Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ALIM (Ahim) the Maccabee (mind{wit}. 166 up to n. e.), under the legend, - antiquated martyrs, killed in persecution of Antiochus IV Epifana for failure{refusal} to break a law one of seven brothers Moiseyev (2 Maccabean, 7). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 1 (14).
  • ALIMARIN Ivan Pavlovich (1903-89), the Russian chemist - analyst, academician AN the USSR (1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1980). The main{basic} transactionses on the quantitative micro and to a microchemical analysis, division of rare-earth elements. Has offered a nejtronno-activation method of definition of impurity{additives} in semiconductors. The state premium of the USSR (1972).
  • ALIMDZHAN Hamid (an ice-film. A name and fam. Hamid Alimdzhanovich Azimov) (1909-44), the Uzbek poet, corresponding member AN of Uzbekistan (1943). Collections of verses " the Morning breeze " (1930), " Night on the river " (1936), " Take weapons in arms{hand}! " (1942). Historical drama "Mukanna" (1942-43).
  • NUTRITIONAL DISEASES of the person and animal, are connected with improper - an irregular, inferior or nonbalanced feed (napr., a dystrophia nutritional, a kwasiorkor) or with the use of poor quality nutrition (see. Food poisonings)
  • ALIMENTATSIJA (pozdnelat. alimentatio, from an armour. alimentum - nutrition, the content), in Other. Rome in kon. 1 - it is grey. 3 centuries system of the state help to children of needy parents and fatherlesses; developed of the percents received from small-sized and mean landowners for issue by him{it} of loans by the state.
  • ALIMONY (from an armour. alimentum - nutrition, the content), a means which in statutory events one members of family are obliged to pay on the content other. Russian family the legislation establishes{sets} a circle of persons, having the right on the alimony, and also the faces obliged to their payment, the dimension and terms to maturity of the alimony. At failure{refusal} of voluntary payment the alimony can be collected through court.
  • ALIMZHANOV Anuar (Anuarbek) (1930-93), the Kazakh writer. Wrote in Russian. Stories " the Caravan goes to the sun " (1963), " Blue mountains " (1964) about a modernity; the historical story " Throne Rudaki " (1974); the historical trilogy " the Steppe echo " (" Boom Mahambeta ", 1969; "Gonets", 1974; " Recurring of the teacher ", 1979).
  • ALIMOV Alexander Fedorovich (r. 1933), the Russian aquatic biologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses on a biological effeciency and stabilities of water ecosystems.
  • ALIMOV Mirzorahmat (1890/91-1971), the Tadjik master of ortamental paintings on a tree and reliefly - polihromnoj paintings kundal, the national artist of Tadjikistan (1959).
  • ALIMPY (is exacter Alipy) (?-1114), the old russian painter. Mosaics of Dormition fast Kievo-Pecherskoj laurels.
  • ALING-GANGRI (Nain-Synge), a backbone on a southwest of plateau of Tibet, in China. Ok. 600 kms. An altitude up to 7315 m. High-mountainous deserts; above 4500 m - icehouses.
  • ALI-PASHA TEPELENSKY (Ali Pashe Tepelena) (Ali-pasha JAninsky) (ok. 1744-1822), the Albanian feudal lord (austral Albania comes Tepeleny,), the governor (with 1787) parts Balkan p-ova (with the centre in. Yanin), achieving actual independence of the turkish anthurus. It is killed in war with anthurus Mahmudom II.
  • "ALISA", the Russian rock group, is derivated in 1983 in Leningrad. Initial structure: V.Zadery (bass - gear quadrant), SHatalin (the gear quadrant, keyboard), P.Kondratenko (keyboard, a vocal), M.Nefedov (impact), Eltikov (vocal); with 1985 - K.Kintchev (an ice-film. A surname Panfilov), the writer of songs and the singer. The group is secreted Kintchev with actor's bestowal, peculiar melodikoj songs and original texts of a social directivity (songs "Experimenter", "Music fan", etc.). Songs " my generation ", " we together! " Become genuine youth hymns.
  • ALISOV Boris Pavlovich (1891-1972), Russian klimatolog, the doctor of geographycal sciences, the honored worker of science of Russia (1962). The professor of the Moscow State University (with 1941). The main{basic} transactionses on geographycal aspects of a climatology.
