). With 1928 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Mravjana (Leninakan), with 1939 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana (Yerevan, with 1953 main producer). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ADZHIVIKA, the old indian religious - philosophical flow which was putting forward idea of a predeterminancy of all phenomena, a dominating role of destiny, fate. Negated authority Ved.
  • ADZHIMUSHKAJ, underground stone pits (nowadays in feature Kerch), in which during Great Domestic war (in May - October 1942) the surrounded Soviet troops (over 10 thousand person) after a troop withdrawal of the Crimean front with Kerchenskogo p-ova were heroically defended.
  • ADZHINA-TEPE, a monument of art Toharistana, residues of Buddhist monasteries of 7-8 centuries bliz Kurgan Tyube in Tadjikistan. Sanctuaries{holy places}, kelji, a mortar box. A clay sculpture (including a 12-meter figure superjacent Buddhas), wall paintings.
  • ADZHIE DZHINDI (r. 1908), the kurdish writer (Armenia). The historico-revolutionary novel "To the aid of" (1967), the novel " Also there has come spring " (1978), stories, activities on the kurdish literature and folklore.
  • ADZHMAN, emirat (principality) in structure of Consolidated Arab Emirates. The area of 251 kms 2. The population of 76 thousand person (1991). Main city - Adzhman.
  • ADZHMER (Adzhmir), city in northwest of India, pieces. Rajasthan. 402 thousand inhabitants (1989). A textile industry, a machine industry. The religious centre. It is based in 12 century. An architectonic monument of 12-16 centuries.
  • ADZELO (Azeglio) Massimo Taparelli d ' (1798-1866), the italian writer, one of leaders of liberal wing Risordzhimento. Offered to aggregate Italy "from above", under supremacy Savojskoj of a dynasty. In 1849-52 prime minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Sardinian kingdom. Historical novels " Ettore Fjeramoska " (1833), " Nikkolo de Lapi " (1841), "Memories" (1858).
  • ADZISIKI-TAKA, in Japanese mythology the godhood village transactionses and farm implements, the hero of national songs.
  • ADZVA, the river on north-east of the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} Runners. 334 kms, the area of basin of 10,6 thousand км2. Weeps on tundra Bolshezemelskoj.
  • ADI (Ady) Endre (1877-1919), the Hungarian poet, the revolutionary democrat. Collections of romantic verses: "Once again" (1903), " New verses " (1906), " On a chariot of the Ilji-prophet " (1908).
  • ADIABAT (from grech. adiabatos - not transfered), a line on a thermodynamic diagram of the condition, figuring adiabatic process.
  • ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION, the physical process used for magnetic refrigerating and achievement of low temperatures on the basis{fundamentals} magnetokaloricheskogo of effect.
  • ADIABATIC PROCESS (adiabatic process), thermodynamic process at which the system does not receive heat from the outside and does not return her{it}. Stop-actions (napr., an acoustic propagation) can be considered approximately as adiabatic process and for want of a heat-shield environment.
  • ADI-BUDDA (sanskr. The initial Buddha), in the Buddhism of a Mahajana olitsetvorenie all budd - the maximum entities which have reached{achieved} a clarification.
  • "ADIDAS" (Adidas), the industrial company of Germany specializing on extension{issue} of sporting shoe, clothes{clothing} and stock. It is based in 1948. Has 8 enterprises in Germany and over 25 affiliated firms in other countries, including in France, the Great Britain, the USA, Canada, the republic of South Africa. Sales volume 1,8 billion dol., figure occupied in 10,6 thousand person (kon. 1980th)
  • ADIGE (Adige), the river in a north of Italy. 410 kms, the area of basin of 14,7 thousand км2. The large part weeps in the Alpes, the m runs in Adriatic. Average discharge of water 266 m3 / with. It is navigable. A river plant. To Adige - Verona.
  • ADYNAMIA (grech. adynamia - impotence), drop of a motor performance, a sharp decline of forces at a hunger, the long-lived exhausting, etc. diseases.
  • HEXANE DIACID, HOOC (CH2) 4COOH, colourless crystals, tпл 153 °C. Raw material in manufacture of polyamides, plastifiers, greasing oils.
  • ADIRONDAK (Adirondack), a hills in system of Appalachian mountains (USA). Up to 1628 m. Conifers and mixed forests. On downslopes health resort Lejk-Plesid, the centre of winter Olympic Games (1932, 1980).
  • ADITI, in vedijskoj mythologies goddess - mother, a goddess - intercessor; its{her} sons - aditji.
  • ADITJA, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies one of names of the godhood of the Sun, son Aditi; acts also under name Surja.
  • ADLER, area Adlersky of Sochi.
  • ADLER (Adler) Alfred (1870-1937), the Austrian doctor - psychiatrist and the psychologist. Pupil Z.Freud, the founder of personal psychology. As a main source of motivation considered{counted} tendency to self-affirmation as indemnification{compensation} of feeling of the inferiority defining specific to the person originating in the early childhood " zoetic style ". Has exerted influence on neofrejdizm.
  • ADLER Victor (1852-1918), one of organizers and leaders of the Austrian Social-democratic party. The writer of the design of the first program of a consignment; participat in program design of a cultural - national autonomy. In 1918 Minister for Foreign Affairs.
  • ADLER Guido (1855-1941), the Austrian historian of music. One of founders of the modern european musicology. Transactionses on a methodology of a history of music, the theory of the musical styles, an aesthetics.
  • ADLER Fridrih (1879-1960), one of leaders of the Austrian Social-democratic party and ideologists avstromarksizma. Son V.Adlera. In 1911-16 secretary of the Austrian Social-democratic party, the centrist. In 1916 has killed minister - president K.Shtjurgka for failure{refusal} to reduce rights rejhsrata, slushed in 1914. Was among organizers and leaders 21/2-го (1921-23) and the Socialist worker (1923-1940) internatsionalov.
  • ADLERBERG Vladimir Fedorovich (1791-1884), the Russian statesman, the general from infanterii (1843), columns (1847). In 1842-57 steered mail department, at a nem in Russia postage stamps are entered. In 1852-70 minister for an imperial yard and destinies.
  • MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY, the legal responsibility for administrative misconduct. See also Penalty administrative.
  • The ADMINISTRATIVE REFERENCE, 1) in imperial Russia removal without court in the distant{remote} provinces under the order of tsar, some governors (since 1850th), organs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (since 1860th). 2) the administrative reference is not provided by the Soviet legislation, however was applied in an offense against the law.
  • The ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION, activity of state bodies and their officials under the sanction of personal administrative businesses and application of the conforming sanctions administratively.
  • The ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE, the special order of the sanction of administrative - justiciable disputes at which judicial or other special state organs consider petitions to actions of state bodies and bear the conforming solutions. In the Russian Federation there is no isolated system of administrative justice.
  • ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, the branch of law regulating public attitudes{relations} in an orb of administration of government. Norms{standards} of administrative law determine the order of organization and activity of an administrative personnel, the right and the responsibility of officials and citizens, the order of consideration of administrative chaffers, imposing{superpositions} of administrative punishments, etc.
  • ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL REFORM to the USSR 1923-29, transformation{conversion} of administrative territorial division of former Russian empire by a principle of an economic zoning. Provinces, districts and volosts are abolished, ranges (edge{boundarouse}), a district and areas are built. To 1930 in RSFSR was 13 edges{boundarice} and ranges (instead of 72 provinces in 1922): Far East, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhnevolzhsky, Boreal, North Caucasian, Siberian, Srednevolzhsky edges{boundarice}, Western, Ivanovo industrial, Leningrad, Moscow, Ural, Central Black Earth ranges. In other republics regional division originally was not introduced{uptaken}. In 1930 districts are liquidated. With 1932 in accordance with economic development the subdivision of edges{boundarice} and ranges was conducted.
  • ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL DIVISION, system of territorial organization of the state on the basis of which will be derivated and operate public authorities and steering. Provides division of the state territory into ranges, areas, distrikty, provinces, departments, etc. In the Russian Federation administrative and territorial units - edges{boundarice}, ranges and areas.
  • ADMINISTRATIVE MISCONDUCT (offence), illegal, actus reus or the inactivity encroaching on the public order, rights and freedom of citizens, on the content order of the steering, involving management responsibility. In Russia from 1989 affairs about administrative misconducts are considered by judges on administrative and to final process at regional (urban) people's courts.
  • ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS, activity of state organs under the sanction of concrete administrative businesses in an orb of administration of government. Under norms{standards} of administrative process are considered, napr., petitions and applications of citizens, are imposed summary punishments.
  • ADMINISTRATION (from an armour. administratio - steering), 1) set{combination} of the state organs executing control functions. 2) Officials of steering, a supervisory personnel of establishment, the enterprise.
  • MANAGEMENT BY ORDERS AND DECREES (from an armour. administro - I manage, I am in charge), a bureaucratic method of steering by means of a command.
  • ADMIRAL, the butterfly of a set nimfalid. Side panels in scope{span} 5-6 see. Colour motley. On wood skirts, in parks and gardens of Eurasia. Caterpillars on leaves of a nettle, a bristlethistle; to cultivated plants do not harm. Number is reduced.
  • ADMIRAL (niderl. admiraal, from the arab. amir al bahr - the lord on the pest), military rank (grade) in navies. In Russia admiral's a peavine are established{installed} by Peter I in kon. 17 - nach. 18 centuries. With 1940 there are ranks: rear admiral, vice-admiral, admiral, the fleet admiral (there correspond{meet} to ranks the general - major, the general - lieutenant, the general - colonel, the general) who were saved and in the Russian Federation; with 1955 was a rank of the fleet admiral of Soviet Union (corresponded{conformed} to a rank of Marshal of Soviet Union).
  • The ADMIRALTY SETTLEMENTS, kind{view} of military settlements in Russia in kon. 18 century - 1861 (in area of Nikolaev and Kherson). Settlers maintained the marine enterprises.
  • The ADMIRALTY ORDER, central official body in Russia in 1700-12, vedavshee construction, arms and a supply of naval forces.
  • ADMIRALTIES of the ISLAND (Admiralty Islands), in Quiet ok., in Bismarck archipelago. 2072 км2. The population of 32,8 thousand person (1990). An altitude up to 719 m. Main city - Lorengau.
  • ADMIRALTY - BOARD, central state control of a VTR in Russia in 1718 - 1827. Knew shipyards, linen and roperies, construction of havens and ports, preparation, arms and a supply of naval forces.
  • ADMIRALTY, 1) the centre of military naval architecture; terrain on oceanside or the rivers where shipyards are located, workshops, warehouses for construction and repair of ship of wars. In Russia there were admiralties in St.-Petersburg, Voronezh, Sevastopol, Arkhangelsk, etc. cities. 2) the Building of Main Admiralty in St.-Petersburg in which from 19 century central establishments of the Marine ministry were placed. It is incorporated in 1704; it was rearranged{reconstructed} in kon. 20-30-Х of 18 century architect I.K.Korobovym, about 1806 A.D.Zaharovym (it is concluded in 1823), built the monumental building in stringent forms of Russian empire style - the centre of an architectural composition of city. A sculpture of fronts and interiors of Admiralty of activity of F.F.Schedrin, I.I.Terebeneva, etc. 3) In the Great Britain with kon. 17 century the supreme body of steering and a command naval forces.
  • ADMIRALTY - ADVICE, control marine department in Russia in 1827-1917. Originally consultative establishment at marine minister, about 1836 maximum establishment on a management unit of marine department. About 1907 maximum establishment of a VTR led by marine minister.
  • ADMIRALTI (Admiralty), a backbone in a northwest part of Victoria land (Vost. Antarctica). Up to 4163 m. It is open{discovered} in 1841 English expedition Dzh. Rossa.
  • ADMONI Vladimir Grigorjevich (an ice-film. A name Admoni-red Voldemar - Volf Gojshevich) (1909-93), the Russian poet, a translator, the literary critic, the linguist. The main{basic} orb of interests - a history german and the Scandinavian literatures, the theory and a history of german tongue. Transferred{translated} G.Ibsena, B.Bjernsona, G.Keller, etc. Books: " Genrik Ibsen " (1956), "Thomas Mann" (1960), " Poetics and a real. From supervision{observations} above the foreign literature of XX century " (1975).
  • ADNEXITIS (from an armour. adnexa - appendages) (salpingo-oophoritis), an inflammation of appendages of a uterus (parent pipes and ovaries), called stafilo-, strepto-or gonokokkami, a coliform bacillus, etc. microbes. The main{basic} symptoms - pains in the bottom of a belly.
  • ADOBA (isp. adobe), the same, that a cob.
  • ADOLY Tarsjanin, Jerusalem (4 century), the Christian man of faith, Saint. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on Saturday cheese.
  • ADOLIJA (4 century), Christian podvizhnitsa. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on Saturday cheese.
  • ADOMAJTIS (Adomaitis) Regimantas (r. 1937), the Lithuanian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1985). On the scene with 1962. With 1967 at the Lithuanian state theatre dramas (Vilnius). The actor of the open, strong temperament embodying psychologic the composite characters. Roles: Kaligula ("Kaligula" A.Kamju, 1983), Moliere ("Moliere" of M.A.Bulgakov, 1984), etc. It was taken out in films: " This sweet word - freedom ", "Julia Vrevskaja", "Centaurs", " Excuse, please ", etc.
  • ADONAI (dr .-евр.), in a judaism notation of the god of Jahveh; equivalently Russian "God".
  • ADONIS, the god of fertility in drevnefinikijskoj mythologies. Corresponds{meets} babylonian Tammuzu. Since 5 century up to n. e. The cult of the Adonis was distributed in Greece, later in Rome.
  • ADONIS, planetoid a diameter ok. 1 kms, E.Delportom (Belgium, 1936) is open{discovered}; 2,76 years revert around of the Sun on hardly elongated elliptical orbit with the season{term}. The distance of the Adonis from the Sun variates from 0,44 up to 3,50 and. e. Can approach with the Earth on distance up to 2 million in km.
  • ADONIS, stem one or perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. St. 20 kinds{views}, in a moderate belt of Eurasia and in the Sowing. To Africa; will grow on the dry open places. The adonis vernal (spring adonis) contains cordial glycosides and is used in medicine. Many kinds{views} are toxicant.
  • ADONTS Nikolay Georgievich (1871-1942), the Armenian historian. With 1920 abroad; with 1930 professor of the Bruxelles university. Transactionses on a history of Armenia, the armjano-byzantian attitudes{relations}.
  • ADORATSKY Vladimir Viktorovich (1878-1945), the Russian political figure, the historian, academician AN the USSR (1932). The participant of Revolution 1905-07 (Kazan). With 1920 one of chiefs of Central archive steering. In 1931-39 director IMEL. Transactionses on a history of marxism.
  • ADORNO (Adorno) (Vizengrund-Adorno) Teodor (1903-69), the german philosopher, the sociologist, the musicologist. The representative of the Frankfurt school. Has acted with criticism of crop and a society (" Dialectic of Enlightenment ", 1948, together with M.Horkhajmerom) and ideas of " negative dialectic ". Adorno and his{its} employees have conducted in nach. 1940th in the USA probe of " the authoritative personality " as social - psychologic premise of fascism. In the concept of " new music " as legal fixing of " not clarified travail " will orient by creativity of composers of new austrian school.
  • ADRAR-IFORAS (Adrar de Iforas) (Iforas), the arid tableland cut by valleys uedov, in the south of Sahara, in Republic Mali. An altitude up to 890 m.
  • ADRASTEJA, the guide of the Jove, is open{discovered} by D.Dzhuittom and Dzh. Danielsonom (the USA, 1979). Distance from the Jove ok. 130 thousand in km, a diameter ok. 40 kms.
  • ADRASTEJA, in the Grecian mythology the goddess of revenge, was identified with Nemesidoj. Also a name of the nymph rearing Zevsa.
  • ADRENALIN, hormone of a medulla of suprarenal glands animal and the person. A mediator of nervous system holodnokrovnyh. Acting{going} in blood, increases oxygen consumption and arterial pressure, a sugar content in blood, boosts a metabolism, etc. At emotional experiences, reinforced muscle activity the content of an adrenalin in blood is increased.
  • CORTICOTROPIN (AKTG, corticotropin), a hormone animal and the person, produced by a hypophysis. Initiates the growth a bark of suprarenal glands and education in her of hormones - corticosteroids. At mobilization of phylactic powers of an organism synthesis of a corticotropin strengthens. On a chemical nature - a peptid. It is applied in medicine at his{its} defect in an organism and many diseases.
