Sunday, April 8, 2007

ALBANIA CAUCASIAN, the ancient state in Vost. Transcaucasia in 4-3 centuries up to n. e. - 10 century n. e. (in the lower flow of Araks and the Hen). Capitals - Kabalaka, Partav (Malt - residue). Integrated nations albanov, utiev, kaspiev, etc. In 3-4 centuries under an authority of Iran, in 8 century it is conquered by arabs, in 9 century has broken up to principalities. Since 10 century a large part of grounds of Albania Caucasian in structure of Shirvan, etc. the states.
ALBANIAN SOCIALIST PARTY (ASP), is based in 1941 (up to 1948 KP Albania), since June 1991 calls ASP. The chairman of Presidium of Managing advice{council} - F.Nano (with 1991). The publication - the newspaper " Zeri and popullit ", theoretical - the log-book " Ruga e partis ".
The ALBANIAN TONGUE, separate branch indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language of Albania. It is supposed, that the Albanian tongue prolongs one of extinct paleobalkanskih tongues. It is generically closest to illirijskomu, messapskomu and Thracian. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
The ALBANIAN TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY, state news agency of Albania. It is based in 1944, Tirana.
ALBANIANS (the self-title - shkiptar), people, the main{basic} population of Albania (ok. 3250 thousand person, 1992). Number in Yugoslavia 1985 thousand person, Macedoniuses 500 thousand person. An aggregate number 6,1 million person. Tongue Albanian. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}, are christians (roman catholics and orthodox).
ALBA-JULIJA (Alba-Iulia), city in Central Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Alba. 72 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, porcelain, boot, a food-processing industry; manufacture of refractories. The large centre dakijskogo rannerabovladelcheskogo the states; drevnerimskoe military strengthening. A cathedral (13-17 centuries), a citadel in style of Baroque (18 century).
ALBENA, climatic health resort in Bulgaria on coast of Black m., northward from Varna.
ALBUKERKI (Albuquerque) Afonsu d ' (1453-1515), the Portuguese seafarer, viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in India in 1510-15, has based the Portuguese colonial empire on the orient (the centre - Goa).
ALGA, city (with 1961) in Kazakhstan, the Aktyubinsk region, on r. Ilek. A depot. 17,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemicals plant.
ALGA Alexander Egorovich (1913-77), the national poet of Chuvashia (1970). Collections of verses and poems " On Rhodinum " (1952), "Fellow countrymen" (1956), " the Edge{Boundarouse} wash liked " (1971); the novel " the Sword and a sickle " (kn. 1-2, 1969-70).
ALGEBRA (arab)., the part of mathematics developing in connection with a problem about the solution of algebraic equations. The solution of equations of 1-st and 2-nd degrees is known from an antiquity. In 16 century italian mathematicians retrieve solutions of equations of 3-rd and 4-th degrees. By K.Gaussom it is established{installed} (1799), that any algebraic equation n-® has degrees n roots (solutions), true or imaginary. In nach. 19 century. N.Abel and E.Galua have proved, that solutions of equations of a degree above to 4-th, generally speaking, it is impossible to express through quotient of an equation through algebraic actions. In the modern algebra the general theory of sets{combinations} in which the algebraic operations analogous on the properties to actions above figures are determined is studied. Such operations can be executed{designed}, napr., above polynomials, vectors, templates, etc.
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA, system of algebraic methods of the solution of logic problems and set{combination} of such problems; in fine-bored sense - tabulared, template construction of logic of the expressions, defining logic operations above them.
ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY, the section of mathematics investigator algebraic curves (surfaces) and their multidimensional generalizations - algebraic diversification.
ALGEBRAIC CURVE (SURFACE), the curve (surface) expressed in Cartesian axials an algebraic equation.
ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION, function, the bound with explanatory variables an algebraic equation.
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION, the expression constituted of characters and figures, coherent marks of algebraic actions: build, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, a taking the root.
ALGEBRAIC EQUATION, the equation receiving at equating of two algebraic expressions. Napr., x2+xy+y2 =x+1. The algebraic an equation in one unknown can be transformed{reformed} to a kind{view} aо + a1x +... + anxn=0.
ALGEBRAIC NUMBER, the figure, satisfying to an algebraic equation with the whole quotients.
ALGETSKY RESERVATION, in Georgia, on the left-handed coast r. Algeti. It is based in 1965. The area 6000 ga. An Oriental spruce, a Nordmann fir, an oak, a maple, a feral{natural} pear, etc.; a roe deer, a wild boar, a stone marten, a brown bear, etc.
ALGOL (from English algorithmic - algorithmic and language - tongue), the title of some the programming languages used at drawing up of programs for the solution of technological problems on a computer. It is developed in 1958-60 (Algol - 58, Algol - 60); it is advanced in 1964-68 (Algol - 68).
ALGOL, b the Persea, zatmennaja a variable star which luster varies from 2,1 up to 3,4 stellar magnitudes with the season{term} 2 sut 20 h of 49 min.
ALGONKINO-VAKASHSKIE TONGUES, macrofamily of American Indian tongues. Actuates algonkinskie tongues, ritvanskie (vijot and jurok in California), dead tongue beotuk (Newfoundland), selishskie, vakashskie tongues and some other.
ALGONKINSKIE TONGUES, family of tongues algonkinov, included in algonkino-vakashskuju macrofamily of American Indian tongues.
ALGONKINY, group of American Indian peoples (odzhibve, mikmaki, delavary, kri, montanje, naskapi, chejeny, etc.) in the USA and Canada. 260 thousand person (1992). Speak on algonkinskih tongues.
ALGORITHM (algorithm) (from algorithmi, algorismus, originally - an armour. The transliteration of a name mathematics al-Horezmi), a way (program) of the solution computational, etc. the problems, precisely enacting, as well as in what sequence to receive outcome, uniquely determinated basic data. Algorithm - one of the main{basic} concepts of mathematics and cybernetics. In computer facilities for the description of algorithm programming languages are used.
ALGORITHMIZATION, 1) a stage of the solution of the problem consisting in presence on a formulation of a problem of algorithm of its{her} solution. 2) the Section of computer science investigator methods, methods of construction of algorithms and their properties (sometimes also call algoritmikoj).
The ALGORITHMICAL LANGUAGE which is formalized a language for unequivocal{unambiguous} record of algorithms. (Alphabet), syntactical regulations and semantic definitions will consist of the character set. Is the basis{fundamentals} of programming languages.
ALDAN, city (up to 1939 settlements. Inconspicuous) in the Russian Federation, Yakutia, on the Amuro-Yakutiya automobile tract, in 290 kms northward from zh.-d. An item. Berkakit. 26,4 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of production of gold and micas. Metal working, manufacture of a building materials.
ALDAN, the river in Yakutia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Lena. 2273 kms, the area of basin of 729 thousand км2. Flows basically across Aldan mountains. Average discharge of water 5110 m3 / with. It is navigable on 1753 kms from a mouth. The main{basic} landing stages: Tommot, Ust-May, Handyga. It is affluent a fish (the sturgeon, a sterlet).
