Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ALEXANDER Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • ALEXANDER Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • ALEXANDER the NORTH (Alexander Severus) (208-235), Roman emperor with 222, from a dynasty Severov. In 231-232 waged successful war with Persia.
  • ALEXANDER Tomsky (Kjustendzhijsky) (mind{wit}. In kon. 3 - nach. 4 century), the chief of the city administration, father prepodobnomuchenika Astiona Almirisskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 7 (20).
  • ALEXANDER I GROUND, a southwest part Antarctic p-ova in Antarctica. It is bridged to mainland George's ice shelf VI. Length of 400 kms, width of 200 kms. Above a glacial cover of a mountain (up to 2987 м). It is open{discovered} F.F.Bellinsgauzena and M.P.Lazareva's by Russian expedition in 1821.
  • ALEXANDER ARCHIPELAGO, for a western shore the Sowing. America, a part of terrain pieces. Alaska (USA). 36,8 thousand км2. The population over 30 thousand person. An altitude up to 1432 m. Coniferous forests and Alpine meadows. Fishery, a fur farming, a logging area. It is open{discovered} in V.Bering and A.I.Chirikova's 1741 Russian expedition. Up to 1867 in structure t. n. Russian America.
  • ALEXANDER the MOSAIC (2 century up to n. e.), a floor-stand mosaic in the dwelling of the Faun in Pompeii with the plotting of battle Alexander the Great and Darija III at Isse. Probably, from Alexandria. Repetition of a well-known pattern of Grecian artist Filoksena (kon. 4 century up to n. e.). Now in the Archeologic museum in Naples.
  • ALEXANDER PETROVNA (in inochestve Anastasy) (1838-1900), great princess, the foundress Kiev Pokrovskogo a women monastery with surgical hospital, Pokrovskoj communities of sisters of mercy, several hospitals, a women medical assistant's school.
  • ALEXANDER FEDOROVNA (an ice-film. Name Alisa Giessen - Darmshtadtskaja) (1872-1918), the Russian empress, wife Nikolay II (with 1894). In 1918 it arrested. Rasstreljana together with family in Ekaterinburg.
  • ALEKSANDRAVICHJUS Pjatras Povilo (r. 1906), the Lithuanian sculptor, the national artist of Lithuania (1956). Bright iconic modes{images} of figures of the Lithuanian crop ("J.Zhemajte", 1950). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ALEKSANDRESKU (Alexandrescu) Sike Vasil (1896-1973), the Romanian producer. In 1947-67 chief of National theatre (Bucharest). Promoted the statement{confirmation} of national repertoir, development of realistic traditions.
  • ALEXANDRETTA (Alexandretta), the Grecian title Iskenderun.
  • ALEKSANDRI (Alecsandri) Vasil (1821-1890), the Moldavian and Romanian writer, the theatrical figure, the collector of folklore. The participant of Revolution 1848 in Walachia. Ostrosatiricheskie antipetty-bourgeois comedies " JAssy during a carnival " (1852), " Kiritsa in a province " (1852), patriotic lyrics, collection "Dojny" (1843-53).
  • The ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY, the collection of handwritten books largest in an antiquity (from 100 up to 700 thousand volumes). It is based in nach. 3 century up to n. e. At Alexandria musejone. The part of the Alexandria library has burned down in 47 up to n. e., the part is deleted in 391 n. e., residues - in 7-8 centuries.
  • The ALEXANDRIA POETRY, ancient greek poetry of epoch ellinizma (3-1 centuries up to n. e.), it is called on the main centre - Alexandria (Egyptian). Loss of civilization of the content and monumentalism of the form; interest to private{individual} life; a rational reflection and "learning", i.e. gravitation to a tongue and mythological stylization, refined - mysterious expression of idea, - distinguishing features of the Alexandria poetry. Main representatives: Kallimah, Feokrit, Apollonias Rodossky, Leonid Tarentsky.
  • The SENNA (Senna), leaves of some kinds{views} of plants of a stem a senna, apply in medicine as a purgative.
  • ALEXANDRIA MUSEJON (grech. museion - a temple of muses), set{combination} of scientific and educational establishments, one of the main centres of science and crop of an antiquity. It is based in Alexandria in nach. 3 century up to n. e., it is liquidated by Roman emperor Avrelianom in 272-273.
  • The ALEXANDRIA VERSE (from an Old French poem about itself), the French 12-composite verse or Russian 6-стопный jamb (with a caesura after 6-th syllable) with twin rhyming; the main{basic} dimension of large genres in the literature of a classicism.
  • ALEKSANDRINSKY THEATRE, see. The Russian academic drama theatre him{it}. A.S.Pushkin.
  • ALEXANDRITE, mineral, hromsoderzhashchaja a version of chrysoberyl. At a natural lighting emerald-green, at synthetic - violet-red. Phaeochrous diaphanous crystals in mass over 2-3 karat - precious stones of 1-st class.
  • ALEXANDRIA (Al-Iskandarija), city and port in Egypt, on Mediterranean m., an administrative centre muhafazy Alexandria. 3,2 million inhabitants (1990). The large transport, commercial and industrial centre of country. A port capacity ok. 20 million t. Oil refining, chemical, cement, textile, a machine industry. University. It is based in 332-331 up to n. e. Alexander the Great. At Ptolemies (305-30 up to n. e.) capital of Egypt and the centre ellinisticheskoj crops. One of the main centres of early christianity. In 7 century has transfered under an authority of arabs. One of the centres of national-liberation motion against the British colonialism in 1-st floor. 20 century. Monuments of the architecture of antique time; it is a lot of mosques (17-19 centuries), palaces (19-20 centuries). Museums of greko-Roman antiquities, fine arts.
  • ALEXANDRIA (Alexandria), city in the south of Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Teleorman. 53 thousand inhabitants (1986). A machine industry and metal working, textile, a food-processing industry.
  • ALEXANDRIA (Alexandria), city on the orient the USA, suburb of Washington. 111 thousand inhabitants (1990). The historical and cultural and tourist centre, the bound with life and activity Dzh. Washington (a dwelling - museum, a monument).
  • ALEXANDRIA, city on Ukraine, the Kirovograd region, on r. Ingulets. A depot. 105 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of brown coal. Electromechanical, a handling equipment factories, etc. It is based in it is grey. 18 century.
  • ALEXANDERS, city (with 1778) in the Russian Federation, the Vladimirskiy region. A railway junction. 68,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Manufacture of television receivers; a light industry. It is known from 14 century as Aleksandrovskaja a large village, in 2-nd floor. 16 century a residence of Ivan Terrible, the centre oprichniny. In 1578 in Aleksandrove - one of the first Russian printing houses (has emited "Psalter"). Troitsky a cathedral (1513), Uspensky a monastery (17 century).
  • ALEKSANDROV Alexander Vasiljevich (1883-1946), the Russian composer and the choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1937), the general - major (1943). The organizer (1928) both the artistic administrator of Band songs and dancings of the Soviet Army. The writer songs " Sacred war " (1941). The state premium of the USSR (1942, 1946).
  • ALEKSANDROV Alexander Danilovich (r. 1912), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR 1964). In 1952-64 rector I LIE. The main{basic} transactionses on geometry and its{her} appendices, the groundings of a relativity theory and philosophy of natural sciences. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • ALEXANDERS (Alexanders - Fedotov) (an ice-film. fam. Fedotov) Alexander Nikolaevich (1901-73), the Russian circus performer, the national actor of Russia (1963). The acrobat, the trapeze artist, the ringmaster of wild animals.
  • ALEKSANDROV Alexander Pavlovich (r. 1943), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR, doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1983, 1987). Flights on "Soyuz T-9" and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (June - November 1983), " Soyuz TM-3 " and an orbital complex "World" (July - December 1987).
  • ALEKSANDROV Alexander Panajotov (r. 1951), a pilot - astronaut of Bulgaria. The hero of National Republic Bulgaria (1988), the Hero of Soviet Union (1988). Flights on the Soviet spacecraft " Soyuz TM-4,-5 " and an orbital complex "World" (June 1988).
  • ALEKSANDROV Alexander Petrovich (1906-81), the engineer - builder, doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1952, 1961). In 1952-66 site manager Tsimljanskogo of a hydraulic project, the head of department of construction of dextral coast "Kujbyshevgidrostroja", chief "Volgogradstroja", the main Soviet expert on structure Asuanskoj of a dam in Egypt, in 1966-77 deputy minister of energetics and electrification of the USSR.