  • ALYSSUM (alyssum), stem of grasses of a set of a cruciferae family; the same, that a madwort. The title an alyssum is used in a flower growing.
  • ALITIZING (from a nem. alitieren, from Al - aluminium) (aluminizing), a saturation of a surface steel, etc. a metal goods aluminium for increase of heat-proofness (up to 1100 °S) and weather resistances.
  • ALITUS (Alytus) (up to 1917 official title Olita), city in Lithuania, on r. Njamunas. A depot. 74,9 thousand inhabitants (1990). Factories: refrigerators, machine-building, etc.; a food-processing industry, cotton combine, shvejn
  • ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS (from grech. aleiphar, a stem. Item aleiphatos - fat) (adipose connections, acyclic connections), organic compounds, in which molecules atoms of carbon will derivate "open{discovered}" linear (aliphatic compounds of a normal structure) or branched (aliphatic compounds izostroenija) circuits. Actuate hydrocarbon (napr., alkanes, olefines) and their derivative (napr., spirits, carboxylic acids, amines). Non-saturated, keeping multiple bonds (С=С, With є С) are sectioned on saturated which contain only ordinary bonds (S-S), and. The main{basic} sources of hydrocarbon - petroleum and a natural gas, their derivative - vegetative and animal organisms.
  • ALIHANOV Abram Isaakovich (1904-70), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1943), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1954). Brother A.I.Alihanjana. The founder and the director (with 1945) Institute of theoretical and experimental physics. Transactionses on nuclear physics and ultrarays. Under guiding Alihanova are built first in the USSR tjazhelovodnyj a nuclear reactor (1949), a booster with strong focusing up to 7 GeV (1961). The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1948, 1953).
  • ALIHANJAN Artem Isaakovich (1908-78), physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946), academician AN of Armenia (1943). Brother A.I.Alihanova. Transactionses on nuclear physics and ultrarays. The lenin premium (1970). The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1948).
  • ALIHANJAN Isaak Semenovich (1876-1946), the Armenian actor, the national actor of Armenia (1923) and Georgia (1941). On the scene with 1897, with 1922 at the Tbilisi Armenian theatre.
  • ALICYCLIC CONNECTIONS, the organic compounds keeping in molecules cycles (rings) from three or more atoms of carbon (except for aromatic compounds). Actuate hydrocarbon and their derivative, napr. Spirits, carboxylic acids, amines. Differ on figure of cycles in a molecule (mono-, bi-, three and polycyclic) and on character of the communications{connections} bridging atoms of carbon (saturated and non-saturated). In plenties are contained in petroleum. Examples of alicyclic connections - cyclopropane, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol. See also Naphthenes.
  • ALISH (an ice-film. fam. Alishev) Abdulla Barievich (1908-44), the tatar writer. Wrote for children (collections of verses; collections of stories "Swearing", 1935, " Maminy fairy tales ", 1940). Colleague M.Dzhalilja. It is executed by german fascists.
  • ALISHAHBANA (Alisjahbana) Cowls Takdir (r. 1908), the Indonesian writer. Educational novels: " Among continuous misfortunes " (1929), " Organized flags " (1936) about extirpation for emancipation of woman. The intellectual{intelligent} novel " the Sky fuselage spine fairing " (1970-71), the novel " Defeats and victories " (1978).
  • ALIJA (Alia) Ramiz (r. 1925), the president of Albania with 1991-92, in 1985-91 1-st secretary of a Central Committee of the Albanian consignment of transactionses. In 1949-55 1-st secretary of a Central Committee of Soyuz of labour youth of Albania.
  • ALKALIMETER AND ACIDIMETRY (from medieval an armour. alcali - alkali and an armour. acidus - sour and... metrija) (acid-base titration), methods of a qualitative analysis of the groundings and acids, founded on their neutralizing by a solution of the conforming acid or the grounding.
  • ALKALOSIS, the form of violation{disturbance} of acid-base equilibrium aside relative increase of quantity of alkaline cations.