ALDANOV (an ice-film. fam. Landau) Mark Aleksandrovich (1886-1957), the Russian writer. Has emigrated in 1919. In the historical tetralogy "Thinker" (1921-27; novels: " the Ninth termidora ", " CHertov the bridge ", "Plot", " Sacred Elena, a small island ") osmysljajutsja events of Russian and european history kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries; in novels "Headstreams" (1950), "Key" (1928-29) - a previous history of revolution in Russia. The prose gravitates to tradition of the Russian classical literature, combines historical certainty with entertaining of a scene.
ALDAN - SEMENOV (an ice-film. fam. Semenov) Andrey Ignatjevich (1908-85), the Russian writer. Has been repressed and 15 flying has conducted in camps. The most known story " the Bas-relief on a rock " (1964) - one of the first products{creations} published in the USSR about Stalin camps. Historical novels about a civil war. Books: " the White island " (1931), " the Law of friendship " (1954), " the Bay of desire " (1958), " Red and white " (t. 1-2,1970-74), " the Thunder-storm above Russia " (1980), etc.
ALDANSKY AREA SLJUDONOSNYJ, in Yakutia. It is open{discovered} in 1934. Metasomatic deposits (Timptonskaja, Emeldzhakskaja, Elkonskaja, etc. groups of deposits). Amber mica occurs{lies} predominary nests, and also lentiform bodies and cable cores. Reserves 0,35 million t with the mean content of amber mica (raw) of 51 kg / m3. Center of production-. Tommot.
ALDANSKY the BOARD, a projection dokembrijskogo the base in a southeast of the Siberian ramp, basically conterminous to Aldan mountains. It is combined metamorphic by breeds of an Archean and the lower Proterozoic.
ALDAN MOUNTAINS, in Yakutia. An altitude up to 2306 m. Mountain hrebty: Sunnagyn, Zap. Youngs, etc. On downslopes the larch taiga, is higher than 1300 m stony tundra. Deposits of iron oxide, coal, mica, gold.
ALEANDER (Aleander) the Jerome (1480-1542), the italian scientist and a cardinal bird (1538), the librarian in Vatican at a dad Lion X; in the capacity of the papal nuncio in Germany struggled with Reformatsiej. Has emited the Greco-Latin dictionary and grammar of the Grecian tongue.
ALEATORIKA (from an armour. alea - a playing bone, a contingency), a method of the musical composition of 20 century, using elements of chance as a formative factor.
HALBERD (frants. hallebarde), a cold steel - the lengthy spear with nasazhennym a battle axe. Was in the inventory an infantry of some european countries in 14-16 centuries, as ceremonial weapons - till 18 century. See also Berdysh.
ALABASTER (from grech. alabastros), 1) a mineral, a version of gypsum. 2) One of titles of a gypsum plaster.
ALEVIZ FRJAZIN (Aleviz Milanets) (Aloisio da Milano), the italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. With 1494 worked in Moscow, participat in construction of walls of the Kremlin lengthways r. Neglinnaja (1495).
ALEVIZ FRJAZIN, Aleviz (Aloisio) the New, italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. In 1503-04 plotted in Bakhchisarai a palace of khan Mengli-Gireja. With 1504 in Moscow (the Archangelical cathedral in the Kremlin, 1505-08).
SILT (from grech. aleuron - a meal), a friable sedimental rock, on structure intermediate between sandy and argillaceous rocks, the dimension of a ground mass of grains of 0,01-0,1 mm; hardpan silt calls as siltstone.
ALEVTINA (Valentine) Kesarijskaja (Palestinian) (mind{wit}. 308), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor of the Maximin, the sister of martyress Hionii. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 16 (29).
ALEGRIJA (Alegria) Siro (1909-67), the Peruvian writer. Realistic novels " Golden the snake " (1935), " Hungry dogs " (1939), " In the major and alien world " (1941) about social tragedy of Indians of Peru.
ALESIA (Alesia), ancient gallic city - strength; osada and taking of Alesia by Juliem Caesar in 52 up to n. e. Have finished seizure of Gallia by Rome. Gorodishche for Dijon (France): residues of strengthening, siege Roman structures, finds of weapons, etc.
Is MORE SCARLET, the river on Altai, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Ob. 858 kms, the area of basin of 21,1 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 34 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
ALEJZHADINJU (Aleijadinho, characters. - small the cripple, nickname Antoniu Fransisku Lisboa) (1730 or 1738-1814), the Brazilian architect and the sculptor. Has been spoiled with a leprosy. Worked, attaching instruments to gloves. The representative of serotinal{late} Baroque. A front (1757-77) churches of Bonds - ZHezus-di-Matozinjus in Kongonjase, a sculpture (1780-1805).
ALEUKIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. leukos - white), the same, that an agranulocytosis.
ALEUKIA ALIMENTARNO-TOXIC, a poisoning as a result of the use in I peep products from the overwintered cereals, contaminated a mushroom of a stem fuzarium. The apparatus of a hemopoiesis is struck primarily. Often the consecutive infection is joined.
ALEJKSANDRE (Aleixandre) Visente (1898-1984), the spanish poet. Surrealistic verses, anti-fascist verses of the season{term} of the Civil war (1936-39). Collections " the Last birth " (1953), " the History of heart " (1954), " Internal dialogues " (1974) - philosophical lyrics. Memoirs (the collection of "Meeting", 1958). The Nobel Prize (1977).
ALEYNIKOV Vladimir Dmitrievich (r. 1946), the Russian poet. In verses - philosophical motives, a theme of Russia. In the Soviet epoch it was not published almost. Collections of verses: "Predvecherje" (1987), " Selection of the word " (1987), " Travelings of memory{remembrance} of Rimbaud ", " Echoes of holidays " (both 1990), etc.
ALEYNIKOV Peter Martynovich (1914-65), the Russian film actor. Inexhaustible optimism, wit, infectious cheerfulness of his{its} heroes have made Aleynikov one of liked actors 30-40-Х. It was taken out in films: " Seven courageous ", "Komsomolsk", "Tractor operators", " Major life ", "Pipit - Gorbunok", " Utolenie thirst ", etc. Film " Peter Martynovich and years of major life " (1976) is dedicated Aleynikov Creativity.
ALEJRODIDOVYE (belokrylkovye), a section of hexapods of order of the scale. Length routinely 1-2 mm. St. 200 kinds{views}, predominary in tropics. Larvas hothouse, citrous and strawberry belokrylok especially harmful.
ALEURONE GRANULES (from grech. aleuron - a meal) (protein granules), colourless spherical proteinaceous educations in cells of soft tissues of plants, primarily in seeds. Will be derivated from drying vacuoles.
ALEJSK, city (with 1939) in the Russian Federation, Altai territory. A depot. 30,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). A food-processing industry. Metal-working plant.
ALEKIN Oleg Aleksandrovich (1908-95), the Russian scientist - gidrohimik, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1953). Transactionses on chemistry of natural waters. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
ALEKPEROV Alesker Gadzhi Aga ogly (1910-63), the Azerbaijan actor, the national actor of the USSR (1961). On the scene with 1927, with 1933 at the Azerbaijan theatre him{it}. Azizbekova (Baku).