  • ALEKSANDROV Anatoly Nikolaevich (1888-1982), the Russian composer, the national actor of the USSR (1971). Opera " Бэла " (1945), 14 sonatas for a piano, string quartets, a vocal suite "Accuracy" (1950), romances. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1926). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ALEKSANDROV Anatoly Petrovich (1903-94), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1953), president AN the USSR (1975-86), triply the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1954, 1960, 1973). One of osnovatelej domestic nuclear power. Has developed anti-mine protection of the ships{spacecrafts} (together with other). Transactionses also on dielectrics, electrical and to mechanical properties of polymers. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1942, 1949, 1951, 1953). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1978).
  • ALEKSANDROV Boris Aleksandrovich (1905-94), the Russian composer and the choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1958), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1975), the general - major (1973). Son A.V.Aleksandrova. In 1946-86 artistic administrator of Band songs and dancings of the Soviet Army. Among compositions - ballet "Lefthander" (1954), an operetta " Wedding in the Robin " (1937). The lenin premium (1978), the State premium of the USSR (1950).
  • ALEKSANDROV Boris Kapitonovich (1889-1973), Russian hydraulic engineerings, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on power use of the large rivers of the European part of the USSR. The writer of design Kamskogo of a hydraulic project.
  • ALEKSANDROV Veniamin Veniaminovich (1937-91), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1963). The champion of Olympic Games (1964, 1968), the world (1963-68), Europe (1958-60, 1963-68), the USSR (1956, 1958-61, 1963-66, 1968) on ice hockey.
  • ALEKSANDROV Vladimir Leontjevich (1894-1962), the scientist in range of aircraft construction, pupil N.E.Zhukovskogo. The co-author of the design of first Soviet passenger aeroplane АК-1 (1924). In 1938-41 was in the conclusion, worked in ЦКБ-29 People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. It is rehabilitated.
  • ALEKSANDROV George Nikolaevich (r. 1930), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of corona discharge, probe of electric strength of air spaces, building of glass-fibre insulators of airlines of power transmissions (LEP) and sub-stations.
  • ALEKSANDROV George Fedorovich (1908-61), the Russian philosopher, academician AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on a history of philosophy and sociology. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1946).
  • ALEXANDERS (an ice-film. fam. Mormonenko) Grigory Vasiljevich (1903-83), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1948), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1973). One of creators of a genre of the Soviet musical comedy film. Films: " Cheerful guys " (1934), "Circus" (1936), "Volga - Volga" (1938), " the Light path{route} " (1940), "Spring" (1947), " Long live Mexico! " (1931-32, together with S.Ejzenshtejnom and E.Tisse; it is completed Aleksandrovym in 1979), " Love Orlova " (1983, together with E.Mihajlovoj), etc. Professor VGIKa (with 1951). The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1950).
  • ALEKSANDROV Eugeny Borisovich (r. 1936), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). The main{basic} transactionses on quantum optic. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • ALEKSANDROV Ivan Gavrilovich (1875-1936), Russian energeticses and hydraulic engineerings, academician AN the USSR (1932), academician VASHNIL (1935). The participant of scheduling GOELRO. The writer of design Dneprogesa.
  • ALEKSANDROV Cyril Sergeevich (r. 1931), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main{basic} transactionses on phase changes in crystals, primarily in ferroelectric materials. The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • ALEKSANDROV Maxim Leonidovich (r. 1939), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). The main{basic} transactionses in range of systems of diagnosis of a surface and automation of scientific probes.
  • ALEKSANDROV Pavel Sergeevich (1896-1982), the Russian mathematician, the founder of scientific school on topology, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Transactionses on topology, set theory, function theories. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • ALEKSANDROV Peter Akimovich (1838-1893), the Russian attorney. The defence attorney on political processes ("193", etc.). As defence attorney V.I.Zasulich (1878) promoted its{her} justifying by court.
  • ALEKSANDROVSK, the title of. Belogorsk in the Russian Federation, the Amurense region, in 1926-35.
  • ALEKSANDROVSK, city (with 1951) in the Russian Federation, the Perm region. A depot (Save). 20,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works, etc.
  • ALEKSANDROVSK, city (with 1961) on Ukraine, Lugansk region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Cretaceous. 7,8 thousand inhabitants (1991).
  • ALEKSANDROVSK, the title Zaporozhye on Ukraine up to 1921.
  • ALEKSANDROVSKAJA Larissa Pompeevna (1904-80), the singer (soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1940). In 1933-51 solistka, in 1951-60 main producer of the Byelorussian theatre of opera and ballet. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • ALEKSANDROVSKAJA the LARGE VILLAGE, the title of of Aleksandrov Vladimirskoj region up to 1778.
  • ALEKSANDROVSK - GRUSHEVSKY, the title of of Shaft of the Rostov region up to 1920.
  • ALEKSANDROVSKY Vasily Dmitrievich (1897-1934), the Russian poet. One of creators of literary association "Forge". In verses - characteristic themes and motives of " proletarian romanticism " 1920th (poetizatsija transactionses, opposition of aged and new Russia, etc.). Collections: "Workmen's settlement" (1919), "Morning" (1921), " the Stream gravel of fires " (1922), "Years" (1932).
  • ALEKSANDROVSKY COMMITTEE ABOUT INJURED, establishment in Russia for rendering assistance to servicemen - invalids, and also families perished or died from wounds. The Committee, vysochajshe established in 18-th day of August 1814 " is built in 1-Ї anniversary of battle for Kulma under the title "; with 1877 - Aleksandrovsky committee about injured. With 1909 in structure of the Military ministry. It is liquidated in 1918.
  • ALEKSANDROVSKY LICEUM (in honour of emperor Alexander I), closed higher educational establishment for children of noblemen in 1811-1917 bliz Saint Petersburg (up to 1844 TSarskoselsky liceum).
  • ALEKSANDROVSKY TSENTRAL, in Russia central convict prison in a seconds. Aleksandrovskoe, bliz Irkutsk. With 1873 criminal, with 1889 transit, with 1903 political. In 1918-19 concentration camp kolchakovskogo a mode. In 1920 - nach. 50th - prison.
  • ALEKSANDROVSK - SAKHALIN, city (with 1926) in the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin region, a port on coast of the Tatar prol., in 60 kms from zh.-d. An item. Tymovskoe. 8,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood, a fishing industry. In area a coal mining. It is based in 1881.
  • ALEKSANDRO-NEVA the LAUREL in Saint Petersburg. It is based in 1710 in memory{remembrance} of victory of Alexander Nevskogo above Swedes; the status laurels - with 1797. A complex of structures: the Blagoveshchensk church (1717-22), Troitsky a cathedral (1778-90), etc. In Aleksandro-Neva a laurel of a tomb of Russian commanders, figures of Russian and Soviet crop (M.V.Lomonosova, A.V.Suvorova, M.I.Glinki, etc.). In 1918 monastery it is closed; nowadays reservation in which there is a Museum of a urban sculpture.
  • ALEKSANDROPOL, the title of. Gjumri in Armenia in 1840-1924.
  • ALEKSEEV Alexander Emeljanovich (1891-1975), the Russian electrical engineer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). Transactionses on electric machines, an electric traction. The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1951).
  • ALEKSEEV Anatoly Dmitrievich (1902-74), the polar pilot, the Hero of Soviet Union (1937). The participant of salvage of expedition U.Nobile (1928) and air expedition on an arctic pole (1937).
  • ALEKSEEV Anatoly Semenovich (r. 1928), Russian a geophysics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on theoretical and computational geophysics. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • ALEKSEEV Boris Alekseevich (1911-73), the Chuvash actor, the national actor of the USSR (1969). With 1929 at the Chuvash academic theatre.
  • ALEKSEEV Valery Alekseevich (r. 1939), the Russian writer. In the prose noted by household certainty and keeping elements of a fantasy, - life of urban intelligency, a problem of a becoming of the personality, moral conflicts of duties. Books: " Urban stories " (1971), " the Seventh desire " (1971), " the Open lesson " (1974), etc.
  • ALEKSEEV Valery Pavlovich (1929-91), the Russian anthropologist and the historian, academician AN the USSR (1987). Transactionses on historical anthropology and geography of human strains.