  • ALKALOIDS (from medieval an armour. alcali - alkali and grech. eidos - a kind{view}), extensive group of nitrogen-bearing ring compounds primarily phytogenous. All alkaloids - nitrogen bases, which are categorized on chemical constitution (predominary on heterocycles included in their structure - to an indol, pyridine, quinoline, etc.), and also depending on a source of secretion. It is known ok. 10000 alkaloids; legumes, a poppy family, a nightshade family, a crowfoot family, a goosefoot family, a thistle family are especially affluent them. Alkaloids render physiological action on an organism animal and the person, predominary on nervous system due to what are applied in medicine (a caffeine, morphine, an ephedrine, alkaloids of an ergot, etc.) And in an agriculture for a pest control. The biological role of alkaloids in plants finally is not established{installed}; alkaloids can shadow plants from poedanija animal, minister the form of a storage of an organic nitrogen in tissues, etc.
  • ALKAMEN, the ancient greek sculptor 2-nd floor. 5 century up to n. e. Pupil Fidija. Soft studying a pleat of clothes{clothing}, revealed to a plastic of a body (" the Aphrodite in gardens ", it is known in copies).
  • ALKANES, the same, that saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; see. Saturated compounds.
  • ALKAFOJ (Alkatoj), in the Grecian mythology megarsky the hero, son Pelopa and Gippodamii. Has killed a lion, rasterzavshego the son megarskogo tsar Megareja after that has received in the wife daughter Megareja Evehmu. In Megarah there was sanctuary{holy place} Alkafoja and games in his{its} honour - alkafoji were committed.
  • ALKEEVA the STANZA (goratsieva a stanza), in antique lyrics (Alkej, Goratsy) and its{her} imitations{simulations} a stanza from two 11-composite, the 9-composite and 10-composite verses logaedicheskogo structures (see. Logaedy).
  • ALKEJ (kon. 7 - 1-n a floor. 6 centuries up to n. e.), the ancient greek poet - lirik. In his{its} verses motives of a civil war (accepted with an item of the aristocrat), and also table fun prevail{dominate}. Has exerted influence on Goratsija.
  • ALKENES, the same, that olefines.
  • ALKIVIAD (ok. 450-404 up to n. e.), the Athenian strategist with 421 (repeatedly) in season{term} Peloponnesskoj of war. Has organized in 415 expedition against Syracuse, then has come over to on the party of Sparta, having offered the plan of management of war against Athenes, ran to Persia later. Sustained in 411 Athenian oligarchic, then democratic governments. In 411-408 has scored marine battles at Abydos, Kizike, etc.
  • ALKYD VARNISHES, solutions of alkyd resins (often their mixes with urea-formaldehyde resins or with other polymers) in organic solvents. Will derivate anticorrosive and weather protective coatings. Enamel colours and first coats are applied to protection of a tree and metal, on the basis of alkyd varnishes - for furnish of transports, farm machines, etc. The Widespread kind{view} of paint-and-varnish production.
  • ALKYD RESINS, synthetic resins, polycondensates of polybasic carboxylic acids with polyols; high-viscosity fluids. The most widespread alkyd resins received from phthalic acid and glycerine or pentaerythritol, call accordingly as glyptal resins (glyptals) and pentaerythritol-modified phthalic resins (pentaftaljami). Are applied primarily to preparation of alkyd varnishes.
  • ALKYLATE (alkilbenzin), a mix of saturated hydrocarbons (predominary iso-octane and trimetilpentanov) with tкип 40-180 °C; a liquid with firmness 0,698-0,715 g / sm3 and an octane number not less than 90. Receive an alkylation of isobutane technical butylenes. Apply to octane improvement of benzines.
  • ALKILBENZOLSULFONATY, connections of general formula RC6H4SO3М, where R - alkyl, M - Na, K, etc. Sodium salt alkilbenzosulfonatov - surfactants which are used as components of scours, napr. C12H25C6H4SO3Na - t. n. A sulphonol.
  • ALKYLATION, introduction in molecules organic and inorganic compounds of alkyl, napr. Methyl CH3 (methylation), ethyl C2H5 (ethylation). It is applied, napr., for obtaining high-antiknock fuel, surfactants, antioxidants, insecticides. Introduction of aryl, napr. Phenyl C6H5, calls as an arylating.
  • ALKILSULFATY, connections of general formula ROSO3M, where R - alkyl, M - Na, NH4. Alkilsulfaty, in which R=CH3, C2H5 - alkylation agents. The maximum alkilsulfaty (napr., C11H23OSO3Na) - surfactants, are used as components of scours.