ALEKPEROV Vagit Jusufovich (r. 1950), the Russian businessman. In 1970-80-С worked on oil fields in Azerbaijan and Zap. Siberia. In 1990 deputy minister petroleum and gas industry of the USSR. With 1993 president of Russian petroleum company " LUKOIL ".
ALEXANDER (Alexander) Denton Eugene (r. 1917), American genetics, foreign member VASHNIL (1970). Has created lines and hybrids of corn with high productivity and a heightened protein content.
ALEXANDER (Alexander) James Uendell (1888-1971), the American mathematician. The main{basic} transactionses fall into topologies, algebraic geometry, a function theory. The upper boundary operator with which help has placed{installed} (1923) law of duplicity for the closed sets superjacent in the topological spaces has entered into topology. Has offered (1935) concept of a cohomology.
ALEXANDER Semjuel (1859-1938), the English philosopher, the representative of neo-realism, one of osnovatelej theories emerdzhentnoj evolution.
ALEXANDER TUNISIAN (Alexander of Tunis) Harold Rupert (1891-1969), columns (1952), the British field marshal (1944). In 2-Ї world war from 1943 commanding 18-th and 15-th army groups in Tunis and Italy, since December 1943 commander-in-chief an allied troops on the Mediterranean battlefield. In 1952-54 Minister of Defence.
ALEXANDER Frants (1891-1964), the American doctor and the psychologist, the chapter of the Chicago school of a psychosomatic medicine, developed problems of correspondences between organic diseases and phylums of emotional conflicts.
ALEXANDER, in the Grecian mythology name Parisa when he with shepherds also did not know cable cores about the origin.
ALEXANDER, in the Grecian mythology name Parisa when he with shepherds also did not know cable cores about the origin.
ALEXANDER (17 century), inok Rostov Borisoglebskogo a monastery, the writer zhitija Saint startsa Irinarha Rostov.
ALEXANDER I (1777-1825), the Russian emperor with 1801. The higher son of Paul I. In the beginning of board has conducted moderately liberal reforms, designed Secret committee and M.M.Speranskim. In foreign policy manoeuvred between the Great Britain and France. In 1805-07 participat in the antiFrench coalitions. In 1807-12 it was temporarily pulled together to France. Led successful wars with Turkey (1806-12) and Sweden (1808-09). At Alexander I terrains Vost are adjoined to Russia. Georgia (1801), Finland (1809), Bessarabia (1812), Azerbaijan (1813), former duchy Warsaw (1815). After Domestic war 1812 has headed in 1813-14 antiFrench coalition of the european mandatory powers. Petersburg - on November, 19 (on December, 1) 1825, Taganrog], the Russian emperor (1801-25), the firstborn of grand duke of Paul Petrovicha (later emperor Paul I) and great princess Maria Fedorovny was one of chiefs of the Austrian congress 1814-15 and organizers Sacred союза.* * *АЛЕКСАНДР I [on December, 12 (23) 1777. The childhood, education Right after birthes Alexander have been taken for parents by the pastern empress Ekaterina II who designed to bring up from him{it} theoretical sovereign, the continuer of the affair. In tutors to Alexander under D.Didro's recommendation have been engaged Swiss F.T.Lagarp, the republican on inclinings. Grand duke grew with romantic belief in ideals of Enlightenment, condoled with the Poles who have lost statehood after sections of Poland, sympathized with Great French revolution and critically estimated political system of the Russian autocracy. Ekaterina II has forced it{him} to read the French Declaration of human rights and the citizen and itself has explained to him its{her} sense. At the same time in the last years of reign of a pastern Alexander found more and more misfits between ideals declared by her{it} and daily political practice. The feelings to him should be masked{hidden} carefully, that promoted formation in a nem of such features, as shamming and slyness. It was reflected and in relations with the father during visitation of his{its} residence in Gatchina where reigned spirit of soldiery and rigid discipline. Alexander permanently had to have as though two mask: one for a pastern, other for the father. In 1793 it married to princess Louise Badenskoj (in orthodoxy Elizabeth Alekseevna) which used sympathy of Russian society, but it has not been liked by the husband. Ascent on prestolSchitaetsja, that shortly before the mors Ekaterina II reputed to bequeath to Alexander a holy table around of the son. Apparently, the grandson keeps abreast of its{her} these plans, but to accept a holy table has not agreed. After accession of Paul Alexander's rule{situation;position} has even more become complicated, wherefore he had to prove to suspicious emperor the loyalty permanently. Alexander's attitude{relation} to policy of the father had sharply critical character. Alexander's these moods promoted his{its} entrainment in a plot against Paul, but on conditions, that conspirators will save to his{its} father life and his{its} abdication will achieve only. Tragical events on March, 11 1801 have seriously influenced on spiritual cостояние Alexander: he tested{experienced} feeling of guilt for mors of the father up to the extremity of the days. The beginning reformAleksandr I has ascended on the Russian holy table, designing to execute{come true} a radical reform political building Russia by building the constitution, guaranteeing all citizen personal liberty and civic rights. He understood, that similar " revolution from above " will put{cause} actually to liquidation of autocracy and was ready in an event of success to expel from an authority. However he also perceived, that requires a fixed social support, in adherents. It was necessary for him to save of pressure as on the part of the conspirators, overthrown Paul, and supporting them " ekaterininskih old men ". Already in the first days after accession Alexander has declared, that will steer Russia " under laws and on heart " Ekaterinas II. 5 of April 1801 have been built Indispensable advice{council} - zakonosoveshchatelnyj an organ at the sovereign, received the right to protest action and decrees of tsar. In May of the same year Alexander has submitted for consideration advice{council} the design of the decree about ban of sale of peasants without ground, but councilors let know to emperor, that acceptance of the similar decree will call fermentation among noblemen and will put{cause} to a new coup d'etat. After that Alexander has centred the gains on development of reform in a circle of the " pullet{young man} friends " (V.P.Kochubey, A.A.Chartoryjsky, A.S.Stroganov, N.N.Novosiltsev). For time of crowning of Alexander (September 1801) Indispensable by advice{council} preformed{readied} the design " the Most gracious letter, to Russian people zhaluemoj ", the keeping warranty of the main{basic} civic rights of citizens (freedom of speech, seales{printing}, conscience, personal safety, the warranty of a private property, etc.), The design of the manifest on a country problem (the interdiction of sale of peasants without ground, establishment about the repayment of peasants for the landowner) and the design of reorganization of the Senate. During discussion of designs acute contraventions between members Indispensable advice{council} and as a result any of three documents has not been made public croped out. It has been only declared about the arrest of dispensation of state peasants in private{individual} arms{hand}. The further consideration of a country problem has reduced in occurrence{appearance} on February, 20 1803 decrees about " loose grain growers ", allowing to landowners to liberate peasants and to assign to them ground in the property, that for the first time created a grade of personally loose peasants. In bridge Alexander executed administrative reform and reform of education. The second stage reformV the same years Alexander has already experienced taste of an authority and has become to find advantage in autocratic board. The disappointment in the nearest surrounding has forced it{him} to search for a