  • ADRENOLYTIC MEANS, the medicinal adrenceptor blocking agents relaxing or preventing{precluding} effects of an adrenalin, Noradrenalinum, etc. adrenomimeticheskih a means at the expense of violation{disturbance} of interaction of a mediator with the conforming receptors.
  • ADRENOMIMETICHESKIE the MEANS, the medicinal substances triggering effects, similar to effects of Noradrenalinum, an adrenalin, and an irritation of sympathetic nervous system.
  • The ADDRESS (frants. adresse), 1) a site of establishment, the enterprise or a residence of a face. 2) the Written congratulation, primarily on the occasion of a anniversary. 3) the Address in computer facilities - a symbology of a field of memory{remembrance} (a cell or a zone of the memory device) in which data are placed; as the address often call an address part kamandy a computer.
  • The ADDRESSEE (a nem. Adressat), the recipient (a face, establishment) to which the item of mail is addressed.
  • DRES-CALENDAR, the official annual issuing (1765-1916) in Russian empire, a list of officials of all official bodies (central and aboriginal).
  • ADRIAN (Hadrianus) (76 - 138), Roman emperor with 117 from dynasty Antoninov. Rested on riders. At a nem the imperial authority and a centralization of official bodies have amplified. On borders{limits} of empire Adrian has created system of potent strengthening and defensive shafts.
  • ADRIAN (Andrey) (1627 or 1639-1700), the Russian patriarch with 1690. In 1678-86 archimandrite of Chudovo of a monastery. With 1686 metropolitan Kazan and Svijazhsky. Condemned introduction by Peter I bradobritija, smokings, cancellation of Russian national clothes{clothing}. The writer of church compositions.
  • ADRIAN (5 century), the outlet box, the presbyter, the writer of the exegectical composition " Introduction in heavenly hagiographas " in which opposes an allegorical method of explanation of the Bible.
  • ADRIAN I (Hadrianus) (mind{wit}. In 795), a dad Roman with 772. Pursued{adopted} a policy the close union with Charles Velikim, aspiring to expansion of papal possessions; struggled with heresy adoptsionizma. Has sent legacies on denounced ikonoborchestvo 7-th Ecumenical council in Nicea after which attitudes{relations} between Eastern and Western tserkvami have improved.
  • ADRIAN IV (Hadrianus) (in the world Nicolas Brejkspir, Nicholas Breakspear) (ok. 1100-1159), a dad Roman with 1154, a unique dad - Englishman. The outlet box, then abbe of an augustinian monastery sacred Rufa bliz Avignon, a cardinal bird (1150), the papal legacy in Scandinavia (1152) where he has reorganized church on principles of the gregorian reform. Combated republican motion in Rome, headed Arnoldom Breshianskim. In 1155 crowned emperor Fridriha I Barbarossa.
  • ADRIAN VI (Hadrianus) (in world Adrian Dedel, Adrian Dedel) (1459-1523), a dad Roman with 1522, the unique dad - Dutch. It come from a Utrecht; the professor of divinity, then rector Luvenskogo of university. With 1507 tutor of the future emperor Charles V. Diocesan Tortozy (1516), the inquisitor of Aragon and Navarry (1516), a cardinal bird (1517). During short pontifikata attempted, though and it is unsuccessful, to conduct reform Roman kurii, to limit distribution{propagation} Reformatsii, to reconcile and aggregate governors of Europe for protection against Turkey.
  • ADRIAN Volokolamsky (16 century), Saint, the founder (together with Zosimoj Volokolamskim) the Sisterly monastery in Volokolamsk district (was not saved). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 8 (21).
  • ADRIAN Corinthian (mind{wit}. 251), the Christian martyr damaged in Corinth in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
  • ADRIAN Manganejsky (mind{wit}. ok. 309), the Christian martyr damaged in Cesarea Palestinian in the persecution of emperor of the Maximin. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 3 (16), in Roman catholic on March, 5.
  • ADRIAN (in the world Amos) Monzensky (mind{wit}. 1610), Saint, the founder (1592) Blagoveshchensk monasteries on river Monza bliz Kostroma. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 5 (18).
  • ADRIAN Nikomidijsky (mind{wit}. Between 305-311), the Christian martyr, pretoronachalnik, damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana; the marital partner over. Natalia Nikomidijskoj. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 26 (on September, 8), in Roman catholic on September, 8.
  • ADRIAN Ondrusovsky (in the world boyar Andrey Zavalishin) (mind{wit}. 1549), prepodobnomuchenik, Saint Alexander Svirskogo's pupil. The founder of the Piously - Nikolaev monastery (desert Ondrusovskoj) on eastern coast of Ladoga lake. It is killed by robbers. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 26 (on September, 8) and on May, 17 (30).
  • ADRIAN Poshehonsky, Yaroslavl (mind{wit}. 1550), the founder (1540) and abbot Uspenskogo of a monastery on r. Votha bliz Poshehonja in Yaroslavl province. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 5 (18) and on November, 19 (on December, 2).
  • ADRIAN Solovetsky (mind{wit}. ok. 1632), pustynnik. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 9 (22) (cathedral Solovetskih sacred).
  • ADRIAN Uglichsky (mind{wit}. After 1504), the hieromonk, the pupil and kelejnik Saint Paisija Uglichskogo, Nikolsky Grehozaruchnyj basing together with nymas a monastery (1489) and becoming his{its} first abbot. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 26 (on September, 8).
  • ADRIAN E. Д., see Adrian E.D.
  • ADRIANOV Boris Mihajlovich (r. 1921), the pilot - verifier, the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR. Participat in breakages during Great Domestic war, it is awarded. In 1960 has placed{installed} an absolute world record of speed on a closed curve, noted by International air federation a medal de Lavo.
  • ADRIANOVA-PERETTS Barbarian Pavlovna (1888-1972), the Russian and Ukrainian literary critic, corresponding member AN of Ukraine (1926) and AN the USSR (1943). Probes of the old russian and Russian literature of 17-18 centuries, the Ukrainian literature.
  • ADRIANOPLE, the Grecian title of Edirne (Turkey).
  • ADRIANOPOLSKY the MIR, 14.9.1829, has finished russko-turkish war 1828-29. To Russia have departed a mouth of Danube with islands and a number{series} of strengths on eastern coast of Black m. Turkey has recognized apposition to Russia Georgia, Imeretii, Mingrelia, an autonomy of Moldova, Walachia, Serbia and Greece.
  • ADRIANOPOLSKOE BATTLE, 9.8.378, ok. Adrianople, rising vestgoty have routed Roman army of emperor Valenta.
  • ADRIATIC the PEST, a part of Mediterranean m., between Apenninskim and Balkan p-ovami. 144 thousand км2. Depth up to 1230 m. Fishery (a mackerel, etc.). A crude production and gas on a shelf. Ports: Venice, Trieste, Rijeka, Split, Durres.
  • ADRONNYJ ATOM, atomopodobnaja system, in which forces of an electrostatic attraction bind a positively charged atomic kernel with negative a hadron ("p"-, To - mesons, an antiproton, etc.). Adronnye atoms will be derivated at braking operation of a negative hadron in substance.
  • HADRONS, the fundamental particles participating in a strong coupling (baryons and mesons, including all resonances).
  • " INFERNAL MAIL ", the monthly satirical log-book, it was emitted in Petersburg in 1769 F.A.Eminym. There were 6 books. In the form of correspondence of two evil spirits ridiculed abuses of officers, landlords; exposed to persuits.
  • ADSORBING MEANS, in medicine - finely ground water-insoluble powders; are applied at diseases of a leather in the form of powderings and inside at poisonings and some intestinal diseases.
  • The ADSORPTIVE POMPE, vacuum pump, which action it is based on an adsorption phenomena of pumped out gas on surfaces of a zeolite or other gazopogloshchajushchego substances, including a getter.
  • ADSORPTION (from an armour. ad - on, at and sorbeo - I capture{absorb;imbibe;occlude}), an occlusion, steams{vapours} or liquids surface layer of a solid (adsorbent) or a liquid. Adsorbents routinely have major specific surface - up to several hundreds m2/. Physical adsorption - outcome of action of dispersion or electrostatic forces. If the adsorption is accompanied by a chemical change of captured{absorbed;imbibed;occluded} substance with adsorbent she calls as a chemosorption. In an industry an adsorption execute in special apparatuses - adsorbers; apply to drying gases, clearing of organic liquids and water, trapping valuable or a hazardous wastes of manufacture.