  • ALKINOJ, in the Grecian mythology (for Gomera) wise tsar feakov, grandson Posejdona, marital partner Arety, father Navsikai. In palace Alkinoja stayed Odissej on ways to Itaka. Has helped also JAsonu and the Medea.
  • ALKYNES, hydrocarbon of some acetylene.
  • ALKIONA, see. Keik.
  • ALKIONEJ, in the Grecian mythology one of jumboes - participants gigantomahii. The plotting poverzhennogo Alkioneja, with side panels behind a back and snakes instead of legs is present on frieze Pergamskogo of an altar.
  • ALKMEON Krotonsky (6-5 centuries up to n. e.), the ancient greek doctor and the naturalistic philosophy representative, the representative krotonskoj medical school. In the composition " About a nature " for the first time has given the physiophilosophical concept of a human body as microcosm and balanced system of contrasts. Conducted anatomo-physiological probes.
  • ALKMEONIDY, the Athenian aristocratic stem to which belonged Klisfen, Perikl, Alkiviad. Was considered as the assassination a sacred place damned for "defiling" [ok. 640 up to n. e. For an altar Athenes Megaklom (from stem Alkmeonidov) have been killed adherents Kilona].
  • ALKOGOLI, the same, that monohydroxy alcohols.
  • ALKOGOLIZM, the chronic disease stipulated by the regular use of alcoholic drinks. Shows physical and mental relation to alcohol, a mental and social degradation, a pathology of an internals, a metabolism, central and peripheric nervous system. Quite often there are alcoholic psychosises.
  • ALCOHOLIC PSYCHOSISES, mental disorders, which originating it is connected with alkogolizmom. The most crowded forms - a delirium tremens (a stupefaction, visual and acoustical hallucinations, exaltation, different somatic and neurologic distresses), an alcoholic hallucinosis (predominary acoustical hallucinations of the menacing content), delirium of jealousy.
  • ALCOHOLATES, substitution products in spirits of atom of hydrogen of a hydroxyl group metal, napr. RONa (R = CH3, C2H5 or other hydrocarbon radical). Alcoholates - solid, colourless, easily hydrolyzed products; are applied in organic synthesis.
  • ALKONOST [distortion old russian rechenija " alkion is (bird) ", from grech. alkyon - a halcyon], a fantastic bird with a human face, represented on arcaded cartoon Russian to pictures.
  • ALKSNIS (Alksnis) Adams (1864-97), Latvian risovalshchik and the painter. The chief art a mug "Worker". Realistic water colours, drawings on themes of a history of Latvia, life of Latvian people ("Sower", 1896).
  • ALKSNIS (Astrov) Jacob Ivanovich (1897-1938), the commander. The participant of the Civil war, after its{her} terminal took responsible posts{stations} in Red Army. The commander of 2-nd rank (1935), since January 1937 deputy narkoma defences on aircraft. One of organizers of activity Osoaviahima, accepted active sharing{participation} in organization of flights in Arctic regions, flights of crews of V.P.Tchkalov and M.M.Gromova. It is repressed.
  • ALKUIN (Alcuin) Flakk Albinas (Flaccus Albinus) (ok. 735-804), the Anglo-Saxon scientist, the writer of doctrinal tracts, tutorials of philosophy, mathematics, etc.; the figure " Karolingskogo revitalizations ", adviser Charles Velikogo. Abbe Turskogo of a monastery.
  • "ALKEN" (Alcan), the canadian aluminium company. It is based in 1928. Sales volume 8,3 billion dol., a net profit 931 million dol., smelting of aluminium ok. 1,7 million t (1-n in the capitalist world), figure occupied in 56 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • ALLA PRIMA (ital. alla prima), painting on crude, the version of lubricated painting requiring of closing-up for one session, up to a drying of paints.
  • ALLANITE, mineral; the same, that ortit.
  • CORDIANINE, one of end - products of an exchange of purine bases for mammals (except for primates); it is secreted with a urine.
  • ALLANTOIS (from grech. allantoeides - kolbasovidnyj), one of embryonic membranes kowtowing, birds and mammals; a respiratory organs and a place for a clump of an excretor products for germs. For mammals participates in education of a placenta.
  • ALLANUROV Hydyr Allanurovich (r. 1922), the Turkmen conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1977). With 1948 at Turkmen theatre of opera and ballet (with 1976 main conductor).
  • The ALLAH (arab)., a name of the God in moslem faith.