support in people, personally to him devoted and irrelevant with stately aristocracy. He approaches{approximates} to itself(himself) all over again A.A.Arakcheev, and after M.B.Barclay de Tolli, becoming in 1810 military minister, and M.M.Speransky to whom Alexander has entrusted development of the new design of state reform. Speransky design reputed actual transformation{conversion} of Russia to the constitutional monarchy where the authority of sovereign would be limited to the two-chamber body of legislation of parliamentary type. Realization of the plan of Speransky began in 1809 when practice of equating of court ranks to civil has been cancelled and the educational qualification for civil officers has been entered. On January, 1 1810 the Council of state substituting Indispensable has been established. It was supposed, that initially large powers of the Council of state will be then are narrowed down after establishment of the State Duma. During 1810-11 in the Council of state plans of financial, ministerial and senatorial reforms offered Speransky were discussed. Realization first of them has reduced in reduction of budget gap, by a summer 1811 transformation{conversion} of the ministries has been completed. Meanwhile Alexander tested{experienced} the strongest pressure of a court surrounding, including members of his{its} family, aspiring{trying} to not admit radical reforms. Fixed influence on him{it} and " the Note about ancient and new Russia ", apparently, has rendered N.M.Karamzina who has given, apparently, the halter to emperor to doubt of a regularity selected him{it} ways. The factor and a world situation of Russia had important value: usilivavsheesja pressure{voltage;stress} in attitudes{relations} with France and necessity of a preparation for war oppositions enabled to treat Speransky reformatory activity as anti-state, and Speransky to declare the napoleonic spy. All this has reduced to that susceptible Alexander in compromises though and not trusting in Speransky wine, in March 1812 has sent it{him} in demission. External politikaPridja to an authority, Alexander attempted a carry the foreign policy as though from " a clear leaf ". The new Russian government aspired{tried} to create in Europe system of collective security, having linked all master mandatory powers among themselves a number{series} of agreements. However already in 1803 world with France has appeared for Russia unprofitable, in May 1804 Russian party has withdrawn the ambassador from France and has become to be prepared for new war. Alexander considered{counted} Napoleon as a numeral of violation of legitimacy of the world order. But the Russian emperor has overestimated the capabilities, as has reduced in catastrophe under Austerlitsem in November 1805, and presence of emperor at army, his{its} inept orders had the most noxious consequences. 1806 nonpredatory tract signed in June with France Alexander has refused to ratify, and only the defeat under Fridlandom in May 1807 has forced the Russian emperor to go on the agreement. At his{its} first appointment to Napoleon in Tilsit in June 1807 Alexander managed to prove the uncommon diplomat and, in opinion of some historians, actually "to beat" Napoleon. Between Russia and France the union and the agreement on section of catchment areas have been encased. As has shown the further development of events, Tilzitskoe the agreement has appeared more advantageous of Russia, having allowed Russia to save forces. Napoleon sincerely considered{counted} Russia as the unique possible{probable} ally in Europe. In 1808 parties discussed plans of a joint marching for India and the unit of Ottoman empire. At meeting with Alexander in Erfurt (September 1808) Napoleon has recognized the right of Russia on entrapped during the russko-Swedish war (1808-09) Finland, and Russia - the right of France to Spain. However already at this time attitudes{relations} between allies become to be heated due to imperial interests of both parties. So, existence of duchy Warsaw did not settle Russia, continental blockage harmed to the Russian economy, and on the Balkans each of two countries had natural far-reaching plans. In 1810 Alexander has refused to Napoleon a suitor for the hand of his{its} sister of great princess of Anna Pavlovny (afterwards queen of Netherlands), and has signed the regulations about to neutral{inert} trade which was actually bringing to nothing continental blockage. There is a supposition, that Alexander was going to plot to Napoleon anticipatory impact but after France has concluded allied agreements with Austria and Prussia, Russia has become to be prepared for war defensive. On June, 12 1812 French troops have crossed the Russian border{limit}. Domestic war began 1812 years. Domestic war 1812 Encroachment of napoleonic armies into Russia (about which he has learned{has found out}, being in Vilno) has been perceived by Alexander not only as the greatest threat of Russia but also as the personal offence, and Napoleon has become henceforth for him{it} a fatal personal enemy. Not wishing to retry experience Austerlitsa and being subject to pressure of the surrounding, Alexander has abandoned army and has returned to Petersburg. During all time while Barclay de Tolli executed otstupatelnyj the manoeuvre calling on him{it} fire of sharp criticism as a society, and armies, Alexander almost did not show the solidarity with the commander. After Smolensk has been left, emperor has conceded to overall requests and has nominated to M.I.Kutuzov this post{station}. With expulsion{relegation} of a napoleonic troops from Russia Alexander has returned to army and was in her during oversea marchings 1813-14. Victory above Napoleon has strengthened the sacred union Alexander's authority, he has become one of mogushchestvennejshih governors of Europe, the deliverer of its{her} peoples feeling to whom it is assigned special, fixed a god's will mission on an avoidance on continent of the further wars and devastations. He considered{counted} calmness of Europe as well as a necessary condition for realization of the reformatory premeditations in the Russia. For maintenance of these conditions it was necessary to save status quo, fixed solutions of the Austrian congress (1815) on which to Russia the terrain of Great duchy Warsaw has departed, and in France the monarchy recovered{restored}, and Alexander has insisted to establishment in this country of a konstitutsionno-monarchist system that should serve as precedent for establishment of similar modes and in other countries. The Russian emperor, in particular{personally}, managed to enlist cooperation with allies of his{its} idea about introduction of the constitution in Poland. In the capacity of the guarantor of observance{holding} of solutions of the Austrian congress emperor initiated building the Sacred union (on September, 14 1815) - a pre-image of international organizations of 20 century. Alexander has been convinced, that above Napoleon he is obliged victory to a craft God's, his{its} religiosity permanently strengthened. The strong influence on him{it} was rendered by baroness J.Krjudener and archimandrite Photius. Under some data, his{its} belief has acquired ekumenistichesky character, and he gradually became mistikom. Alexander directly participat in activity of congresses of the Sacred union in Aachen (September - November 1818), Troppau and Lajbahe (October - December 1820 - January 1821), Verona (October December 1822). However intensifying of the Russian influence in Europe invoked{produced} countersteering allies. In 1825 Sacred union in essence has broken up. Post-war reforms Having strengthened as a result of victory above the Frenchmen the authority, Alexander and in internal policy of post-war time has undertaken the alternate series of reformatory attempts. Still in 1809 the Great principality Finnish has been built, becoming in essence an autonomy with natural parliament without which consent tsar could not change the legislation and introduces{uptakes} new taxes, and