  • ADSTRAT (from an armour. ad - at, about{near} and stratum - a layer, a layer), 1) the tongue phenomena explained as outcome of influence of one tongue on other at the long-lived contact pieces of peoples, speaking in these tongues when there is no ethnic assimilation and dissolution of one tongue in the friend; compare substrate, superstrata. 2) the Version bilingvizma, the bound with influence of another's tongue on tongue of natives.
  • ADULARIA, 1) a mineral, a colourless diaphanous version ortoklaza; 2) in gemmologii - diaphanous ortoklaz with white or light-blue reflections, floods. A jeweller stone. It is characteristic for cable cores of the alpine type. An opalescing adularia - a moonstone.
  • ADUR (Adour), the river on a southwest of France. 335 kms, the area of basin of 22 thousand км2. The beginning in Pyrenees, runs in Biskajsky a hall. Average discharge of water 360 m3 / with. It is navigable in the lower flow. A river plant.
  • ADHJATMAN (sanskr. The maximum spirit), in vedijskoj philosophy world a shower.
  • ADJECTIVIZATION (from an armour. adjectivum - an adjective), transition of words of other parts of speech in adjectives. Napr., adjectives "sans serif", "tinted" were formed as a result of adjectivization of sacraments.
  • ADJOINTS (from an armour. adjunctus - affixed), 1) in a number{series} of countries Zap. Europe and in Russia up to 1917 face passing scientific training, the mate of the professor. 2) the Officer engaging in adjunkture.
  • ADJUNKTURA, one of ground forms of preparation of scientific and scientific and pedagogical staff{frames} in high schools and research establishments of Armed forces. It is analogous to a post graduate course in civil high schools. Ended adjunkturu and defending a thesis receive a scientific degree of the candidate of sciences.
  • AIDE-DE-CAMP (a nem. Adjutant), the officer consisting at the chief for different assignments{orders}.
  • ADJUTOR African (mind{wit}. Between 249-259), the Christian martyr. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on December, 18.
  • ADYVAR (Adivar) Halide Edip (1883-1964), the turkish writer. Novels (" the Igneous jacket ", 1922; " Ubejte the harlot ", 1926) about destiny of turkish woman - patriotki. The autobiographical novel " the Dwelling with a wistaria " (1963).
  • ADYGEJSKY TONGUE, falls into to the Caucasian (iberijsko-Caucasian) tongues (abhazsko-adygejskaja group). Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • ADIGHES (the self-title - adyge), people in the Russian Federation, primarily in Adyge (9,5 thousand person). Number in the Russian Federation 123 thousand person (1992). Live also in Turkey (5 thousand person) and Arabian countries. Tongue adygejsky. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ADYGEA (Republic Adygejskaja), in the Russian Federation. It is derivated 27.7.1992 as Circassian (Adygejskaja) avt. Region, with 24.8.1922 on 13.8.1928 - Adygejskaja (Circassian) avt. Region, up to 3.7.1991 Adygejskaja avt. Region in structure Krasnodar kr., since July, 3 1991 - Republic Adygejskaja in structure of the Russian Federation. 7,6 thousand км2. The population of 437 thousand person (1991), urban 53 %; Russian (294 thousand person, 1989), adighes (95 thousand person), etc. 2 cities, 5 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Maikop. Boreal part - plain, austral - piedmonts and B.Kavkaza's mountains. Mean temperatures of January ok.-2 °C, July ok. 22 °C. A rainfall ok. 700 mm annually. The rivers a bass. Kuban. Flavoring, wood and wood-working, machine-building, gas, etc. an industry. Crops grain, sunflower, sugar-beet, tobacco. A vegetable raising, a melon production; wine growing, a fruit growing. Cultivate primarily a large horned stock. Beekeeping. Navigation on r. Kuban.
  • ADYGI, non-proprietary name numerous in past affine nations the Sowing. Caucasus; in european and eastern literature from times of a Middle Ages call as Circassians. To adygam the modern adighes, kabardians and Circassians belong.
  • ADYLOV Sabir Rahimovich (r. 1932), the Uzbek architect, the national architect of the USSR (1981). The chief architect of Tashkent (1970-86), one of writers of his{its} architectonic centre (1966-74; the State premium of the USSR, 1975).
  • ADYRHAEVA Svetlana Dzantemirovna (r. 1938), the Russian actress of ballet, the national actress of the USSR (1984). On the scene with 1955. In 1960-88 at Major theatre. Dance differs spirituality, faultless technique of performance{fulfillment}. Consignments: Egina ("Spartak" A.I.Hachaturjana, 1968), Kitri (" Don Kihot " L.F.Minkusa, 1972), etc. The Artistic administrator of International theatre of ballet of Russia "Skiff" (Moscow) with 1990.
  • ADYCHA, the river in the Russian Federation, in Yakutia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Yana. 715 kms, the area of basin of 89,8 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 500 m3 / with. Major sleets are characteristic.
  • ADULTERY (frants. adultere), matrimonial incorrectness{infidelity}, change.
  • ADJAN Sergey Ivanovich (r. 1931), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on a mathematical logic, theories of algorithms and their appendices to algebra.
  • AETY (Asty) Ammorejsky (Frigijsky) (mind{wit}. ok. 845), the Christian martyr - soldier, one of 42 amorrejskih martyrs, killed for failure{refusal} to accept Moslem. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 6 (19).
  • AETY Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • AZHAEV Vasily Nikolaevich (1915-68), the Russian writer. The theme basis{fundamentals} of the novel " it is far from Moscow " (1948; the State premium of the USSR, 1949) - transactionses encased within Great Domestic war. Roman "Rail car" (1955-64, it is published 1988) about tragical destinies of people of 1930th - builders of underground railway.
  • AZHBE (Ashbe) Anton (1862-1905), the Slovene painter. With 1891 chief of private{individual} art school in Munich. Evolved from academism to plein-air painting.
  • AJOWAN, herbaceous plant from a stem an ajowan.
  • AZHINIJAZ Kosybaj uly (1824-78), the Karakalpak poet. Istoriko-heroic poem "Bozatau"; filosofsko-didactic and love verses.
  • The AGIO (ital. aggio) (agio), excess of a market price of gold, exchange, bills, etc. valuable papers of content nominal value.
  • AGIOTAGE (frants. agiotage), the strong exaltation, agitation, extirpation of interests around of any affair, a problem. An excessive demand - demand for any goods, defined not substantial requirement, and an agiotage, panic moods, etc.
  • OPEN WORK (from frants. ajour - to this day), book-keeping at which all accounting records do{make} per day committings of economic operations. In an open work (peren). - in the full order.
  • AJOUR (from frants. ajour - through), 1) through, lace, netted. 2) it is Artfully and finely made.
  • AZA Isavrijsky (mind{wit}. 284 or 305), the Christian martyr damaged together with 150 soldiers, versed him{it} to the Christ, in Isavrii in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on November, 19.
  • AZAD (Maulana Abul Spontan cane Azad) (1888-1958), one of leaders of indian national-liberation motion, the adherent of indussko-Muslim unity. Transactionses on philosophy and histories.
  • AZADI Dovletmamed (1700-60), the Turkmen poet and the scientist, sufy. Father of poet Mahtumkuli. A didactic poem " Sermon Azadi ".
  • AZADOVSKY Konstantin Markovich (r. 1941), the Russian literary critic. The main{basic} orb of interests - the Russian and foreign literature of 19 and 20 centuries, Russian-German literary communications{connections}. Books: " Nikolay Klyuyev: the Path{Route} of the poet " (1990).
  • AZADOVSKY Mark Konstantinovich (1888-1954), the Russian specialist in folklore, the literary critic. The explorer of the literature, folklore, a household activities of Siberia. Transactionses about writers - decembrists, Russian folkloristike.
  • ZAZEL, a demon in submissions of a judaism. According to the apocryphal Book of the Enoch, Azazel - the fallen angel raised rebelion against the God, sovratitel humanity.
  • AZALEJA (azalea), the decorative kinds{views} of bushes of a stem a rhododendron.
  • AZAN (arab). (ezan), in moslem faith call-up to a pray, proclaimed from a minaret muedzinom.