  • ALLAHABAD (till 17 century. Prajaga), city in India, in pieces. Uttar Pradesh, for interflow rr. Ganges and Jumna. 806 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry. Manufacture of subjects of a religious cult. University. The religious centre induizma. D.Neru's Rhodinum.
  • The ALLAH - JUN, the river in Yakutia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Aldan. 586 kms, the area of basin of 24,2 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 169 m3 / with. It is navigable in a high water.
  • To ALLA (Alle) August (1890-1952), the Estonian writer. Social satyr and anti-fascist moods in the collection of feuilletons " the Lilac elephant " (1923), the collection of verses " Cloudy waves " (1930), " Inclement rhythms " (1934), "Epigrammy" (1944).
  • To ALLA (Allais) Moris (r. 1911), the French economist, the representative neoliberalnogo directions of political economy. Has acted with idea of " competitive planning{glide} ", founded on combination of state programming of economy to a competition of private enterprises. Transactionses under the theory of the markets, an effective utilization of material resources{safe lifes}, etc. The Nobel Prize (1988).
  • ALLEGORY (grech. allegoria - an allegory), the plotting of the abstracted idea (concept) by means of a mode{an image}. The sense of allegory, as against a multivalued numeral, is unequivocal and unbound from a mode{an image}; communication{connection} between value and a mode{an image} is established{set} on similarity (a lion - force, an authority or tsarstvennost). As trails the allegory is used in basnjah, parables, moralite; in fine arts expresses fixed attributes (justice - woman with weights). It is most typical for medieval art, Revitalization, manjerizma, Baroque, a classicism.
  • ALLEGRETTO (ital. allegretto, will moderate. From allegro), in music, 1) rate, more sluggish, than allegro, but faster, than moderato; 2) the title of the play or a part of product{creation} in rate allegretto.
  • ALLEGRI [ital. allegri - (be cheerful - an inscription done{made} on the empty ticket of lottery], lottery in which draw is effected right after purchases of the ticket.
  • ALLEGRO (ital. allegro, characters. - cheerful, alive), in music, 1) fast, mobile rate; 2) the title of the play or a part sonatnogo a cycle (routinely first) in rate allegro (see. Sonatnaja the form).
  • ALLELES (from grech. allelon - one another, it is relative{mutual}) (allels), the different forms of the same gene located in equal epines (locuses) of homologous (twin) chromosomes; determine versions of development of the same attribute. At a normal diploid cell can be present no more than two alleles simultaneously.
  • ALLELOPATHY (from grech. allelon - it is relative{mutual} and... patija), interaction interference of plants against each other (a deceleration in growth, flowerings, etc.) as a result of secretion by them in an environment of different organic substances (antibiotics, phytoncids, etc.).
  • ALLEMANDA (frants. allemande, characters. - german), arcaded (since 16 century) court French dance of a german origin. The musical dimension 4/4.
  • ALLEMANOV Dmitry Vasiljevich (1867-1918), the Russian spiritual composer, the priest, the writer of 93 church canticles, including "All-night vigil" and seven "Heruvimskih".
  • PROPADIENE (Allen) Vudi (an ice-film. A name and fam. Allen Stjuart Kenigsberg) (r. 1935), the American film director, the actor, the scripter, the writer. Has delivered films: "Bananas" (1970), " Enni Hall " (1977), "Manhattan" (1979), "Zelig" (1983), " the Magenta rose - tree of Cairo " (1985). In the basis{fundamentals} of many films - a ridicule at genre conditionalities of a cinematograph, household realities of daily occurrence, stereotype of intellection.
  • PROPADIENE Uolter (r. 1911), the English writer and the literary critic. Compositions on a history of the realistic novel in literatures of the Great Britain and the USA. Roman " that only was not in life " (1959).
  • ALLENTOWN (Allentown), city on the orient the USA, pieces. Pennsylvania. 105 thousand inhabitants (1990). The large centre of manufacture of lorries, instrumentation technologies. It colonized with german colonizers with 1762.
  • ALLER (Aller) Lawrence Hju (r. 1913), the American astronomer, spektroskopist, professor Michiganskogo and Californian universities. Probeed chemical composition of the Sun, asters and gas fogs. Has discovered asters with a major deficit of heavy chemical elements (1951).