a senate (government). In May 1815 Alexander has declared about bestowal of the constitution to the Kingdom Polish, providing building of two-chamber parliament, system of a local government and freedom of the press. In 1817-18 number{series} of close people to emperor (including. A.A.Arakcheev) were engaged under his{its} order in development of designs of installment liquidation of serfdom in Russia. In 1818 Alexander has given N.N.Novosiltsevu's task to preform a draft constitution for Russia. The design of " the State authorized letter of Russian empire ", providing the federative device of country, was ready to the extremity 1820 and is approved by emperor, but his{its} introduction has been postponed indefinitely. To the nearest surrounding tsar complained, that has no mates and cannot find approaching people on governor's positions. Former ideals more and more seem to Alexander only sterile romantic dreams and the illusions which have been torn off from substantial political practice. Deinebriating influence has rendered on Alexander an information about revolt Semenovskogo a shelf (1820), perceived by him{it} as threat of revolutionary explosion in Russia for which avoidance it was necessary to accept strict measures. Nevertheless dreams of reforms did not abandon emperor down to 1822-23. Intensifying reaktsiiOdnim from paradoxes of internal policy of Alexander of post-war time has become that circumstance, that attempts of updating of the Russian state were accompanied by establishment of a police mode, after received the title "arakcheevshchiny". Its{her} numeral of steel military settlements in which Alexander, however, saw one of ways of discharging of peasants from personal relation but which invoked{produced} hatred in the wide sections of a society. In 1817 instead of the Ministry of Public Education the Ministry for spiritual businesses and national enlightenment has been built led by the ober-public prosecutor of the Most holy synod and the chapter of the Biblical society of A.N.Golitsynym. Under his{its} guiding rout of the Russian universities has been actually carried out, severe censorship was established. In 1822 Alexander has forbidden activity in Russia of masonic lodges and other secret societies and has affirmed the proposal of the Senate allowing to landowners for " bad acts " to banish the peasants to Siberia. At the same time emperor has been aware of activity of the first decembrist organizations, but has not undertaken any measures against their members, considering, that they disjoint fallacies of his{its} youth. In the last years of life Alexander again quite often spoke close about intention to abdicate and " to expel from the world ", that after his{its} unexpected mors from a typhoid in Taganrog has generated a legend about " startse Feodor Kuzmiche ". According to this legend, in Taganrog has died and was then Alexander is buried not, and his{its} half-and-half while tsar still lived for long a startsem-hermit in Siberia and has died in 1864. But any documentary acknowledgement{confirmations} of this legend does not exist{breathe}. Литература:Богданович M.I.Istorija of reign of emperor Alexander I and Russia in his{its} time. SPb., 1869-71. T. 1-6. Shilder N.K.Imperator Alexander I. His{its} life and reign. SPb., 1904-05. T. 1-4. Nikolay Mihajlovich, grand duke. Emperor Alexander I. SPb., 1912. T. 1-2. Predtechensky A.V.Ocherki of a political history of Russia in the first quarter of XIX century. М.; Л., 1957. Safonov M.M.Problema of reforms in governmental policy of Russia on a boundary XVIII and XIX centuries. Л., 1988. Mironenko S.V.Samoderzhavie and reforms: the Political struggle in Russia in the beginning of XIX century. М., 1989. Saccharums A.N.Alexander I // the Russian autocrats (1801-1917). М., 1993. Troitsky N.A.Alexander I and Napoleon. М., 1994. Vandal A.Napoleon and Alexander I. Body heights - na-Donu, 1995. T. 1-3. Almendingen E. M. The Emperor Alexander I. London, 1964. McConnell A. Tsar Alexander I: Paternalistic Reformer. New York, 1970. Palmer A. Alexander I: Tsar of War and Peace. London, 1974. Dziewanowski M. K. Alexander I: Russia's Mysterious Tsar. New York, 1990.. B.Kamensky
ALEXANDER I GEORGIEVICH (?-1511), tsar Kaheti with 1492. Struggled with irano-turkish aggression, in 1491-92 has directed amicable embassy to Russia. In nach. 16 century the vassal of the Iranian check.
ALEXANDER I KARAGEORGIEVICH (1888-1934), with 1921 king of Yugoslavia (up to 1929 Kingdom of Serbs, horvatov and Slovenes). In 1929 has placed{installed} military - monarchic dictatorship. Conducted velikoserbskuju internal policy, in foreign policy has oriented by France. It is killed in Marseilles (together with the French Minister for Foreign Affairs L.Bart) ustashami.
ALEXANDER II (Alexander) (before election Anselm from Lucca) (mind{wit}. In 1073), a dad Roman with 1061. Studied for Lanfranka in Beke; diocesan of Lucca (1057). It is selected a dad kardinalskoj board in a balance weight appointed as emperor Genrihom to IV anti-pope Gonoriju. In cooperation with Gildebrandom (a dad Grigory VII) and Peter Damiani has laid foundation the future to motion of reforms in the Latin church.
ALEXANDER II (1818-81), the Russian emperor with 1855. The higher son Nikolay I. Has executed{has come true} cancellation of serfdom and has conducted then a number{series} of reforms (zemskaja, judicial, military, etc.). After Polish revolt 1863-64 has transfered to a reactivity internal political course. With kon. 70th have amplified reprisals against revolutionaries. In Alexander's reign II apposition to Russia of terrains of Caucasus (1864), Kazakhstan (1865), a large part Compare was finished. Asia (1865-81). With the purpose of intensifying influence on the Balkans and the help to national-liberation motion of slavonic peoples Russia participat in russko-turkish war 1877-78. On Alexander's life II a number{series} of attempts (1866, 1867, 1879, 1880) has been accomplished; it is killed narodovoltsami.
ALEXANDER II (?-1605), tsar Kaheti with 1574. Struggled with the Iranian aggression. In 1587 has sworn on an accuracy Russian I reign to Feodor Ivanovichu. It is killed under the order of the Iranian check.
ALEXANDER III (?-1181), Pope with 1159. Aspired{tried} to a supreme authority of the papacy above society sovereigns. In extirpation with Fridrihom I Barbarossa sustained Lombardskuju league.
ALEXANDER III (1845-94), the Russian emperor with 1881. Second son Alexander II. In 1-st floor. 80th has executed{has come true} cancellation podushnoj podati, has declined redemption payments. About 2-nd floor. 80th has conducted "counterreforms". Has strengthened a role of police, aboriginal and central administration. In Alexander's reign III basically apposition to Russia Compare is completed. Asia (1885), the Russian-French union (1891-93) is encased.
ALEXANDER VI (1431-1503), Pope with 1492. In 1493 has emited bulls about section of spheres of influence in Western hemisphere between Spain and Portugal (see. Tordesiljassky agreement 1494). Sustained aggressive plans of son Chezare Bordzha. Political opponents removed with the help of a poison and a dagger. In 1497 otluchil from church Savonarolu, promoted his{its} execution.
ALEXANDER VII (Alexander) (in world Fabio Kidzhi, Fabio Chigi) (1599-1667), a dad Roman with 1655. During thirteen flying was the papal nuncio in Cologne (with 1639), a cardinal bird and the stats-secretary of Vatican (1652). Has confirmed decree Innokentija X condemning jansenizm. At a nem attitudes{relations} with Lui XIV who has selected Avignon for Papal States have worsened.
ALEXANDER VIII (Alexander) (in world Pjetro Ottoboni, Pietro Ottoboni) (1610-1691), a dad Roman with 1689. A cardinal bird (1652) and diocesan Breshii (1654). Has achieved an improvement of relations with Lui XIV, has returned Avignon; has assisted Poland and Venice in their extirpation with Turkey.
ALEXANDER Adrianopolsky (Eastern) (3 century), diocesan, the martyr. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on October, 22.