  • AZARIAHS the OUTLET BOX (16 century), slavjano-Romanian letopisets, the writer of the chronicle clasping events 1552-74.
  • AZARIAH Babylonian (a chaldaic name Abednego) (mind{wit}. 529 or 522 up to n. e.), one of three jewish young men of a notable origin taken during the babylonian film to a yard of tsar of Nabuchodonosor; for failure{refusal} to bow to the graven image it is casted together with Ananiej and Misailom in the heated furnace, but a wonderful mode{image} has remained safe (the book of the prophet of Daniel 1-3). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 17 (30).
  • AZAROV Lyudmila Pavlovna (r. 1922), the Russian artist - keramist, the national artist of the USSR (1991). Founded on tradition gzhelskoj ceramics, laconic under the form small-sized a plastic ("water-hose", "tea drinking", "rollings"), the decorative vessels with affluent shades blue paintings on a white background.
  • AZAREV Dmitry Ivanovich (1906-88), the Russian electrical engineer, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1965). Transactionses on resistance of electrical power systems. Has developed the automized computational models alternating-current for unified electrical power system of the USSR. Under his{its} guiding the first thyristor - compensator bar in the USSR for a potential regulation is built and put into operation. The lenin premium (1962). The state premium of the USSR (1947, 1951).
  • AZARJAN Albert Vagarshakovich (r. 1929), the Armenian sportsman (gymnastics), the deserved master of sport (1954). The champion of Olympic Games (1956, 1960), the world (1954, 1958), Europe (1955), the repeated champion of the USSR (in 1952-62) in separate exercises and command competitions.
  • AZAS, reservation in Tuva. It is based in 1985. The area of 300,4 thousand ga. Mountain landscapes Zap. Sayan mountains. A dark coniferous taiga, kedrovolistvennichnye a thin forest. A reindeer, a maral, a beaver; a black stork, the mountain goose.
  • AZAT (Gugstsiatazad) Gadiabsky (Persian) (mind{wit}. ok. 345), the Christian martyr, the eunuch damaged in persecution of tsar Shapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 20 (on December, 3).
  • AZAT Selevkijsky (Persian) (mind{wit}. 345), the Christian martyr damaged in Persia in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
  • AZATY (the persian. azad - loose; arm. - loose, noble), in Iran at Sasanidah the lowest interlayer of the privileged estate of riders (arteshtaram) - the mean and small-sized landowners being during war in a horse home guard. In medieval Armenia the title of mean and small-sized feudal lords, and also generally feudal lords, as against restricted faces (anazatov).
  • AZAU, B.Kavkaza's two icehouses, on Elbrus: Azau Major, a valley glacier (2,1 kms); Azau Small, a hanging glacier (up to 1 km). Mountaineering.
  • The ALPHABET (on first slavonic "аз ї characters "beeches"), 1) the alphabet. 2) the Abc-book. 3) In music - system of conventional signs (scale).
  • AZBUKIN Dmitry Ivanovich (1883-1953), Russian defektolog and the doctor - pihiatr, corresponding member of NPA of Russia (1945). Transactionses on an oligophrenia, an oligophrenopedagogy and school hygiene.
  • AZBUKOVNIKI, Russian handwritten explanatory dictionaries or manuals of 13-18 centuries with words and the terms located in alphabetic order.
  • AZGUR Zaire Isaakovich (r. 1908), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1973), the full member AH (1958), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1978). Portraits of heroes of Great Domestic war ("Selnitsky", 1943), figures of revolution and crop. The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1948).
  • AZEL Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • AZELLA Roman (mind{wit}. After 386), Christian podvizhnitsa, Saint. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on Saturday cheese, in Roman catholic on December, 6.
  • AZENKUR (Azincour), settlement to the south of Calais (France); at Azenkure 25.10.1415, during Centenary war, English troops Genriha V have routed the greater on number the French army.
  • CONSTANT BOILING MIXTURE (from a - a negative prefix, zeo - I I boil and trope - turning movement, change), a mixed fluid which at the given pressure is not disjointed on components by distillation. Napr., 96 %-s' water solution of alcohol (rectified alcohol) distillation at a safe pressure cannot be divided{separated} into absolute alcohol (100 %-s') and water.
  • AZERBAIJAN (the Azerbaijan Republic, Azerbaijan Respublikasy), the state in eastern part of Transcaucasia; on the orient it is washed against by the Caspian m. of 86,6 thousand км2. The population of 7398 thousand person (1993), urban 54 %; Azerbaijanians (5805 thousand person; 1989, census), Armenians, Russian, etc. The Official language - Azerbaijan. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}. Capital - Baku. The chief of state the president. The maximum body of legislation - parliament (medzhlis). In structure of Azerbaijan - the Nakhichevan Autonomous republic. With 1923 the structure of Azerbaijan included Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (NKAO); in November of 1991 republics VS has made a decision about liquidation of status NKAO. 61 area, 65 cities, 122 urban settlements (1989). Ok. 1/2 terrains of Azerbaijan are occupied in mountains. In a north - hr. B.Kavkaza, on a southwest - hr. M.Kavkaza, in mid-range - the Hen - Araksinskaja nizm., in a southeast - Talyshskie mountains, Lenkoranskaja nizm. Climate transient{berthing} from moderate to subtropical. Mean temperatures of July from 5 °C in high mountain areas till 25-27 °C in low, January accordingly-10 °i 3 °C. A rainfall from 200 mm annually in B.Kavkaza's piedmonts up to 1200-1700 mm on Lenkoranskoj nizm. The main rivers - the Hen and Araks. Irrigation canals: Verhnekarabahsky, Verhneshirvansky, etc. Mingechaurskoe vdhr. Soils predominary serozemnye, in mountains brown both brown mountain forest and mountain - meadow; on Lenkoranskoj nizm. - yellow soils. Vegetation of dry steppes, semideserts, alms; in mountains broad-leaved forests. The largest reservations: Kyzylagachsky, Zakatalsky, SHirvansky, etc. Since 9 century up to n. e. The most ancient states: Mana, Media, Atropatena, Albania Caucasian. In 3-10 centuries under an authority of Iran, Arabian halifata; national motions: Antisasanidskie revolts., mazdakity, Babeka revolt. In 9-16 centuries the state Shirvan, etc. In 11-14 centuries. Irruptions the Turk - seldzhukov, the mongolo-tartar, Timur. In 16-18 centuries in the state Sefevidov; object of extirpation between Iran and Turkey; people's liberation motion Ker-ogly, etc. With it is grey. 18 century over 15 states dependent on Iran. In 1813 and 1828 Sowing. Azerbaijan is adjoined to Russia (Baku, Elizavetpolskaja lips.) . To kon. 19 century. Baku - the largest industrial centre. The Soviet authority is established{installed} in November 1917, there was a Baku commune. Since a summer{years} of 1918 anglo-turkish intervention, an authority musavatistov. 28.4.1920 it is professed Azerbaijan SSR; with 12.3.1922 entered{included} in Transcaucasian federation (ZSFSR), from 5.12.1936 - directly to the USSR as union republic. In February 1991 the title - the Azerbaijan republic is accepted. In August 1991 VS Azerbaijan has proclaimed independence of republic. In May 1990 the post{station} of the president is entered. In 1988-89 there was a conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia concerning Upland Karabaha, reduced to armed conflicts which have developed into large-scale act of war. In structure national the income (1991, %): an industry 54,2, an agriculture 36,7. Manufacture of the electric power 23,3 billion in kw of the H of a h (1991), primarily on TES. Master industries: Gas and oil producing, oil refining, chemical and petrochemical (fertilizers, synthetic rubber, splints, etc.), A machine industry (including chemical and petroleum, an electrotechnical and radio electronic industry, priboro-and machine-tool construction, a ship repair), black and nonferrous machine industry, production of iron oxide and an alunite. Mild (including hlopkoochistitelnaja, cotton, silk, woollen, carpet), flavoring (including canning, tea, tobacco, vinodelcheskaja) an industry. The area of agricultural lands 4,2 million ga (1990). An area under crops of 1463 thousand ga (1990), including grain 40 % (basically wheat), feed 36 %, technical crops of 20 %. Main technical crops - a cotton, tobacco, tea. A total yield of a grain 1,4 million t (1990), a cotton - raw of 543 thousand t, a grape of 1196 thousand t. An early vegetable raising, a subtropical fruit growing. The area of irrigated lands of 1401 thousand ga (1990). Main branches of animal husbandry - a sheep raising, a dairy - beef cattle husbandry, a poultry breeding. A sericulture. Operational length (1991, one thousand in km): railways 2,09; general purpose motorways 36,7, including hard-surface, 32. The main port - Baku, is connected by train ferries to ports of eastern shore of the Caspian m. (Krasnovodsk, Aktau, Bekdash). Navigation across Kure. A pipeline transportation. Health resorts: Istisu, Naphthalanum, Apsheronskaja group, etc.