  • ALLERGY (from grech. allos - other and ergon - action), heightened or misinterpreted sensitivity of an organism to any allergen - to the substance triggering an allergy. Reaction to an allergen can weep by the way hypersensitivity of immediate or delayed type. The allergy bases t. n. Allergic diseases (napr., a bronchial asthma).
  • ALLERGOLOGY, the range of medicine investigator the causes of originating, mechanisms of development, development, methods of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of allergic responses and diseases (see. An allergy).
  • ALLIGATORS, set of crocodiles; actuates naturally alligators and kajmanov, only 7 kinds{views}. Naturally alligators - 2 kinds{views}: missisipsky (length up to 6,3 м), it was saved predominary in bogs of Florida; Chinese (length up to 2,5 м), in r. Yangtze. Cultivate on farms. 4 kinds{views} of alligators in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • ALLYL ALCOHOL, CH2=CHCH2OH, a colourless liquid, tкип 96,9 °C. Allyl alcohol and his{its} derivative (primarily ethers) are used for synthesis of polymers, glycerine, acrolein, as odorous substances, etc.
  • The HALLELUJAH (from dr .-евр. hallelujja - praise the god), in Christian worship service a refrain of church canticle, in a judaism an intonement glorifying the god.
  • ALLYL CHLORIDE, CH2=CHCH2Cl, a colourless liquid with a sharp irritant odor, tкип 44,96 °C. It is applied to obtaining epichlorohydrin, allyl alcohol, cyclopropane, glycerine, medicinal preparations, insecticides.
  • ALLITERATSIONNYJ the VERSE, a clean - tonic verse Anglo-Saxon, drevneverhnenemetskoj and staroislandskoj poetry (8-13 centuries): more often a verse from 2 polustishy, on 2 shocking in each, both words 1-st and one of words of 2-nd polustishija are connected by alliteration of initial notes. Similar organization alliteratsionnogo a verse is distributed in Turkic tongues.
  • ALLITERATION (from an armour. ad - to, at and littera - the character), repetition uniform{homogeneous} agree, attaching to the literary text, routinely a verse, special acoustical and intonational expressiveness. Napr., " the Rushing of foamy{scummy;spumous} wine glasses and punch plamen light-blue " (A.S.Pushkin).
  • ALLIJA (Allia), the river in Italy, in-leak{influx} of Tiber. On Allii 18.7.390 (or 387) up to n. e. Cecidiums have divided Roman army and have plundered Rome. 18.7 was considered in Other. Rome in the unhappy afternoon.
  • HELLO... (from grech. allos - other), a part of the composite words meaning: "other", "other" (napr., allotropy).
  • ALLOBROGI, the Celtic nation, pokorennoe Romans in 121 up to n. e.
  • The ALODIUM (a nem. Allod, frankskoe alodis, from al - full and od - possession), for the German nations and in rannefeodalnyh the states Zap. Europe loosely alienable individually - family land property. With development of feudal attitudes{relations} the large part of small-sized alodiums turned into dependent country derzhanija, alodiums of large and mean landowners - in benefices and feods. As a vestige the alodial property existed{breathed} and at developed feudalism.
  • ALLOPATHY (from hello... And... patija), the term offered the founder of a homeopathy of S.Ganemanom for notation of not homeopathic methods of treatment.
  • ALLOPATRIC SPECIES FORMATION (from hello... And grech. patris - Rhodinum), a way of a species formation during evolution at which novel species of organisms conduct the beginning from affine groups with not blocked{bridged} (isolated) area. So, on miscellaneous islands from group Galapagosskih there were different kinds{views} of bramblings.
  • ALLOPOLIPLOIDIJA (from hello... And a polyploidy), a hereditary variation in cells of plants, less often animal, consisting in aliquot increase of figure of sets of chromosomes at interspecific or a bigeneric crossing. Meets in a nature and can be received{obtained} teleologically (rye-wheat, kapustno-redechnye hybrids). Has the important value during a species formation for plants.
  • ALLOTROPY (from hello... And grech. tropos - turning movement, property), existence of chemical elements by the way two or more simple substances. Can be stipulated by education of molecules with different figure of atoms (napr., oxygen O2 and ozone O3) or crystals of different updatings (napr., diamond and the black lead consisting of atoms of carbon). In the last example allotropy - a particular case of a polymorphism.