  • ALEKSEEV Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1942), the Russian sportsman (weightlifting), the deserved master of the sport (1970), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1991). The champion of Olympic Games (1972, 1976), the world (1970-71, 1973-75, 1977-78), Europe (1970-75, 1977-78), the USSR (1970-76) in 2-nd heavy weight.
  • ALEKSEEV Vasily Mihajlovich (1881-1951), the Russian philologist - kitaist, a translator, academician AN the USSR (1929). Transactionses on crop of China, etudes on an aesthetics and poetics.
  • ALEKSEEV Veniamin Vasiljevich (r. 1934), the Russian historian, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on a history of industrial assimilation of Siberia, study of natural resources of the Orient of the USSR (19-20 centuries).
  • ALEKSEEV Victor Iljich (1914-77), the Russian sportsman (track and field), the deserved master of the sport (1942), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1956). The champion of the USSR in javelin throw (1936-48). Has brought up a number{series} of world and Olympic champions.
  • ALEKSEEV Vladimir Fedorovich (1852-1919), Russian fizikohimik. Transactionses on mutual solubility of liquids; first has shown existence of critical temperature of dissolution (1876).
  • ALEKSEEV George Dmitrievich (1881-1951), the Russian sculptor and the schedule{chart}. Full-scale sketches (1918), one of the first busts (1919) and V.I.Lenina's first statue (" the Invoking leader ", 1924).
  • ALEKSEEV Gleb Vasiljevich (1892-1938), the Russian writer. In nach. 1920th in emigration; in 1923 has returned to the USSR. In stories (the collection " Alive tup ", 1922), stories " Dead trot race " (1923) - understanding of terrible experience of revolution and a civil war. Satirical patterns of the Soviet real in stories (" the Inhabited dwelling ", 1926; "Fur coat", 1928) and novels (" the Shade standing ahead ", 1928). Roman about industrialization "Wind rose" (1933). Has committed suicide.
  • ALEKSEEV Eugeny Ivanovich (1843-1918), Russian military and the statesman, admiral (1903). With 1899 main chief and commanding a troops of region Kvantunskoj and naval forces Quiet ok., participat in depressing{supression} Ihetuanskogo of revolt In 1903-05 viceroy on the Far East. In russko-Japanese war the commander-in-chief overland and naval forces (till October 1904). With 1905 member of the Council of state.
  • ALEKSEEV Ivan (1709 or 1718-76), the old believe figure fedoseevskogo the consent; the writer of the composition, directed against popovtsev (" the History about begstvujushchem priesthood "). Has based the consent novozhenov (novopomortsev), admitting spoilage (the composition " Secret of spoilage ").
  • ALEKSEEV Mihail Vasiljevich (1857-1918), the Russian general from infanterii (1914). In 1-Ї world war the chief of headquarters of the Southwest front, commanding Northwest front, with 1915 chief of headquarters Ponds, in March - May 1917 supreme commander in chief. After October revolution has headed Volunteer army.
  • ALEKSEEV Mihail Nikolaevich (r. 1918), the Russian writer, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1978). Books about Great Domestic war, about past and true the Russian village: " the Cherry whirlpool " (1961), " Bread - a noun " (1964), " Ivushka not pendent " (kn. 1-2, 1970-75), the novel "Fighters" (1981). The state premium of the USSR (1976).
  • ALEKSEEV Mihail Pavlovich (1896-1981), the Russian literary critic, academician AN the USSR (1958). The explorer of Russian and Western-European literatures, their intercouplings.
  • ALEKSEEV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1829-81), the Russian mathematician, adjoints Petersburg AN (1879). Transactionses under the theory of elliptic functions, an integration of differential equations, theories of numbers{series}.
  • ALEKSEEV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1879-1964), the Russian philosopher, the jurist, one of ideologists evrazijstva. Attempted to apply a phenomenological method in philosophy of law. Pupil P.I.Novogorodtseva, taught in Moskovsk university (1912-17), in Prague and Berlin (1922-31), then in Sorbonne, Belgrade (with 1940). With 1950 in Geneva.
  • ALEKSEEV Peter Alekseevich (1849-91), one of the first Russian workers - revolutionaries, the weaver. In 1873 it was pulled together to populists - "chajkovtsami", with 1874 member narodnicheskogo a mug of "muscovites". On " process 50-ти " has delivered a speech about the future revolution. It is sentenced to 10 years of penal servitude.
  • ALEKSEEV Peter Alekseevich (1727 or 1731-1801), the Russian ecclesiastical writer and the scientist, the protopope of the Moscow Archangelical cathedral, the member of the Russian academy of sciences. The writer " the Church dictionary, or Use recheny slavenskih ancient, takozh speaking another language without transfer{translation} fixed in the Scriptus and other church books " (hours 1-3, 1773-79), becoming one of sources " the Dictionary of Academy Russian ".
  • ALEKSEEV Rostislav Evgenjevich (1916-80), the Russian shipbuilder, Dr.Sci.Tech. The chief designer of foilcrafts such as "Missile", "Meteor", "Comet", etc. The Lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ALEKSEEV Semen Mihajlovich (r. 1909), the Russian aircraft designer. During Great Domestic war participat in building fighters, afterwards was engaged also in systems of salvage and life support of crews of airplanes and space objects.
  • ALEKSEEV Sergey Petrovich (r. 1922), the Russian writer. Stories and stories for children, including " the Secret request. Stories about V.I.Lenine " (1968), " Powerful surnames " (1978; the State premium of the USSR, 1984). The managing editor of the log-book " the Nursery literature " (with 1965).
  • ALEKSEEV Sergey Sergeevich (r. 1924), the Russian lawyer, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). In 1989-91 committee chairman of the constitutional supervision of the USSR. Transactionses on a general theory of the right, on a civic right. The state premium of the USSR (1977).
  • ALEKSEEV Feodor Jakovlevich (between 1753-55-1824), the Russian painter. In the thin urban landscapes has embodied stringent appearance of Saint Petersburg, picturesque beauty of Moscow, Venice, etc.
  • ALEKSEEVA Elizabeth Georgievna (1901-72), the Russian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1971). With 1922 in Studio, then at Theatre him{it}. Vahtangova. The professor of the Theatrical school him{it}. Schukin (with 1946). The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ALEKSEEVA Tatyana Ivanovna (r. 1928), the Russian anthropologist and the ethnographer, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on ethnic anthropology and human ecology.
  • ALEKSEYEVKA, city (with 1965) in Kazakhstan, region Akmolinskaja. A depot (Ak-sack). 20,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). An oil - mill, the enterprises of a railway transport, a building materials.
  • ALEKSEYEVKA, city (with 1954) in the Russian Federation, the Belgorod region, on r. A quiet Pine. A depot. 37 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory of a chemical machine industry; dairy - canning, efiromasloekstraktsionnyj combines, a sugar factory.
  • ALEKSEEVSK, the title of Loose the Amurense region up to 1924.
  • ALEKSEEVSKY Nikolay Evgenjevich (1912-93), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1960). Transactionses on physics of low temperatures, mass spectroscopy. The state premium of the USSR (1967).
  • ALEKSEEVSKY the RAVELIN, an outwork of the Peter and Paul Fortress. It is incorporated in 1733, it is called in honour of tsar Alexey Mihajlovicha. In 1797 inside Alekseevskogo a ravelin " the secret dwelling " is constructed (up to 1884 political prison with special severe mode), is demolished in 1895.
  • ALEKSEEVSKOE the SETTLEMENT, andronovskoj crops, for a seconds. Alekseyevka, about Kustanai (a bronze age, 11-8 centuries up to n. e.). Poluzemljanki, ash pits, bronze, bone and stone instruments. Number{series} the burial and a hill with immolations. Occupation of the population - an agriculture.
  • ALEXEY (Alexy) (90th of 13 century - 1378), Russian metropolitan with 1354. Sustained joining policy of the Moscow princes. Actually the chapter of the Moscow government at minor prince Dmitry Donskom. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church.
  • ALEXEY I Komnin (ok. 1048-1118), the byzantian emperor with 1081. Has trapped a holy table, resting on military to know. Has reflected a rush of Normen, pechenegov and seldzhukov. With the help of crusaders has returned empires M.Azii's part.