  • ZERBAJDZHANSKAJA SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIA (ASE), the first generalpurpose encyclopedia in the Azerbaijan tongue. It is exhausted in 1976-87 in 10 vol. Main edition ASE. The managing editor - D.Guliev.
  • The AZERBAIJAN DRAMA THEATRE him{it}. M.Azizbekova, is based in Baku in 1920, with 1957 academic.
  • The AZERBAIJAN INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY him{it}. M.Azizbekova, Baku, is based in 1920 (up to 1991 institute of petroleum and chemistry). Plots experts on geology, a chemical technology, industrial energetics, mechanics, industrial economy, etc. In 1991 over 14 thousand students.
  • The AZERBAIJAN MEDICAL UNIVERSITY him{it}. N.Narimanova, Baku, conducts a history with 1930. Plots doctors of all main{basic} trades. In 1991 ok. 8 thousand students.
  • The AZERBAIJAN PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE, Baku, is based in 1921. In 50-60-С on the basis institute a number{series} of pedagogical high schools is built. Plots teachers - predmetnikov for high school, teachers of physical training, tutors of preschool establishments, etc. In 1991 ok. 8 thousand students.
  • The AZERBAIJAN OPERA AND BALLET THEATRE him{it}. M.F.Ahundova, is open{discovered} in Baku in 1920, with 1959 academic. Performances in the Azerbaijan and Russian tongues.
  • The AZERBAIJAN UNIVERSITY him{it}. M.E.Rasulzade, Baku, is based in 1919. Plots experts on mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, geography, a history, philology, the right, oriental studies, library science, journalism. In 1991 ok. 13 thousand students.
  • The AZERBAIJAN TONGUE, falls into oguzskoj to group of Turkic tongues. The official language of Azerbaijan. Ancient writing and writing of Azerbaijanians in Iran and some other states of the Near East on the basis of Arabian schedules{charts}. In Azerbaijan writing on the basis of Russian schedules{charts}, in 1991 the law on restoration of the Azerbaijan alphabet with a latin graphics (used in 1929-39) is adopted.
  • "AZERBAJDZHANFILM" him{it}. Dzh. Dzhabarly, a film studio art and documentaries in Baku. It is based in 1923. Among films: " Twenty six commissioners " (1933), " the Arshin is small lactamic acids " (1945), documentary " Subjugators starving " (1959), "Interrogation" (1979), " Before the closed door " (1981), " Other life " " CHertik under a windshield " (both 1987), " Private{Individual} visit to german clinic " (1988). Issues art and documentaries.
  • AZERBAIJANIANS (the self-title - azerbajdzhanlylar, azeriler), people, the main{basic} population of Azerbaijan (5,8 million person, 1992). Live also in Iran (10430 thousand person), the Russian Federation (336 thousand person), Georgia (307 thousand person), Kazakhstan (90 thousand person), Armenia, etc. countries. An aggregate number over 17,2 million person (1992). Tongue Azerbaijan. Moslems - shiity believing main{basic}.
  • AZERINFORM, news agency at Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan. It is based in 1920 as branch of GROWTH, about 1921 Azerbaijan telegraphic agency; the modern title with 1972. An exchange text and the photoinformation with foreign organs of the mass information.
  • AZEF Evno Fishelevich (1869-1918), one of osnovatelej and leaders of a consignment eserov, its{her} Battle organization, the provocateur, with 1893 secret employee of Department of police. The chief of some terroristic acts. In 1901-08 has given polices of many eserov. In 1908 V.L.Burtsevym is unmasked and has concealed{hidden}.
  • The ASIAN DEPRESSION, range of a low atmospheric pressure above Asia, the centre above plateau of Iran. Shows more often in the summer.
  • The ASIAN LOCUST, subspecies of a migratory grasshopper, set true saranchovyh, the pest of many agricultural and wild - plants in Eurasia, the Sowing. To Africa. Grey - yellow-green or green, length of 29-59 mm.
  • The ASIAN GAMES, the largest complex{integrated} sporting competitions of countries of Asia. Are carried out{conducted} from 1951 times in 4 years (in 2 years after Olympic Games). The federation of the Asian games (it is based in 1949) integrated in 1991 national Olympic committees ok. 30 countries.
  • The ASIAN ANTICYCLONE (the Siberian anticyclone), range of a high atmospheric pressure with the centre above JUzh. Siberia and Mongolia; shows primarily in the winter. Predominance is connected to the Asian anticyclone clear cool malosnezhnoj winters.
  • The ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (AzBR; Asian Development Bank), regional interstate bank on long-term crediting designs of development in countries of Asia and Pacific basin. It is based in 1965. Headquarter in manilla (Philippines). To kon. 1980th in AzBR entered{included} 47 states. The largest shareholders AzBR - Japan, the USA, China. The main{basic} borrowers - Bangladesh, Pakistan, India.
  • The ASIAN MUSEUM, research establishment; collection of manuscripts in different eastern tongues and the library of books on oriental studies. It is based in 1818 in St.-Petersburg. In 1930 on the basis the Asian museum and of some other vostokovednyh establishments the Institute of oriental studies AN the USSR (about 1991 Russian Academies of Science) has been built.
  • The ASIAN - AMERICAN STRAIN, see. Mongoloidnaja strain.
  • AZIDES, contain one or several groups - N3. Inorganic azides - salt azotistovodorodnoj acids HN3; the majority of them, napr., lead azide, blasts out at a flick.
  • AZIZ NESIN (Aziz Nesin) (an ice-film. Name Mahmud Nusret) (r. 1915), the turkish writer, the satirist and the humorist, the playwright. Numerous collections of stories " the Elephant on name Hamdi " (1955), "Good fellow" (1959) " Long live fatherland " (1975), satirical novels " King of football " (1957), "Zjubjuk" (1961).
  • AZILSKAJA CROP (in archeology) early mezolita in terrain of France, Germany and Pirenejskom p-ove; the title on cave Mas-d'Azil (Mas-d'Azil) in department Arjezh (France). Microlites, the horn harpoons, colored shingle. An economy: collecting, a hunt.
  • AZIMZADE Azim Aslan ogly (1880-1943), the Azerbaijan schedule{chart}, the national artist of Azerbaijan (1927). The writer ostrosatiricheskih the drawings, laid foundation Azerbaijan satirical the schedule{chart} (a series " Phylums of aged Baku ", 1937).
  • AZIMOV (Asimov) Isaac (1920-92), the American writer - visionary, the popular writer of science. A series of novels, including " the Base and Empire " (1952), " the Edge of the Base " (1982), " the Base and the Earth " (1986), about downfall of galactic empire and a birth of the new social system. The central theme of the novel " gods " (1972) - without morals conducts rationalism to harm. Popular scientific books ("Universe", 1966, etc.). The autobiography " While is fresh memory{remembrance} " (1979).
  • AZIMOV Pigam Azimovich (r. 1915), Turkmen jazykoved, the academician (1951) and the president (1966-75) AN Turkmenii. Transactionses on Turkmen linguistics, problems of word-formation.
  • AZIMUTH (the arab. An ace - sumut, mn. Hours from an ace - samt - a path{route}, a direction) object, a direction, an angle (azimuth) between a meridian plane of a view point and a vertical plane passing through this point and observable object. It is read out from a north (in a geodesy) or from the south (in astronomy) clockwise from 0 up to 360 °. At definition t. n a magnetic azimuth instead of a plane of geographical meridian take a plane of a magnetic meridian.
  • AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS, map projections, parallels of which normal grid - concentric circles, and line of longitudes - their radiuses missing from the general centre parallelej under angles, equal differences in longitude. Normal azimuthal projections are applied to maps of polar countries, cross and skew azimuthal projections - for maps of earth hemispheres, mainlands, the sidereal root, moon, etc. planets.
  • AZINE DYES, hinoniminovye the dyes, derivative phenazine (formula I). Leathers and textiles in colours from red up to steep black, and also as desensitizers in a photo are applied to a paper dyeing.