ALEXANDER (mind{wit}. 326 or 328), sacred, diocesan Alexandria (313). Struggled with schism Meletija and arianism; on a cathedral in Alexandria ok. 321 otluchil Arius and it{him} posledovatelej from Church; one of main figures of 1-st Ecumenical council in Nicea in 325. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 29 (on June, 11), in Roman catholic on April, 18.
ALEXANDER Afrikansky (mind{wit}. ok. 250), the Christian martyr - soldier damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 10 (23).
ALEXANDER AFRODISIJSKY, the ancient greek philosopher peripateticheskoj schools (kon. 2 - nach. 3 centuries). Commentator Aristotelja, has exerted influence on paduanskuju P.Pomponatstsi's school, etc.
ALEXANDER BATTENBERG, see Battenberg And.
ALEXANDER Vochsky, Galichsky (mind{wit}. In nach. 16 century), Saint, the founder of the Preobrazhenskiy monastery on coast r. Vochi in 50 versts from Galich. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 27 (on April, 9).
ALEXANDER KIND (?-1432), Moldavian gospodar with 1400. Promoted a strengthening of independence of the Moldavian state, successfully struggled against the tatar khans, Polish and Hungarian feudal lords, encouraged trade and promoted development of cities.
ALEXANDER Djakon (1674-1720), the old believe figure, the outlet box, the prior of a monastery of St.. Lawrence on Kerzhentse; the founder of the consent djakonovtsev (novokadilnikov). It is executed in Nizhni Novgorod.
ALEXANDER Egipetsky (mind{wit}. 361-363), the Christian martyr - soldier damaged in persecution of emperor of Julian of the Renegade. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 9 (22).
ALEXANDER Egipetsky, Kesarijsky (Palestinian) (mind{wit}. 303), a name of each of two martyrs damaged in Cesarea Palestinian in the persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 15 (28).
ALEXANDER (mind{wit}. 250 or 251), sacred, diocesan Jerusalem (212). Pupil Klimenta Alexandria. In persecution of emperor Detsija it committed to prison, where has died. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 16 (29) and on December, 12 (25), in Roman catholic on March, 18.
ALEXANDER from Antioch on the Meander (nach. 2 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, son Mendida. Unique known product{creation} of this master - a statue of Venus Milosskoj on which dado the fragmented signature of the writer was saved.
ALEXANDER from Gelsa (Alexander Halensis) (ok. 1170 or ok. 1185-1245), the philosopher, the representative avgustinovskogo platonizma, the franciscan. Taught in Paris. In it{him} to " the Sum of theology " inheritance Aristotelja was used.
ALEXANDER KAZIMIROVICH (1460-1506), grand duke Lithuanian with 1492, king Polish with 1501. Son Kazimira IV. At a nem the authority of magnates has amplified. In 1505 has entered the canopy of laws - Radomskuju the constitution. As a result of wars with Russian state (1492-94, 1500-03) Lithuania has lost earlier entrapped Russian grounds (Verhovskie principalities, Chernigov, etc.).
ALEXANDER Katalitsky (Kalitsky) (mind{wit}. In nach. 4 century), the Christian martyr, the smith damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 28 (on October, 11).
ALEXANDER Komansky (mind{wit}. In kon. 3 century), the martyr, diocesan. Having taken up exploit jurodstva, was the coal miner in Komanah; it is dedicated in diocesans by Grigory Chudotvortsem. In persecution of emperor Diokletiana for confession of the Christ it incinerated. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 12 (25), in Roman catholic on August, 11.
ALEXANDER Konstantinopolsky (mind{wit}. ok. 430), Saint, the founder of mansions of acoemetaes ("not covering") on Euphrates, then in Constantinople in which continuous night-and-day worship service was committed. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 23 (on March, 8) and on July, 3 (16), in Roman catholic on January, 15.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356-323 up to n. e.), Tsar Macedoniuses with 336. The son of tsar Phillip II, was educated Aristotelem. Having conquered persians at Granike (334), Isse (333), Gavgamelah (331), has subordinated kingdom Ahemenidov, has intruded in Compare. Asia (329), has conquered grounds up to r. Indus, having created the largest world monarchy of an antiquity. ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Alexander III Great) (356, Pella, Macedonius - on June, 13 323 up to n. e., Babylon), tsar Macedoniuses, the great commander, the creator of the largest state of the ancient world. Successor Phillip II Son of macedonian tsar Phillip II and queens of the Olympic, Alexander has received perfect{fine} education for the time, his{its} tutor about 13 flying was Aristotel. Alexander's liked reading were heroic poems Gomera. He has passed military preparation under a guiding of the father. Already in juvenile years he has demonstrated special talents to polkovodcheskomu to art. In 338 personal sharing{participation} Alexander in battle at Heronee in many respects has decided outcome of battle for the benefit of macedonians. The youth of the successor of a macedonian holy table has been clouded by divorce of parents. Phillip's secondary marriage on other woman (Kleopatre) has become the cause of quarrel of Alexander with the father. After mysterious assassination of tsar Phillip in June 336 up to n. e. 20-years Alexander has been erected on a holy table. A marching to the Orient. The Grecian army the Main task of pullet{young man} tsar preparation to a military marching to Persia has become. In the patrimony from Phillip from has received the strongest army of Ancient Greece, but Alexander perceived, that gains of all will be necessary for victory above huge mandatory power Ahemenidov Ellady. He managed to create panellinsky (obshchegrechesky) the union and to form consolidated greko-macedonian army. The elite of army was compounded{made} by bodyguards of tsar (gipaspisty) and macedonian imperial guards. The basis{fundamentals} konnitsy were riders from Thessaly. The pedestrian soldiers wore a heavy bronze armour, main weapons of them were a macedonian spear - sarissa. Alexander has improved battle tactics of the father. Macedonian phalanx he has become to plot an angle, such construction allowed to concentrate forces for attack of dextral flank of the opponent, traditionally weak in armies of the ancient world. Besides a heavy infantry in army there was a considerable figure legkovooruzhennyh auxiliary orders from miscellaneous cities of Greece. The aggregate number of an infantry compounded{made} 30 thousand person, konnitsy - 5 thousand. Despite of rather small number, greko-macedonian army it has been well trained and armed. Battles at Granike and Isse In 334 army of macedonian tsar were forwarded through Hellespont (sovr. Dardanelles), war under the slogan of vengeance to persians for porugannye began the Grecian relics of Minor Asia. At the first stage of act of war to Alexander stood up to{countered;resisted} persian satrapy, run Minor Asia. Their 60-thousand army has been routed in 333 in battle at river Granik then the Grecian cities of Minor Asia have been free. However the state Ahemenidov had huge human and material resources{safe lifes}. Tsar Dary III, having collected the best troops from all cleaning cloth of the country, has moved towards to Alexander, but in decisive battle at Isse near to border{limit} of Syria and Cilicia (area of the modern Iskanderuna, Turkey) his{its} 100-thousand army has been battered, and he was hardly rescued by escape behavior. Alexander in EgipteAleksandr has decided to take advantage of fruits of the victory and has prolonged a marching. Successful osada the Shooting gallery has discovered to him a road to Egypt, and in the winter 332-331 greko-macedonian phalanxes have