  • ALEXEY MIHAJLOVICH (1629-76), Russian tsar with 1645. The son of tsar of Michael Fedorovicha. In Alexey Mihajlovicha's board the central authority has amplified and the serfdom (the Cathedral establishment 1649) was issued; it is reunified with Russian state Ukraine (1654), Smolensk, ground Severskaja are reset, etc.; revolts in Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov (1648, 1650, 1662) and Country war 1670-71 are suppressed{quenched}; there was a split of Russian church. ALEXEY MIHAJLOVICH [19 (29) March 1629, Moscow - on January, 29 (on February, 8) 1676, in the same place], Russian tsar from dynasty Romanovyh. Has taken a throne in 1645 after mors of the father, tsar of Michael Fedorovicha. Having passed for the "quietest" tsar in "buntashnyj" eyelids, Alexey Mihajlovich, according to historiographic tradition, was not active sovereign, the degree of his{its} sharing{participation} in acceptance of the major political solutions reliablly is not known for historians, though during his{its} reign in Russia there were the events having long-time influence on Russian history. The beginning of reign. A cathedral Establishment In the first years of reign of Alexey Mihajlovicha of an authority boyar B.I.Morozov ("djadka", the tutor of tsar) actually disposed. In 1646 duties on salt have been entered, in outcome products have mounted in the price, steel unavailable to the population, and for dealers the stale goods decaied. In 1647 tax have cancelled, but, to reimburse loss, have decided to reduce the salaries sluzhilym to people. It has called Salt clamp 1648 during which relatives of tsar L.S.Pleshcheev and P.T.Trahaniotov, and Frosts miracle have perished has remained is alive. The government has been compelled to go on concessions, collection of shortages has been terminated. In the performance of wishes of nobility and trade people in September 1649 Zemsky the cathedral has affirmed the canopy of laws - an Establishment preformed{readied} by a commission of prince N.I.Odoevsky as it is considered, with the participation Alexey Mihajlovicha. The establishment representing new to Russia a level of legislative practice, actuated the special articles adjusting legal status of separate social groups of the population. Enlarged pomestnyj the salary sluzhilyh people, padding plots to the become scanty landowners are entered. The serf condition of peasants on the Establishment affirmed hereditary, time of investigation of sketchy peasants - irredeemable. Thus, process of legislative registration of serfdom has been completed. The violent circulation of peasants in lackeys was forbidden. Requests and posadskih people dissatisfied with existence of "white" large villages, t have been satisfied. To. They were actuated in tjaglo, that facilitated life posada as a whole. The establishment has consolidated concept of state crime as what were considered change, a plot against sovereign and criminal wilfulness on " gosudarskoe health ". Separate rules of law of the Cathedral Establishment 1649 kept to act prior to the beginning of 19 century. Intensifying samovlastja At Alexey Mihajloviche kept strengthening autocratic, nothing of a restricted authority of tsar, in second half of 17 century zemskie cathedrals were not convoked, but a guidance system has reached{achieved} bloom prikaznaja, intensively there was a process of his{its} bureaucratization. A special role played established in 1654 Secret order, subject directly to Alexey Mihajlovichu and allowed him to supervise over other central and aboriginal establishments. The important changes descended in a social orb: there was a process of rendezvous{approach} of a manor and an ancestral lands, began decomposition of system " sluzhilogo cities ". Alexey Mihajlovicha's government sustained interests of the Russian merchant class, Customs (1653) and Novotorgovyj (1667) Charters shadowed merchants from foreign competitors. Reflectance of new tendencies in Russian life the invitation on a service to Russia foreign experts, building of regiments " overseas building " has become. Alexey Mihajlovicha Vo's reforms second half of 17 century. Conversion of all system of Russian traditional crop starts, there is a society literature, including poetry, society painting germs, at a yard " comedy actions " are settled first. Crisis traditsionalizma envelops also an orb of philosophy. Alexey Mihajlovich - one of initiators of the church reform spent with 1652 patriarch Nikonom. In 1666-67 church cathedral has damned "staroverie" and has bound " town authorities " to incinerate{consume} everyone who " will assign an abuse on Sirs of the God ". Despite of personal sympathies to protopopu to Habacuc, Alexey Mihajlovich has taken a uncompromising item in extirpation with staroobrjadchestvom: in 1676 it has been routed starovercheskaja a citadel - Solovetsky a monastery. The unreasonable ambition of patriarch Nikona and his{its} frank claims on temporal power have reduced in the conflict to the tsar, completed by decrowning Nikona. Developments of crisis in a social orb of steel clamp severely suppressed{quenched} by Alexey Mihajlovichem in Moscow 1662 and the Cossack revolt under S.T.Razina's leadership, hardly{with an effort} suppressed{quenched} by government. Alexey Mihajlovich itself participat in foreign-policy negotiations and military marchings (1654-1656). In 1654 there was an association of Ukraine with Russia, and begun after that war with Speech Pospolitoj (1654-1667) was finished by signing Andrusovskogo of armistice and fixation of Russia on Left-bank Ukraine. But attempts to leave to coasts of Baltic sea (the russko-Swedish war 1656-58) have not reduced in success. The person of transient time, Alexey Mihajlovich have been derivated enough, first from Russian tsars has infringed tradition and has become to sign in person documents. To him a number{series} of literary compositions, including " is attributed also The message on Solovki "," the Story about prestavlenii patriarch Joseph "," Urjadnik falconer ways ", etc. From a first marriage from M.I.Miloslavskoj (1648) Alexey Mihajlovich had 13 children (including tsars Feodor Alekseevich and Ivan V, tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna), from second marriage to N.K.Naryshkinoj (1671) - 3 children (including tsar Peter I) .Литература:Платонов S.F.Tsar Alexey Mihajlovich. WILLOWS, 1886. Kapterev N. F. Patriarch Nikon and tsar Alexey Mihajlovich. Sergiev Posad, 1909-12. T. 1-2. Zaozersky A.I.Tsarskaja an ancestral lands of XVII century. М., 1937. Dushechkina E. Century Tsar Alexey Mihajlovich as the writer (Production of a problem) // the Cultural heritage Other. Russia. М., 1976. A.L.Jurganov
  • ALEXEY PETROVICH (1690-1718), Russian tsarevitch, son Peter I. Weak-willed and vacillating, he has become the participant of opposition Peter's I to reforms. Ran abroad, has been reset and convicted for execution. Has died in prison. ALEXEY PETROVICH [on February, 18 (28) 1690, seconds. Preobrazhenskiy bliz Moscow - on June, 26 (on July, 7) 1718, Petersburg] - tsarevitch, the higher son Peter I from spoilage from E.F.Lopuhinoj. The childhood and education Since the most birth Alexey Petrovich was educated without attention on the part of the father and as he afterwards recognized, " from my infancy some cable cores with mamoju and with devkami where in anything to other did not study, except for izbnyh entertainments, and has more learned hanzhit to what I and from a nature am declined ". However after the reference of mother in Suzdal Pokrovsky a monastery tsarevna Natalia Alekseevna who had to him the aunt on the father was engaged (1698) his{its} education, and his{its} education was entrusted all over again to N.Vjazemskomu, and then baron of. Gjujssenu which has developed the extensive program of education of the tsarevitch, realized only partly as Gjujssen simultaneously executed{designed} different diplomatic errands of tsar and long was on a trip. In outcome Alexey Petrovich has not received regular education though loosely knew German and partly French tongues, knew a fundamentals of mathematics and fortification. Being by nature the person capable enough, he at the same time was lazy, what recognized: " Transactionses any I can not suffer ". These features of tsarevitch to the full were exhibited, when father has become to append it{him} to state affairs. The beginning of the conflict to the father In 1702 Peter has taken the son with itself to Arkhangelsk, and in 1704 Alexey Petrovich participat in osade Narva and celebrations on the occasion of its{her} taking. In 1707 he has been sent to Smolensk for preparation of provisions and forage, then has received the task to oversee behind strengthening of Moscow, and the ambassador to pick up recruits for five new regiments. Understanding, that tsarevitch is still too young for fulfilment so otvestvennyh assignments{orders}, Peter, making secure, simultaneously gave analogous tasks to other faces from which basically and asked for