  • ASIA, the large part of light (ok. 43,4 million км2), will derivate mainland Eurasia together with Europe. The border{limit} between Asia and Europe is routinely carried out{routinely conducted} across Ural (to a crest or his{its} eastern foot, rr. Emba, Kuma, Manych, on B.Kavkaza's axial watershed, seas Caspian, Azov, Black and Mottled, prol. Bosporus and Dardanelles). Asia is paired to Africa isthmus of Suez, from the Sowing. America it is unbound Beringovym prol. The Sowing is washed against. Ledovitym, Quiet and Indian oceans and their marginal seas, and also inland seas Atlantic ok. The area of islands over 2 million км2. A mean altitude of 950 m, the greatest - 8848 m (Chomolungma, a peak level of the Earth). Mountains and a tableland take ok. 3/4 terr. The main{basic} ranges: a Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir, Tien Shan, Hindu Kush, Kuenlun Shan, B.Kavkaz, Altai, Sayan mountains, hrebty Verkhoyansk and CHerskogo. Large a mountains: Tibetan, Iranian, Armenian, Maloaziatskoe, Stop, Koryak. A tableland: Mid-Siberian, Arabian p-ova, Decanal. The largest plains: Western - Siberian, Turanskaja, Great Chinese, Indo-Gangskaja, Mesopotamskaja. On Kamchatka, islands Vost. Asia and Malayan arh. The strong seismicity is a lot of active volcanoes. A climate from arctic in a north and sharply continental moderate in Vost. Siberia up to equatorial on islands of Indonesia. In Vost. And JUzh. Asia a climate monsoon, on plains Center., Compare and Zap. Asia - arid and semidesert. In the highest mountains Compare and Center. Asia, in a Himalaya, on islands of Arctic regions the glaciation (by 118,4 thousand км2) is developed. The considerable terrains, primarily in the Sowing. And Vost. Siberia (ok. 11 million км2), are occupied in permafrost. The main{basic} rivers: Ob, Irtysh, Yenisei, Lena (a bass. A sowing. Ledovitogo ok., a large part of year are ice-covered); Amur, Huang He, Yangtze (the most lengthy in Asia, 5800 kms), Si Kiang, Mekong (a bass. Quiet ok.); Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Shatt al Arab (a bass. Indian ok.). The area of an internal drainage (a bass is great. The Caspian and Aral seas, many areas Center. Asia and Compare. The orient). Large lakes: Baikal, Balkhash, Issyk Kul, Van, Urmia, Khanka, Koko Nor, Poyang Hu, Dongting Hu, Tai Hu, Tonle Sap. On islands of Arctic regions and coast-wise the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok. Arctic deserts and the tundra, framed with the south a narrow bandwidth of a forest - tundra, to the south - a taiga (predominary dark coniferous in the west and light-needle on the orient), smenjajushchajasja to the south blended and broad-leaved forests, forest steppes and steppes reach{extend;stretch}. Semideserts and deserts are especially well-marked on Arabian p-ove (Nefud, Rub' al Khali), in hinterlands of plateau of Iran (Deshte-Lut, Deshte-Kevir, etc.), In Compare and Center. Asia (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Gobi, Takla Makan), in JUzh. Asia (Tares). In subtropics Zap. Asia - the Mediterranean vegetation; in Vost. Asia - monsoon blended and broad-leaved forests. In tropical latitudes Vost. And JUzh. Asia - monsoon deciduous forests and savannahs, on upwind downslopes of mountains - ever-green forests. In equatorial latitudes (primarily in Indonesia) pluristratal bog forests - hyleas. In terrain of Asia - a large part of the Russian Federation, and also Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bahrein, Brunei, Bhutan, Vietnam, Georgia, a part of Egypt, Israel, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, a large part of Kazakhstan, Cambodia, Qatar, Cyprus, Kirghizia, China, the Korean People's democratic Republic, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Republic Maldivskaja, Mongolia, Myanma, Nepal, Consolidated Arab Emirates, Oman, Pakistan, the Palestinian terrains (the Western coast r. Jordan and a throttle lever), Republic Korea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Syria, Tadjikistan, Thailand, Turkmenija, a large part of Turkey, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Japan. The population of Asia over 3,2 billion person (1990.*) * *
  • AZIJAIstorija probes Initial etapOgranichennye cramps on geography of Asia were known for ancient peoples of Mesopotamia. Marchings Alexander the Great (4 century up to n. e.), trade of Egypt with India, availability trade ways (" a silk path{route} ") from China to Forward{Front} Asia promoted gradual accumulation of cramps on Asia. However more a profound knowledge about this part of a dry matter have been received{obtained} later. The second stage (7-17 centuries) Probe of Asia by scientists and travellers VostokaV of 7 century the Buddhist outlet box Sjuan-Tszan wandering on Central and Central Asia, India, has stated cramps on geography, ethnographies and histories of the seen countries in one of the main compositions " the Note about countries of the West ", ended in 648. The Arabian traveller and geographer Ibn Hordadbeh (9-10 centuries) Has described provinces of Forward{Front} Asia. Biruni has constituted transactionses about India, Masudi has given the geographycal and historical description of Muslim countries, India, China, Palestine, Ceylon. In 9-11 centuries different locales of Mean and Forward{Front} Asia studied Mukadassi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Fadlan and Ibn the Dummy joint. Arabian traveller Idrisi (12 century), Living a large part of life on Sicily, in summary geographycal transactionses has described Minor Asia which he has visited. In 14 century Ibn Battuta, visited many countries of Asia, has written major transactionses in which has given rather racy and alive description of these countries, including cramps on mineral wealths. Probe of Asia by Europeans In 12-13 centuries the Europeans making crusades, collect cramps on countries of Central and Austral Asia. In 1253-55 Flemish traveller, outlet box Rubruk, has undertaken traveling with the diplomatic purposes to Mongolia. The report on it the considerable (up to M.Polo) traveling of the European to Asia contained valuable cramps on geography of Central Asia (in particular{personally}, in a nem it was indicated, that Caspian sea is not a sea, and lake). The considerable investment in development of submissions about Asia was introduced by traveller M.Polo (1271-95), living in China about 17 flying. " The book " (1298), recorded with his{its} words in the Genoa prison where he has hitted during war of Venice with Genoa, for the first time has acquainted Europeans with Persia, Armenia, China, India, etc. She was the reference book for such great seafarers, as Columbus, Vasko yes Gama-grass, Magellan, etc. The Venetian merchant and traveller M.Konti wandering in 1424 across India, Ceylon visiting island, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, on behalf of a dad Roman in 1444 has dictated the report on this traveling. In 1468-74 Russian merchant A.Nikitin has undertaken traveling to India. His{its} travelling records keeping multilateral supervision{observations}, have been published under the title " Hozhenie for three starving " .V to midpoint of 15 century Europeans have started to search for shipping lanes to Asia. The Portuguese seamen have reached{achieved} India in 1497-99 (Vasko yes Gama-grass), have visited Malacca, Macao, Philippines, Japan. In second half of 16-17 centuries in countries of Austral Asia kept to inpour{insinuate} Dutchs, Englishmen, Spaniards. In 1618-19 Siberian cossack I.Petlin has visited Mongolia and China, has plotted a route a map, and seen has stated in the book, translated on English, French and other tongues. One of the first Europeans in 1690-92 the german naturalist and doctor E.Kempfer who has convoked an extensive material about a nature, a history and a household activities of people has visited Japan. His{its} book published in 1728 in London, long time are the main{basic} source of cramps on Japan. Probe of Asia Russian zemleprohodtsami In this season{term} the greatest investment in probe of boreal ranges of Asia where Europeans did not inpour{insinuate}, have introduced Russian zemleprohodtsy. To the extremity of 16 century, after marching Ermaka, has become in general Western Siberia is known. In 1639 I.J.Moskvitin with order of cossacks has reached{achieved} a shore of sea of Okhotsk. In 1632-38 order under E.P.Habarova's guiding has studied a water-collecting area Lena. In 1649-53 he has crossed Stanovoi range, traveled in Priamurje, first has constituted his{its} map. In 1643-46 on the rivers to Lena, Aldan, Zeya and Amur has passed V.D.Pojarkova's order which also has presented drawings projdennyh routes and has