quitted for a valley of Nile. The population poraboshchennyh persians of countries accepted macedonians as deliverers. For conservation of a resistant authority in entrapped grounds Alexander has undertaken not ordinary walk - having proclaimed itself the son of the egyptian god Ammona identified by Greeks with Zevsom, he became with the legal governor (pharaon) in eyes of Egyptians. In another way strengthening of an authority in pokorennyh countries resettlement in them Greeks and macedonians that promoted distribution{propagation} of the Grecian tongue and crop in huge terrains was. For migrants Alexander specially based the new cities routinely wearing his{its} name. Most known of them - Alexandria (Egyptian) .Razgrom mandatory powers Ahemenidov After realization of a reform of finance in Egypt Alexander has prolonged a marching to the Orient. The Greko-macedonian army has intruded Mesopotamia. Dary III, having collected all possible{probable} forces, attempted to stop Alexander, but in vain, on October, 1 331 persians have been finally routed in battle at Gavgamelah (bliz the modern Irbilja, Iraq). Winners have taken primordial persian grounds, cities Babylons, Susa, Persepolis, Ecbatana. Dary III ran, but has soon been killed Bessom, satrapom Bactria; Alexander has ordered to bury the latter persian the lord with imperial honours in Persepolis. Mandatory power Ahemenidov has ceased to exist{breathe}. Alexander has been professed by " tsar of Asia ". After occupation of Ecbatana he has sent home all allies - Greeks desiring it. In the state he has planned to create new ruling class from macedonians and persians, aspired{tried} to win round aboriginal to know, that displeased his{its} colleagues. In 330 the oldest commander Parmenion and his{its} son, the chief of cavalry Filota accused of the implication in a crime to a plot against Alexander have been executed. A marching to Central Asia and India Perejdja through the east - Iranian ranges, Alexander's army has intruded Central Asia (Bactria and Sogdiana) which local population led by Spitamenom has rendered fierce resistance; it{he} managed to be suppressed only after death Spitamena in 328. Alexander tried to respect local customs, wore the persian imperial clothes{clothing}, married on baktrijke Roksane. However his{its} attempt to enter the persian court ceremonial (in particular{personally}, padanie nits before tsar) has come across on neprijatie Greeks. Alexander was ruthlessly straightened with dissatisfied. His{its} foster btother Klit, dared to disobey it{him}, has been immediately killed. After a greko-macedonian troops have quitted for a valley of Indus, between them and soldiers of indian tsar It is time there was a battle for Gidaspa (326). Indijtsy were poverzheny, chasing them, Alexander's army was lowered downwards across Indus to Indian ocean (325). The valley of Indus has been adjoined to Alexander's mandatory power. The exhausting of a troops and rebelions sparking in them have forced Alexander to turn{rotate} to the west. Alexander in Babylon Having returned in Babylon which has become his{its} stationary value a residence, Alexander has prolonged policy of association of the polyglot population of the of the mandatory power, rendezvous{approach} with persian znatju with which involved in government. He settled mass weddings macedonians with Persians, itself married (besides Roksany) simultaneously two Persians - Statire (daughters Darija) and Parisatide. Alexander was prepared for conquest of Arabia and Boreal Africa, but this was hindered by his{its} sudden mors from a malaria. His{its} body delivered to Alexandria Egyptian Ptolemy (one of spodvizhnikov the great commander), has been placed at a golden coffin. Destiny of empire huge the mandatory powers have been professed by New tsars neonatal son Alexander and his{its} step-brother Arridej. Actually empire Alexander's commanders - diadohi, soon begun war for section of the state among themselves become to steer. Political and economic unity which aspired{tried} to create Alexander the Great on entrapped grounds, was unfast, but the Grecian influence on the Orient has appeared rather fruitful and has reduced in formation of crop ellinizma. The personality Alexander the Great was extremely popular both among european peoples, and on the Orient where he is known under name Iskander Zulkarnejn (or Iskandar Zulkarnajn, that in transfer{translation} Alexander Dvurogy) .Литература:Арриан means. Alexander's marching. М.; Л., 1962. Quints Kurtsy Ruf. A history Alexander the Great. М., 1963. Plutarh. Comparative biographies. М., 1963. T. 2. Kostjuhin E.A.Aleksandr Makedonsky in literary and folklore tradition. М., 1972. Gafurov B.G., TSibukidis D.I.Aleksandr Makedonsky and the Orient. М., 1980. SHahermaejr F.Aleksandr Makedonsky. М., 1986. Shifman I. Sh. Alexander the Great. Л., 1988. M.J.Salonikes
ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH (1301-39), grand duke Tver with 1326 and vladimirskiy in 1326-27. In vain struggled with Ivan I Kalitoj for a grand-ducal table. It is killed in Golden Horde.
ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH (1866-1933), the Russian grand duke, the grandson of emperor Nikolay I, admiral and general - aide-de-camp (1909). In 1901-05 glavnoupravljajushchy a merchant shipping and ports. Participated in building Russian aircraft. In 1916-17 field general - inspector of air-force fleet. With 1918 in emigration.
ALEXANDER NEVA (1221?-1263), prince Novgorod in 1236-51, grand duke vladimirskiy with 1252. The son of prince Jaroslava Vsevolodovicha. Victories above Swedes (the Neva battle 1240) and german knights Livonskogo of order (Ice slaughter 1242) has secured western borders{limits} of Russia. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church. ALEXANDER Jaroslavich (Feodorovich) NEVA - (on May, 13 1221? - on November, 14 1263), prince Novgorod (c 1236), grand duke vladimirskiy (with 1252). An origin. The beginning of reigning Was born in family of prince Jaroslava Vsevolodovicha and princess of Feodosiya, the daughter of prince Mstislava Udatnogo (Daring). Grandson Vsevoloda the Major Nest. The first cramps on Alexander fall into 1228 when JAroslav Vsevolodovich, reigning in Novgorod, has entered the conflict to town-dwellers and have been compelled to drive off to Pereyaslavl - Zalessky, the generic destiny. Despite of the leaving he has kept in Novgorod on custody of confidential boyars of two minor sons Feodor and Alexander. After Feodor Alexander's mors becomes the higher son Jaroslava Vsevolodovicha. In 1236 he has been landed on the Novgorod reigning, and in 1239 married on Polotsk knjazhne Alexander Brjachislavne. In the first years of the reigning he had to be engaged in strengthening of Novgorod as from the orient Mongols - tartars threatened. On the river Sheloni Alexander has constructed some strengths. Victory on Neva. Ice slaughter Overall glory to pullet{young man} prince was brought with the victory gained by him{it} on coast of Neva, in a river mouth of Izhora on July, 15 1240 above the Swedish order which, on a legend, the future governor of Sweden jarl Birger (however in Eric's Swedish Chronicle of 14 century about Birger's life commanded this marching is not mentioned at all). Alexander personally participat in battle, " to the king vzlozhi a seal{printing} on a face ostrym svoim kopiem ". It is considered, what exactly for this victory of prince become to call Neva, but for the first time this nickname meets in sources only from 14 century. As it is known, that some descendants of prince also wore a nickname Neva it is possible thus behind them possessions in this district were fixed. Traditionally suppose, that battle 1240 has prevented loss by Russia of coasts of gulf of Finland, has stopped