their performance{fulfillment}. However tsar was reached with auditions about Alexey's carelessness, about his{its} idle pastime that has reduced in 1708 in the conflict between the father and the son, hardly{with an effort} settled by the second wife of tsar Ekaterina (future empress Ekaterina I). In these years around of Alexey Petrovicha there is a natural circle on a sample " Vsepjanejshego a cathedral " Peter I (similar names, style of conduct), but distinguished by a divergence, dispassionateness from state affairs. For correspondence one another members of this intimal a mug of tsarevitch used codes{ciphers}. Soul of the company the father confessor of tsarevitch Jacob Ignatjevich having on him{it} the strong influence was. Hoping on the elevation after Alexey Petrovicha's accession, his{its} surrounding diligently incited the cartridge against the father and his{its} reformatory activity. The hopes connected to Alexey and those figures of Peter time who critically estimated Peter's transformations{conversions} on ideological reasons. Tsarevitch, apparently, had no neither the fixed political program, nor solid inclinings, but was weighed upon despotic both severe character of the father and his{its} board. Development of the conflict In 1709-12 Alexey Petrovich traveled across Europe, studied in Dresden, and in 1711 under the insisting of tsar married princess Sofia - Charlotte Braunshvejg-Volfenbjuttelskoj (in orthodox baptism Evdokija) then without special success executed{designed} the assignment{order} of the father on preparation of provisions in terrain of Speech Pospolitoj. Attitudes{relations} with the wife for him{it} have not developed, his{its} mode of life was not changed. In 1714 for him{it} daughter Natalia, and then son Peter (the future emperor Peter II) was born. Soon after that Evdokija has died. Literally before its{her} mors Peter I has addressed to the son with the letter in which threatened him, what if he will not change the conduct it will be disinherited, " wherefore for my fatherland and people of the belly did not feel sorry and I do not feel sorry, kako I can nepotrebnago regret thee? " . Cпустя after spelling this letter Ekaterina has given rise ten days reign of son Peter - Alexey Petrovich refused to the father from claims for a holy table for the benefit of the neonatal brother. However after three months he has received from tsar " the Last reminder still " in which has been put before selection: " Or cancel the temper... Or be the outlet box ". On a paper Alexey has agreed to monasticism, but any substantial walks on performance{fulfillment} of the promising has not made. In August 1716 father has presented Alexey Petrovichu the ultimatum: or to depart to a field army, or in a monastery. Escape behavior abroad Having appeared in effect in a desperate rule{situation;position} and not wishing, probably, actually officially to be refused from a holy table, to take the vows, tsarevitch ran abroad under protection of the Austrian emperor married to the sister of his{its} late wife. In Austria he has received a political asylum, but, as soon as about his{its} escape behavior has become it is known at Russian yard, it was entrusted to ambassador of Vienna A.P.Veselovskomu to search tsarevitch and to make all for his{its} recurring. A.I.Rumjantsev has been sent to the help to him at first, and then to P.A.Tolstoj. Alexey Petrovich has been found in Naples, and with the help of threats, arrangements and promisings of full pardoning Tag and Rumjantsevu it was possible to achieve his{its} consent to return to Russia. Thus Tag promised tsarevitch, that it will be allowed to him to live in village with his{its} mistress, serf devkoj Evfrosinjej. The death of tsarevitch In February 1718 Alexey Petrovich has been brought in Moscow where ceremony of his{its} abdication of a holy table and conciliation with the father was comprised. Nevertheless already next day in violation{disturbance} of data by Peter to the son of promisings inquest initiated with the purpose of detection all over again those who promoted escape behavior of tsarevitch abroad, that was considered as change, and then (ground poluchennnyh from Alexey Petrovicha of indications{readings}) on business about an anti-state plot. During inquest (for his{its} realization the special establishment has been specially built - Secret office) some tens person, exposed to severe tortures and executions arrested. In June 1718 Alexey Petrovich arrested and encased in the Peter and Paul Fortress. Under some data Peter I participat in his{its} tortures, is personal zagonjavshy to the son of a roller under nails. On June, 24 1718 specially derivated Supreme Court from the maximum military and civil grades has sentenced tsarevitch to the execution, and on June, 26 under the circumstances obscure up to the extremity he has perished. Most likely he has been secretly killed under the order of tsar which next day after mors of the son has solemnly celebrated anniversary of the Poltava battle. Литература:Погодин M.P.Sud above tsarevitch Alexey Petrovichem // Russian oof. 1860. № 1. Kostomarov N.I.Tsarevich Alexey Petrovich. М., 1989. Anisimov E.V.Vremja of Peter reforms. Л., 1989. Pavlenko N.I.Petr Veliky. М., 1990. The indecent son: Business of tsarevitch Alexey Petrovicha. SPb., 1996. A.B.Kamensky
  • ALEKSENKO Vladimir Avramovich (r. 1923), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1945), the general - lieutenant of aircraft (1968). In Great Domestic war in an attack aviation, the deputy of the regiment commander; 292 sorties.
  • ALEKSIDZE Dmitry Aleksandrovich (1910-84), the Georgian producer, the national actor of the USSR (1976). With 1936 at the Georgian theatre him{it}. Rustaveli (with 1959 main producer), in 1964-71 at the Ukrainian theatre him{it}. Ex, with 1970 at the Georgian theatre him{it}. Mardzhanishvili.
  • ALEKSIEVICH Svetlana Aleksandrovna (r. 1948), the Byelorussian writer. Sketches on the basis of confessional stories of elapsed{past} women through war and children (kn. " For war not a women face ", 1984; " the Last witnesses ", 1985), the Soviet soldiers, to the bottom ispivshih cruelty and moral bespredel the Afghani war (the book " Zinc boys ", 1990).
  • ALEXIAS (in world Dorodnitsyn Anempodist JAkovlevich) (1859-1919), the Russian spiritual writer, diocesan Chistopolsky (with 1905), the rector of the Kazan spiritual academy. Compositions on probe juzhnorusskoj shtundy.
  • ALEXIAS (kon. 16 century), abbot Spaso-Gennadieva of a monastery, the pupil and the writer zhitija and a canon to Saint Gennady Kostromskomu.
  • ALEXIAS (in the world Molchanov Alexey Vasiljevich) (1853-1914), diocesan Taurian and Simferopol, exarch of Georgia (with 1913).
  • ALEXIAS I (Simansky Sergey Vladimirovich) (1877-1970), the patriarch Moscow and all Russia with 1945. In 1943-45 metropolitan Leningrad and Novgorod. Has headed peace-making motion of Russian orthodox church.
  • ALEXIAS II (Ridiger Alexey Mihajlovich) (r. 1929), the patriarch Moscow and all Russia with 1990. With 1964 archbishop Tallinn and Estonian, managing the Moscow patriarchy, the permanent member of Sacred synod. With 1968 metropolitan Tallinn and Estonian. With 1988 metropolitan Leningrad and Novgorod. One of outstanding figures of ecumenic movement. In 1964-87 president of the Conference of european churches (with 1987 chairman of its{her} Presidium). The academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1993).
  • ALEKSI-MESHISHVILI Vladimir Sardionovich (1857-1920), the Georgian actor, the producer, the teacher, the national actor of Georgia (1930, posthumously). On the scene with 1881. With 1890 producer, in 1890-96 and with 1910 chief of the Tbilisi theatre.
  • ALEXIN, city in the Russian Federation, the Tula region, landing stage on r. Oka. A depot. 74,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory " Тяжпромарматура ", chemical combine, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century.
  • ALEXIN Anatoly Georgievich (r. 1924), the Russian writer. Collections of stories and stories about the childhood and youthes in their communication{connection} with the world adult: " And in the meantime somewhere... " (1967), " Wash the brother "Afterthought" (1976), " the Third in the fifth number{series} " (1977), " Mad Evdokija " (1978), " Marshallers and buglers " (1985) plays on a clarnet " (1968), " Characters and initiators " (1975), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1978).
  • ALEXIS (Alexis) Jacque Stefan (1922-61), the haitian writer. Wrote in French. Novels " the Kind general the Sun " (1955), "Trees - musicians" (1957), the book of fairy tales " Romansero at a starlight " (1960). It is killed.
  • ALEXIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. lexis - the word, speech), loss of ability to read or perceive read owing to a defeat of temporal - parietooccipital range of the left-handed hemisphere (for right-handed persons). Often combines{blends} with an aphasia and agraphia.