collected valuable cramps on the Far East. In S.I.Dezhneva's 1648 expedition has bent Chukotski peninsula and has discovered a channel separable Asia from America, and the headland being a marginal north-east point of Asia. Siberian cossack V.V.Atlasov in 1697-99 traveled across Kamchatka, has reached{achieved} Boreal Kuriles and has constituted the description ("skaski") the found grounds. In 17 century Russian zemleprohodtsy, despite of the refractoriest climatic conditions, overcoming the huge spaces, have discovered practically all Siberia. This stage was finished by drawing up of the first maps of Siberia plump Tobolsk voevodoj by P.Godunovym both his{its} fellow countryman - geographer and a cartographer of S.Remizovym. The third stage (18 - midpoint of 19 centuries) In this season{term} probes of a north and north-east of the Asian continent Russian travellers and seafarers are prolonged. Under Peter's I decree the Kamchatka expeditions over which V.Bering supervised are equipped, the mate A.Chirikov was. The first expedition (1725-30) has passed overland through Siberia up to Ohotska, and then, after construction of courts, Bering has quitted at-sea, has bent coasts of Kamchatka and Chukotka, has discovered an island of St.. Lawrence also has passed a channel which nowadays has his{its} name. The second Kamchatka expedition (1733-41), due to scope{span} of activities known as well as Great Boreal, takes a given away place in a history of study of Arctic regions and boreal areas of Asia. Were zakartirovany the Asian coasts of Arctic ocean, are open{discovered} Komandorskie, Aleutian and other islands, are inspected coasts of Alaska. Separate orders brothers Laptevy headed, V.V.Pronchishchev, S.I.Cheljuskin (whose names are perpetuated on a geographical map). The major investment in study of Central Asia was introduced by the missionarys given in the beginning of 18 century the description of China, Mongolia and Tibet. At the end of 18 century the Russian traveller and scientist P.S.Pallas probeed Eastern Siberia and Altai. In 1800-05 J.Sannikov has discovered and has described Long-pillar and Faddeevsky islands of Novosibirsk archipelago, has assumed existence northward from him{it} grounds Sannikova. In 1811 V.M.Golovnin has undertaken traveling to Kuriles, has constituted their list and a map. During expedition he has been captured by Japaneses. His{its} memories on stay in 1811-13 in a film, keeping cramps on country and customs of Japaneses, steel first in Russian the description of Japan. In 1821-23 P.F.Anzhu probeed a shore of Arctic ocean (between ostiums of the rivers Olenek and Indigirka), a carrying out number{series} of astronomical and geomagnetic supervision{observations}. F.P.Vrangel in 1820-24 headed expedition on study of boreal coasts of Eastern Siberia. Under the cramps received{obtained} from chukchej, he in sea of Chukotsk has defined{determined} a rule{situation;position} of the island called after his{its} name. In 1829 under the invitation of Russian government A.Humboldt has undertaken traveling to Ural, Altai, in a southwest part of Siberia, on coasts of Caspian sea, in the Kirghiz steppes, which outcomes have been lighted in transactionses " Central Asia " (т.1-3, 1843, Russian transfer{translation} т.1., 1915) and " Fragments on geology and climatologies of Asia " (t. 1-2, 1831). F.P.Litke during round-the-world traveling in 1826-29 inspected eastern coast of Asia and Kamchatka. The fourth stage (midpoint 19 - the beginning of 20 centuries) From midpoint of 19 century will sharply increase a role of the regular probes spent by scientific institutes, geographycal societies and topographical services of England, France, Netherlands, Germany, Japan and China. The figure of monographics descriptions of Asia was increased. The Russian geographycal society built in 1845, deploys activities in Siberia and on the Far East. In 1856-57 P.P.Semenov-Tjan-Shansky has committed traveling to Tien Shan (has given his{its} first orographic scheme), inspected western spurs of a mountain Zailijskogo Ala Tau, first from Europeans has mounted on downslopes of a mass of Khan Tengri. In memory{remembrance} of his{its} achievements in study Tjan-SHanja in 1906 to his{its} surname it has been supplemented "Tjan-SHansky". A.P.Fedchenko in 1868-71 has committed some travelings across Turkestan, first from Russian travellers has visited Alajskuju a valley, has discovered Trans Alai, probeed a lower reaches of the river Syr-Darya. In 1872-76 And. And. Voejkov has visited Austral and Forward{Front} Asia, China, Japan, India, Central Asia, having collected valuable cramps on a climate of different locales of Asia. In 1877-80 I.D.Chersky has given the detail geographycal and geologic description of a shore of Baikal. In 1870-85 four expeditions to Central Asia under N.M.Przhevalskogo's guiding, unblocking unknown remote ranges much{many} earlier - Kuenlun Shan, Nan Shan, Tibet are organized, etc. His{Its} probes Russian travellers - have prolonged M.V.Pevtsov, G.E.Grumm-Grzhimajlo, G.T.Tsybikov. V.A.Obruchev much working in Central Asia, has committed three expeditions in Zakaspijskuju range (1886-88), has discovered a number{series} hrebtov in mountains Nan Shan, backbone Daursky, etc., probeed a mountains Bei Shan. At the end of 19 - the beginning of 20 centuries Russian scientists (I.V.Mushketov, L.S.Berg) prolong regular probes of Asia. Construction of the Transsiberian main also stimulated{promoted} regular surveys of accumbent terrains to her. For the first time north-east pass from Europe to the Far East has executed{has come true} in 1878-79 N.Nordensheld, later (1911-15) this path{route}, only already from the orient to the west, B.A.Vilkitskogo's expedition has repeated. In this season{term} deepened geographycal probes by scientists of the Asian countries start (Japan, China, India, Indonesia) .Nachinaja from midpoint of 20 century are intensified probes in the Russian part of Asia, the bound with economic assimilation of huge terrain, form regional centres of science and the institutes master activities on a mapping (including large-scale) and to complex{integrated} study of Siberia and the Far East. Regular floats on Boreal marine ways are adjusted. Regular probes by international expeditions are conducted. Literatura:Skalon V. N. Russian zemleprohodtsy XVII eyelid in Siberia. М., 1951.агидович I.P.Ocherki on a history of geographycal discoverings. М., 1967. Gvozdetskij N.A. The Soviet geographycal probes and discoverings. М., 1967.. G.Mirlin
  • AZNAVUR (Aznavour) Charles (an ice-film. A name and fam. Varenag Aznavurjan or Aznaurjan) (r. 1924), the French chansonnier, the composer and a film actor. On a platform since 1940th. The writer of songs (since 60th their orkestruet P.Moria), music to movies. It was taken out in films: " the Devil and ten precepts ", etc. Repeatedly went on tour in the USSR.
  • AZNAKAEVO, city (with 1987) in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, in 34 kms from zh.-d. An item. JUtaza. 34,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). A crude production and gas. The alimentary enterprises.
  • AZNAURI, the Georgian noblemen (since 5 century). With apposition of Georgia to Russia have received rights of the Russian noblemen.
  • ELEMENTS, city in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, a port on r. Don. A depot. 80,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, mild, a food-processing industry. An Istoriko-study of local lore museum. In 1-3 centuries n. e. In terrain of Azov a settlement meotov, since 13 century zolotoordynsky. Azak. In 14 century the venetian and Genoa colony (Tana). In 1395 it eroded Tamerlanom. About 1475 turkish strength. In 1637 it is taken by cossacks (see. The Azov seat), in 1696 - Peter's I troops; in Russia with 1739 (it is final with 1774).
  • "ELEMENTS", a sailing capital ship of Russian VTR. For the first time in a history of domestic fleet for battle differences in Navarinskom battle 1827 it is awarded Georgievskim with an ensign.
  • AZOVO-SIVASHSKOE ZAPOVEDNO-HUNTING, on Ukraine, the Kherson region, on about. Birjuchy. It is built in 1957 on the basis Azovo-Sivashskogo reservation (1927). The area 30121 ga, a dry matter - 8921 ga. Steppe Polynno-zhitnjakovaja. Waterborne and waders, an East deer.
  • The AZOV MILITARY FLOTILLA, existed{breathed} in April - June 1918, March 1920 - June 1921, led operations against the German occupiers, flotillas of general Vrangelja. It is newly founded in Great Domestic war; in July 1941 - April 1944 acted the Azov and Black seas. On its{her} base the Danube military flotilla has been derivated.



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