the Swedish aggression on the novgorodsko-Pskov grounds. After recurring from coasts of Neva because of the alternate conflict Alexander has been compelled to abandon Novgorod and to leave for Pereyaslavl - Zalessky. In the meantime above Novgorod the threat from the west has hung. Livonsky the order, having collected german crusaders of Baltic, danish knights from Revel, having enlisted cooperation papal kurii and old rivals novgorodtsev pskovichej, has intruded limits of the Novgorod grounds. From Novgorod the embassy to JAroslavu Vsevolodovichu with the request for the help has been sent. That has directed to Novgorod armed order led by son Andrey Jaroslavichem who was soon substituted by Alexander. He has released occupied in knights Koporje and ground Vodskuju, and then has beaten out german garrison from Pskov. Inspired with successes novgorodtsy have intruded on terrain Livonskogo of order and have started to break settlements estov, tributarys of crusaders. The knights who have left Riga, have deleted forward Russian shelves Domasha Tverdislavicha, having forced Alexander to assign the orders to border{limit} Livonskogo of order which were taking place on lake Chudskomu. Both parties become to be prepared for decisive battle. It has taken place on ice of lake Chudskogo, for Voronjego of a stone on April, 5 1242 and has become history as Ice slaughter. German knights have been routed. Livonsky the order has been put before necessity to conclude peace on which crusaders were refused from claims on Russian grounds, and also transmitted part Latgalii. In the summer of the same year Alexander has defeated seven Lithuanian orders, napadavshim on northwest Russian grounds, in 1245 has beaten off Toropets, entrapped Lithuania, has deleted the Lithuanian order for lake Zhiztsa and, at last, has routed the Lithuanian home guard under Usvjatom. Alexander and the Horde Alexander Nevskogo's Successful act of war have for a long time protected against a contingency western borders{limits} of Russia, but on the orient Russian knjazjam it was necessary to bow to much more the strong enemy - mongolo-tartars. In 1243 khan Batyj, the governor of a western part Mongolian the mandatory powers - Golden Horde, has handed a label of grand duke vladimirskiy on steering pokorennymi Russian grounds over father Alexander - JAroslavu Vsevolodovichu. Great khan of Mongols Gujuk has invoked grand duke in the capital Karakorum where on September, 30 1246 JAroslav has unexpectedly deceased (on the conventional version, he has been venenate). Then in Korakorum his{its} sons - Alexander and Andrey have been called. While JAroslavichi reached Mongolia, khan Gujuk has died, and new mistress Karakoruma hansha Ogul-Gamish has decided to nominate as grand duke Andrey, Alexander received waste austral Russia and Kiev in steering. Only to 1249 brothers could return home. Alexander has not gone to the new possessions, and has returned to Novgorod where hardly was ill. About this time, Pope Innokenty IV has directed to Alexander Nevskomu embassy with the proposal to accept a catholicism, ostensibly in exchange for the help in joint extirpation against Mongols. This proposal has been disallowed by Alexander in the most categorical form. In 1252 in Karakorume Ogul-Gamish was svergnuta new great khan Munke (Mengke). Having taken advantage of this circumstance and having decided to discharge of great reigning Andrey Jaroslavicha, Batyj the label of grand duke Alexander Nevskomu which has been urgently called in capital of Golden Horde the Shed has handed. But junior brother Alexander, Andrey Jaroslavich backed{promoted;supported} by brother Jaroslavom, the Tver prince, and Daniel Romanovichem, galitskim prince, has refused to be subject to solution Batyja. For punishment of rebellious princes Batyj sends the Mongolian order under command Nevrjuja (t. n. " Nevrjuevu a host ") therefore Andrey and JAroslav ran for limits of North-east Russia. Later, in 1253 JAroslav JAroslavovich has been engaged on reigning to Pskov, and in 1255 - to Novgorod. And novgorodtsy "vygnasha" the former prince Vasily - son Alexander Nevskogo. But Alexander, again having landed{put} in Novgorod of Vasily, has severely punished the combatants, not managed to defend rights of his{its} son - they have been blinded. New zolotoordynsky the governor khan Berk (with 1255) has entered in Russia general for pokorennyh grounds system of taxation by a tribute. In 1257 to Novgorod, as well as other Russian cities, have been directed "chislenniki" for realization podushnoj population censuses. It has called a disturbance novgorodtsev which were supported by prince Vasily. In Novgorod began the revolt proceeding about one and a half flying during which novgorodtsy were not subject to Mongols. Alexander has personally put things in order, having executed the most active participants of agitations. Vasily Aleksandrovich has been seized and encased under the sentinel. Novgorod has been broken and was subject to the order to send a tribute to Golden Horde. The new Novgorod viceroy with 1259 prince Dmitry Aleksandrovich has become. In 1262 have sparked agitations in the Suzdal cities where were perebity hanskie baskaki and the tatar merchants are oustered. That umilostivit khan Berk, Alexander Nevsky has personally departed with gifts to the Horde. Hahn retained prince near itself all the winter long and summer; only in the autumn Alexander has had an opportunity to return in Vladimir, but on a road has fallen ill and on November, 14 1263 in Gorodtse has deceased. The body of it{him} was pogrebeno in the vladimirskiy monastery of Christmas of the Deipara. Alexander Nevskogo's canonization In conditions of the terrible tests which have fallen on Russian grounds, Alexander Nevsky has managed to find forces for opposition to western conquerors, having won fame the great Russian commander, and also has put in pawn a fundamentals of relations with Golden Horde. Already in 1280 years in Vladimir honoring Alexander Nevskogo as sacred starts, later he has been officially sainted by Russian orthodox church. Alexander Nevsky was the unique orthodox society governor not only in Russia, but also in all Europe which has not compromised a latin church for the sake of conservation of an authority. With the participation his{its} son Dmitry Aleksandrovicha and metropolitan Cyril the story which has received a wide circulation in more later time widely known (15 editions were saved) .V 1724 Peter I has been written zhitijnaja has based in Petersburg a monastery in honour of the great compatriot (nowadays Aleksandro-Neva a laurel) and has enjoined to transport there remnants of prince. He has decided to mark Alexander Nevskogo's memory{remembrance} on August, 30 per day the conclusions victorious Nishtadskogo the world with Sweden. In 1725 empress Ekaterina I has founded Alexander Nevskogo's order - one of the maximum awards of Russia existing up to 1917. During Great Domestic war in 1942 Alexander Nevskogo's Soviet order with which commanders from armings{platoons} up to divisions inclusively were awarded, exhibited personal courage and supplying{ensuring} successful actions of the parts has been established. Литература:Вернадский G.V.Dva of exploit over. Alexander Nevskogo // Euroasian vremennik. Berlin, 1925. T. 4. Pashuto V. T. Alexander Nevsky. М., 1974. Zhitie Alexanders Nevskogo / Podgot. The text, per. And komment. V.I.Ohotnikovoj // Monuments of the literature of Ancient Russia: XIII eyelids. 1981. Seconds 426-439. Kuchkin Century. And. About date of a birth of Alexander Nevskogo // Problems of a history. 1986. № 2. Seconds 174-176. Fennel Dzh. Crisis of medieval Russia: 1200-1304: Per. With English. М., 1989. I.N.Danilevsky



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