  • ALEKTRION (grech. The cock), in the Grecian mythology the young man - servant Aresa. Having fallen asleep, has not notified lovers Aresa and the Aphrodite about approach of day; in punishment it is transformed{turned into} into the cock.
  • ALELJUHIN Alexey Vasiljevich (r. 1920), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1943), the general - major of aircraft (1971). In Great Domestic war in a fighter aviation, the deputy of the regiment commander; 258 air breakages, has personally knocked down 40 and in group of 17 enemy aeroplanes.
  • ALEMAN-I-DE-ENERO (Aleman y de Enero) Mateo (1547 - ok. 1614), the spanish writer. The swindling novel " the Biography of cheat Gusman de Alfarache " (1599-1604).
  • ALEMANNY (shvaby), the German nation (from them - Swabia). In a number{series} of Romanesque tongues the word "alemanny" was saved as the name of Germans.
  • ALEMASOV Vyacheslav Evgenjevich (r. 1923), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). The main{basic} transactionses on probe thermodynamic and thermal properties of a combustion materials and aerothermochemical processes in energoustanovkah. The state premium of the USSR (1984, 1991).
  • ALAIN (Alain) (an ice-film. Name Emil SHartje) (1868-1951), the French thinker - essayist.
  • ALAIN (?-1670), predvoditelnitsa country order in area of. Temnikov in Country war 1670-71, nun from peasants. It is executed.
  • ALENKAR (Alencar) ZHoze Martinianu di (1829-77), the Brazilian writer - romantik. Novels "Guarani" (1857), "Irasema" (1865), "Ubirazhara" (1875) - about Indians; historical novels and dramas.
  • ALENTOVA Belief Valentinovna (r. 1942), the Russian actress, the deserved actress of Russia (1982). With 1965 in Moskovsk drama theatre him{it}. A.S.Pushkin, from the same year acts in film. The state premium of the USSR for a role in film " Moscow to teardrops does not believe " (1981), the State premium of RSFSR in ranges of motion picture arts - the premium to them. br. Vasiljevyh for a role in film " Time of desires " (1986). Снималаcь in films: " Tomorrow there was a war " (1987), " the Groom from Miami " (1993), "SHirli-Myrli" (1995), etc.
  • ALAIN - FURNE (Alain-Fournier; an ice-film. A name and fam. Anri Alain Furnje) (1886-1914), the French writer. Roman " Major Moln " (1913) - a lyrical narration about youthful all-consuming and romantic perception of life. Verses, short stories, an essay in collection "Mirakl" (it is issued 1924).
  • ALESKOVSKY Valery Borisovich (r. 1912), the Russian chemist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1972). Has developed a fundamentals of synthesis of inorganic materials with the given a structure and properties.
  • ALESSANDRIA (Alessandria), city in the Sowing. Italy, an administrative centre prov. Alessandria. 97 thousand inhabitants (1985). A machine industry, aluminium, a chemical industry. Large manufacture of felt hats, jewels. An architectonic monument of 12-15 centuries.
  • ALESSI (Alessi) Galeatstso (1500 or 1512-1572), the italian architect. The representative of Serotinal{Late} Revitalization. Has created phylum of a palace with organized to the deep terrasnoj a composition enriched with ladders and arcades (palace Parodi in Genoa, 1567).
  • ALET, in the Grecian mythology descendant Gerakla who seized Corinth and has expelled therefrom of descendants Sizifa.
  • ALEUTIAN DEPRESSION, range of a low atmospheric pressure in boreal part Quiet ok., in area of Aleutian islands. Shows primarily in the winter.
  • ALEUTIAN ISLANDS (Aleutian Islands), in a north Quiet ok. (the USA, pieces. Alaska). Of 1740 kms are located on an arch in length. The area of 37,8 thousand км2. The population of 7,5 thousand person. An altitude up to 2860 m. Ok. 25 active volcanoes. Luga and mountain tundra. Fishery (a cod, a halibut, a herring), production of sea cows, a seal. A main occupied point - Adak. Are open{discovered} in 18 century Russian morehodami. Up to 1867 belonged to Russia (the USA together with Alaska are sold).
  • The ALEUTIAN GUTTER, in boreal part Quiet ok., along austral submerged downslopes of Aleutian islands. St. 4000 kms, depth up to 7855 m.
  • ALEUTIAN BACKBONE, on Alaska, eastern prolongation of a patch of Aleutian islands. Volcanic cones an altitude up to 3108 m. of 10 active volcanoes (Katmaj, Iliamna, etc.).
  • ALEUTIAN TONGUE (ustar. unangansky), falls into to eskimossko-aleutian family paleoaziatskih tongues.
  • ALEUTS (the self-title - unangan), people, an aboriginal population of Aleutian islands and p-ova Alaska (USA) and islands Komandorskih (Russian Federation). An aggregate number of 3 thousand person (1990), including in the USA 2 t. Tongue aleutian. Believing basically orthodox.
  • ALEKHIN Alexander Aleksandrovich (1892-1946), the Russian chess player. 4-th world champion (1927-35, 1937-46), RSFSR (1920). From 1921 cable cores in France. Books: " My best consignments " (1928), " On ways to the maximum checkrow achievements " (1932), etc. AЛЕХИН Alexander Aleksandrovich [on October, 19 (31) 1892, Moscow - on March, 24 1946, Eshtoril, bliz Lisbon], the Russian chess player, the fourth world champion in a history (1927-1935 and with 1937), the checkrow writer and the theorist. The doctor of the right (1925) .Detstvo and a youth. Education of character the Son of the leader of nobility of the Voronezh province of Alexander Ivanovicha Alehina (1856-1917) and Anisji Ivanovny Prochoral (1861-1915), descending from family of the known textile manufacturer, the master of " the Three-mountain manufactory ". Studied in L.I.Polivanova's classical grammar school (Moscow, 1901-10) and the Imperial School of Jurisprudence (Petersburg, 1911-14) after which terminal the grade of the titular counsellor has been assigned to him. Alekhin played chess about 7 flying; in a youth often participat in tournaments on the correspondence, contributing development of his{its} analytical intellection. In 16 flying, having conquered on the All-Russia tournament of memory{remembrance} of M.I.Chigorina (Petersburg, 1909), has received the rank of the maestro and has been awarded with a porcelain vase - the main prize established by " Their Imperial Majesties ". In 1914 has taken the third place on " tournament of champions " in Petersburg, having become one of claimants for world superiority{championship}. Alekhin words " by means of chess I have brought up the character " steel winged in the checkrow world. The Russian season{term} In 1916 departs the volunteer on front Galitsijsky in the chapter of order of the Geneva cross; has been contused. For salvage injured it is awarded to two Georgievskimi with medals and order Sacred Svjatoslava with swords. In 1919 during checkrow performances on Ukraine it arrested in Odessa and it is sentenced to shooting under the charge in connection with White Guards. Due to interference of chairman Sovnarkoma of Ukraine H.Rakovskogo it is free. In 1919 acts{goes} in State studio of motion picture arts in Moscow, but in May 1920 leaves in the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department the inspector of Headquarters of militia; since autumn cooperates in the capacity of a translator in Komintern. In October 1920 has become the winner of the first championship of the Soviet Russia on chess. In March 1921 married Anna - Lize Rjuegg-dejatelnitse the Swiss democratic party. Spoilage was short, but has allowed Alekhin to emigrate easily from Russia. Life abroad. Victories and records In 1921-27 has played in 22 international tournaments and has conquered in 14-ти from them, including in such large, as Gastingsky (1922), Baden - Badensky (1925), Kechkemetsky (1927). In 1921 has emited in Berlin in German the first book " Checkrow life in the Soviet Russia ". Has introduced the valuable investment in development of the debut theory, one of first having applied the checkrow beginning 1. e4 Kf6, the received title " Alekhin Protection " (1921), having developed a number{series} of new systems in a spanish consignment, the French protection, ferzevom gambit and many other beginnings. Had phenomenal memory{remembrance}. In 1924-25 has placed{installed} some world records in sessions of the simultaneous game blindly: New York (1924) - has played 26 consignments from which has scored 16, has lost 5 and 5 has finished in a draw (+16,-5, =5); Paris (1925) - and only in 3 has lost for 27 consignments from which has conquered in 22 (+22,-3, =2). In 1925, having defended in Sorbonne a thesis on the subject of " Cистема imprisonment in China ", has become the doctor of the right. In 1927 in Buenos Aires has conquered a world-title match of cuban chess player H.R.Capablanka (+6,-3, = 25), having become fourth in a history of chess the world champion. In 1929-37 has played two world-title matches with Russian grandmaster E.D.Bogoljubovym living in Germany (1929; +11,-5, =9; 1934; +8,-3, =15) and two Dutch M.Ejve (1935; +8,-9, =13; 1937; +10,-4, =11). In 1937 has become first in a history of chess the champion who has won a match - revenge. Having scored international tournament in Blede (Yugoslavia, 1931), has advanced the second prize-winner on 5,5 glasses, having placed{installed} a record result in of a history of chess. Awakely promoted popularization of chess all over the world. First from world champions has conducted (on September, 10 1932 - on May, 20 1933) round-the-world checkrow performances (the USA, Mexico, Cuba, the Hawaiian islands, Japan, shanghai, Hong Kong, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Egypt, Palestine, Italy) during which has played 1320 consignments (1161 has scored and only 65 has lost) .Vozglavljal for a combined team of France on four World checkrow olympiads (1930, 1931, 1933, 1939). In 1940 lieutenant - translator of the French army. In 1941 in the newspaper " Parizer tsajtung " the cycle of points " the Jewish and aryan chess " has been published hand of Alekhin who afterwards has called these publications "forgery"; The problem on authorship remains disputable. In March 1946 has received a call on a match from the champion of the USSR M.M.Botvinnika. The beginnings to be prepared, but has suddenly died in hostel " Park - hotel " Eshtorila. For the first time the world champion on chess has died invincible. It is buried in Eshtorile, in 1956 perezahoronen in Paris on cemetery Monparnas where on his{its} monument it is written: " To the genius of chess of Russia and France " .Vsego Alekhin has acted in 87 tournaments and in 62 from them has won first place, has conducted 23 matches from which has scored 17 and 4 has reduced in a draw. The movie " White snow of Russia " (1980), removed{taken off} in the USSR under the novel of Moscow grandmaster A.A.Kotova " White and Black " (1965) .Сочинения:Международный chess tournament in New York 1924 is dedicated his{its} life. М., 1925. My best consignments. М.; Л., 1928. Kn. 1 (1908-1923) .Mezhdunarodnyj chess tournament in New York 1927. М.; Л., 1930. A match Alekhin - Ejve on superiority{championship} of the world. М.; Л., 1936. On ways to the maximum checkrow achievements (1924-1927). М., 1932, 1962. Литература:Мирлес A.A.Geny of combinations - grandmaster A.A.Alekhin. Kiev, 1926. Pan V.I. Alekhin of 300 selected consignments with his{its} natural notes. М., 1954. Cats A.A.Alexander Alekhin. М., 1973. A.A.Shahmatnoe's cats Alekhin inheritance. 2 izd. М., 1982. T. 1-2. Linder V.I., Linder I.M. Alekhin. М., 1992. V.I.Linder
  • ALEKHIN Vasily Vasiljevich (1882-1946), Russian geobotanies, the founder of the Moscow scientific school, the professor of the Moscow State University (with 1918). Transactionses on probe of vegetation of steppes of the European part of the USSR, theoretical problems of a geobotany. The writer of the tutorial "Phytogeography".
  • ALEHNOVICH Glebas Vasilyevich (1886-1918), the Russian pilot. With 1912 worked the pilot - verifier at Russko-Baltic carload factory in Petersburg, has placed{installed} a number{series} Record-type. During 1-st world war the commander of an airplane "Ilya Muromets". Has come over to on the party of the Soviet authority during October revolution. Has perished at downfall of an airplane.
  • ALECHSKY the ICEHOUSE (Aletschgletscher), the most major icehouse in the Alpes, in Switzerland. Length of 24,7 kms, the area 87 км2. It is descended from austral downslopes of Bernese Alps. Tourism (special railways, cableways).
  • ALESH Mikolash (1852-1913), the Czech painter and the schedule{chart}. Patterns on istoriko-patriotic themes, boards for paintings of National theatre in Prague (1880-81), a case history to national songs; combined traditions of romanticism with features of the decorative stylization.
  • ALESHA POPOVICH, a bogatyr, the hero of Russian bylinas (" About breakage Aleshi Popovicha with Tugarinom ", " About exit road of bogatyrs from Rostov ").
  • ALYOSHIN Andrey Vasiljevich (1905-74), the Hero of Soviet Union (1945), the full gentleman of order of Glory (1944, 1945, 1945), the higher sergeant. In Great Domestic war the artilleryman, the commander of the instrument, participat in breakages near Moscow, at discharging Ukraine and Poland, in breakages in Pomerania.
  • ALYOSHIN (an ice-film. fam. Kotljar) Samuel Iosifovich (r. 1913), the Russian playwright. Plays "Director" (1950), " All remains to people " (1959), " the Eighteenth camel " (1983), etc. about the responsibility of the person before the native land, epoch; " All I shall not die... " (1989) about M.A.Bulgakov. The story in dialogues "Diplomat" (1977).
  • ALYOSHIN Tamara Grigorjevna (r. 1928), the singer (mezzo-soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1976). With 1958 at the Moldavian theatre of opera and ballet.
  • ALESHKI, the title of. TSjurupinsk up to 1928.
  • ALESHKOVSKY Peter Markovich (r. 1957), the Russian writer. In prose (the story " the Biography of Polecat ", 1993; the novel "Vladimir Chigrintsev", 1995) reverts to social - moral problems, historical scenes, marginal characters. The collection of stories "Stargorod" (1995); the historical novel " the Harlequin cabbage bug, or Vasily Kirillovicha Trediakovskogo's Biography " (1995).
  • ALESHKOVSKY Juz (an ice-film. A name Joseph Efimovich) (r. 1929), the Russian writer. With 1979 in emigration. Started as the writer of books for children (" Two ticket on an electric train ", 1965, " Kysh, Two portfolios and the whole week ", 1970) and the initiator of natural songs (" Comrade Stalin, you the major scientist ", etc.). In satirical prose, originally rasprostranjavshejsja in samizdate (the story "Nikolay Nikolaevich", 1970, the novel "Kangoroo", 1974-75, etc.) - the plotting of marginal phylums from the lowest social layers; elements of a block type, a fantasy, the use of non-standard lexicon. Fervor of exposure of communism (the novel "Arm{Hand}", 1977-80), anti-Semitism ("Roundrobin", 1983), etc. Other books: " Sinenky modest platochek " (1982), " Mors in Moscow " (1985), " the Flea tango " (1986).
  • ALGERIA, Algerian National Democratic Republic (the arab. Al-Dzhumhurija al-Dzhazairija Democracy ash-SHaabija), the state in the Sowing. To Africa. 2381,7 thousand км2. The population ok. 27 million person (1993), ok. 83 % - alzhirtsy, also berbery, Europeans. A urban population of 51,7 % (1990). The official language - Arabian. State religion - moslem faith. Administrative territorial division: 48 vilaj (provinces). Capital - Algeria. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral National public assembly. Algeria takes a central part of mountain range the Atlas and 1/4 part of desert of Sahara. A climate the Sowing. Algeria subtropical. Mean temperatures of January 5-12 °S, July 25 °S. A rainfall of 400-1200 mm annually. A climate of Sahara tropical, arid (less than 50 mm of a rainfall annually). Woods of a cork - oak (in mountains), semidesert and a desert vegetation. In 12 century up to n. e. In terrain of Algeria there were Phoenician settlements, in 3 century - the state Numidia. In 1 century up to n. e. - 5 century n. e. Under an authority of Rome. In 7 century it is conquered by arabs. In 1-st floor. 16 century has transfered under an authority of Ottoman empire. In 1711-1830 Algeria aboriginal governors (dei) - vassals of the turkish anthurus steered. As a result of capture by France Algeria (1830) Algeria has become its{her} colony (officially in 1834). Against colonialists in 1832-47 revolt under guiding Abd al-Kadira, in 1871-72 - Mukrani revolt has deployed. As a result of the national-liberation war 1954-62 headed by Front of national discharging (FNO, it is based in 1954), Algeria in 1962 has achieved independence. Up to 1989 consignment FNO - unique; the constitution 1989 has proclaimed transition to a multi-party system. Algeria - agrarian country with a developed mining industry. A lobe in a gross internal product (1990, %): an industry 37,7 (including a crude production and gas 17,7), an agriculture 14,9. The large part of an industrial output forms in a state sector. Cultivate primarily grain, a grape, vegetables, fruits. In oases - a date palm. Cultivate ovets, she-goats, a large horned stock, camels. Fishery. A crude production, gas, ores of non-ferrous metals and iron oxide. Flavoring, metal-working, oil refining, chemical, etc. the enterprises. Manufacture of the electric power 17,3 billion kVt.ch (1992). Length (1990, one thousand in km) railways 4,3, motorways 88. Main seaports: Bedzhaija, Arzeu, Algeria, Annaba, Oran. Export: petroleum, liquified gas, petroleum (ok. 98 % of cost), and also wine, fruits and vegetables, iron oxide, tobacco. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: France, Germany, Italy, the USA, Japan. Monetary unit - algerian dinar.
  • ALGERIA (the arab. Al-Dzhazair), capital, the economic and cultural centre of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Algeria. 1,5 million inhabitants (1987). A port on Mediterranean m. An international airport. A machine industry, alimentary, textile, chemical, a petroleum industry. Underground railway. University. It is based in 10 century at-sight debris of small Roman settlement Ikozium. In 1830-1962 administrative centre of the French colony Algeria. Kasba-strength (turkish time), the Major mosque (1096) with a minaret (1323), etc.
  • ALZHIRTSY, arabs of Algeria, people, the main{basic} population of Algeria (21,2 million person). An aggregate number 22,2 million person (1992), including in France 820 thousand person. Tongue Arabian. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ALZAMAJ, city (with 1955) in the Russian Federation, Irkutsk region. A depot. 9,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). A forest industry.
  • ALI (?-661), the fourth caliph (with 656) Arabian halifata. The cousin and son-in-law Mohammed. It is killed haridzhitami. It is declared shiitami first imamom.
  • ALI MOHAMMED, see. Skull crackers.
  • ALI MOHAMMED (Ali Muhammad) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Kassius Glue, Clay) (r. 1942), the American sportsman (box). The champion of Olympic Games (1960) in polutjazhelom weight. The repeated world champion among professionals (in 1964-74) in heavy weight.
  • ALI-BAJRAMLY, city (with 1954) in Azerbaijan, landing stage on r. The hen. A railway junction. 58,3 thousand inhabitants (1989). The enterprises machine-building, mild, a food-processing industry. A state district power station. Picture passageway. It is called in honour Ali Bajramova. Bliz Ali-Bajramly - a crude production.
  • ALI-BEJ AL-KABIR (1728-73), mamljuksky the governor of Egypt with 1757 (with 1770 anthurus). In the season{term} of russko-turkish war 1768-74 has sent turkish I plough (1768), has proclaimed (1770) independence of Egypt and began war from Turkey. In 1772 was will overthrow mamljukskimi bejami, opponents of extirpation with Turkey, and ran to Palestine.
  • ALIBI (from an armour. alibi - in the other place), the fact of presence accused or the suspect outside of the crime scene in the moment fixed as time of a crime.
  • ALIGARH, city in boreal part of India, pieces. Uttar Pradesh. 480 thousand inhabitants (1989). A traffic centre. Cotton, glass, a metal-working industry. Shopping center of a farming area (grain, a cotton, a cane); annual fairs. Muslim university. The fort of 16 century was saved.
  • ALIGER Margarita Iosifovna (1915-92), the Russian poetess. Collections " Memory{Remembrance} valiant " (1942), " Lenin mountains " (1953), " Blue hour " (1970), " the Quarter of eyelid " (1981) about moral finding actions of the Soviet person. Poems "Zoja" (1942; the State premium of the USSR, 1943), dedicated Zoe Kosmodemjanskoj, " thy victory " (1945). Memuarnaja prose.
  • ALIDADE (arab)., a ruler with verniers or microscopes on the cleaning cloth, rotated around of a shaft passing through the centre of a goniometric dial in astronomical and geodetic instruments; ministers for readout of angles.
  • ALIDY, descendants of caliph Ali and his{its} wife of Fatima, daughter Mohammed, from whom led the origin some dynasties (Idrisidy, Fatimidy, Zejdity) in medieval Muslim countries. To Alidam dynasty Alauitov in Morocco attributes itself.
  • ALIEV Gejdar Alievich (Ali Rza ogly) (r. 1923), the president of Azerbaijan since October 1993, doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979, 1983). With 1964 vice-president, in 1967-69 chairman of KGB at Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan. With 1969 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP of Azerbaijan. In 1982-87 1-st vice-president of Council of Ministers of the USSR. With 1991 chairman Supreme medzhlisa the Nakhichevan Autonomous republic. Since June 1993 chairman VS of Azerbaijan.
  • ALIEV Mirza Aga Ali ogly (1883-1954), the Azerbaijan actor, the national actor of the USSR (1949). On the scene with 1906. With 1920 at the Azerbaijan theatre him{it}. Azizbekova (Baku). The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1948).
  • ALIEV Fazu (r. 1932), the avarian writer, the national poetess of Dagestan (1969). Writes in avarian and Russian tongues. Poetic collections " Native village " (1959), " the Law of mountains " (1969), " Eyes of goods " (1983), a poem " Tavakal, or why grow grey men " (1988); novels " the Generic arms " (1970), " the Eighth Monday " (1978) about life of the modern Dagestan.
  • ALI-BACK Abdulkerim Ali-ogly (1906-79), the Azerbaijan orientalist, academician AN Azerbaijan SSR (1955). Transactionses on a medieval history of Azerbaijan and countries Short-range and Middle East.
  • The ALIZARIN, known organic dye from an antiquity. Falls into to mordant anthra colors. With salts of metals (Al, Cr, Fe) gives colored complexes, t. n. Varnishes. An intermediate product for obtaining dyes; an aluminium varnish an alizarin use for obtaining art paints, nitroenamels, etc.
  • ALICANTE (Alicante), city and a port in Spain, on Mediterranean m., an administrative centre prov. Alicante. 261 thousand inhabitants (1991). Mild, a food-processing industry. Center of area of a subtropical fruit growing (wine growing, etc.). A seaside resort. The medieval clasp Santa Barbara, a town hall with a two-turret front (17-18 centuries), church the Dignity - Nikolas de Bari (17 century).



  • fast relevant articles, work control

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

[url=http://kinogrill.org/filmi/smotret-online-teplo-nashih-tel/]новинки кино тепло наших тел смотреть онлайн[/url]
[url=http://kinogrill.org/filmi/smotret-boeviki/hitman-2007]кино про впадину[/url]


КиноГриль представляет собой громадный каталог кинокартин, которые можно смотреть онлайн. Ресурс сосредоточил немалое количество фильмов самых разных жанров, производства стран всего мира. Каждый может найти и посмотреть кинокартину на любой вкус - от классики мирового кино середины прошлого столетия и до последних шедевров, которые недавно вышли на киноэкраны.
Нет необходимости ждать полной загрузки фильма, терять время на загрузку – фильм онлайн не забирает пространство в памяти компьютера пользователя. Он может начать просмотр фильма сразу при запуске проигрывателя.
При просмотре кинофильмов на КиноГриль не нужно регистрироваться, платить, а также заполнять разные анкеты. Ещё не нужно инсталлировать какие-то плагины или приложения. Все видеофильмы, размещенные на этом сайте, воспроизводятся на любом ПК. Все что требуется для начала просмотра – это наличие хорошего браузера, имеющего поддержку флеш-плеера. Скорость при просмотре фильмов зависит лишь от скорости Интернет-соединения пользователя. Все ссылки на кинофильмы являются рабочими, за этим внимательно следит персонал портала, который делает все для того, дабы доставить удовольствие от комфортного просмотра кинокартин на этом ресурсе.

[url=http://kinogrill.org/filmi/smotret-seriali/spartak-krov-i-pesok-1seson]смотреть онлайн фмльм спартак кровь и песок 2 сизон[/url]
[url=http://kinogrill.org/]посмотреть бесплатно онлайн фильмы новинки[/url]