  • ALLOHORIJA (from hello... And grech. choreo - I go forwards, I advance), distribution{propagation} of plants through different external factors: the person (anthropochoria), animal (zoochory), a wind (anemochoria), waters (hydrophoria). Compare. Avtohorija.
  • ALLOHTON (from hello... And grech. chthon - ground), the parts of wrinkled structures pulled over unbiased autochthonous structures (see. An autochton); will derivate overthrust sheets.
  • ALLOHTONY, kinds{views} (stems, sets) organisms, pronikshie in the given district at moving (migration) from a place where they have arisen during evolution. Napr., a North American opossum - allohton the Sowing. America, t. To. It was settled here from JUzh. America. Compare. Autochtons.
  • ALLUVION (from an armour. alluvio - a silt) (alluvial deposits), adjournments of stationary values and temporary water-courses (the rivers, brooks), consisting of a detrital material of a different degree okatannosti and sortings (a pebble, gravel, sand, a loam, clay).
  • ALLJUZIJA (from an armour. allusio - a joke, a hint), a stylistic figure, a hint by means of shodnozvuchashchego words or mentions of the well-known substantial fact, historical event, a literary work (" glory of the Fame-thirsty person " - compare. The fame-thirsty person).
  • GAITS (frants. allure, characters. - gait), motion patterns of the horse. Correct use of a natural gait - a walk, a lynx, pace, a gallop, jump promotes conservation of functionability of the horse. A synthetic gait - a ceremonial walk, passazh, pjaffe, a pirouette apply in a circus art and equestrian sport.
  • ALLJATSY the Lion (grech. Allatios Leon, an armour. Allacci Leone) (1586-1669), the latin writer, comes the Greek. In extensive correspondence and doctrinal compositions emphasized{pointed out} the consent between Grecian and Roman tserkvami.
  • ALMA-ATA (the Kazakh. - Almaty) (up to 1921 Valid), capital (with 1929) Kazakhstan, the centre of the Alma-Ati region, for boreal foot Zailijskogo of Ala Tau, on rr. Б. and M.Almatinka. A depot. 1156 thousand inhabitants (1991; including occupied points, subject to municipal council, 1160 thousand inhabitants). A machine industry and metal working, alimentary, mild, etc. an industry. AN Kazakhstan, 16 high schools (including. The Kazakh university, a conservatory). 9 theatres (including. The Kazakh opera and ballet theatre, German theatre). 13 museums (including. The Museum of Kazakhstan, the Museum of arts by him{it}. A.Kasteeva, Literary - memorial museum Auezova). It is based in 1854. The dwelling of government (1957), the Palace of Republic (1970), hostel " Kazakhstan " (1977). New inhabited neighbourhood units. Alma-Ata repeatedly suffered affliction from earthquakes (last in 1911 and 1921) and torrents (are built protivoselevye structures). Bliz Alma-Ata - winter sporting complex Medeo.
  • The ALMA-ATI RANGE, in Kazakhstan. 104,7 thousand км2. The population of 2110 thousand person (1989). Adm. ts. - Alma-Ata. Mean temperatures of January from-9 up to-10 °C, July 24 °S. A rainfall from 100 mm (in deserts) up to 1000 mm (in mountains) annually. The main river - Or. In northwest - an eskar. Balkhash. An industry: a machine industry and metal working, alimentary, mild, a building materials. Kapchagajskaja a river plant, the Alma-Ati coordinated hydroelectric system. Area of irrigation agriculture. Crops of wheat, barley, corn, rice. Cultivate sugar-beet, tobacco. A fruit growing and wine growing. Animal husbandry: sheeps, a large horned stock, horses; a poultry breeding. Navigation on an eskar. Balkhash and r. Or. In mountains, bliz Alma-Ata, mountain health resorts, camp sites.
  • The ALMA-ATI RESERVATION, bliz Alma-Ata, in central part Zailijskogo Ala Tau. It is based in 1931 (about 1935 state reserve). The area 73325 ga. Woods from fur-trees SHrenka, fruit; a Central Asian juniper Siberian and Turkestani. High-mountainous steppes and subalpine meadows. The Siberian wild goat, a snow porpoise, a marten - belodushka, etc.
  • ALMA-ATI ZOOVETERINARNYJ the INSTITUTE, is based in 1929. Plots experts on animal husbandry, zooinzhenerov, veterinaries. In 1991 ok. 5 thousand students.
  • The ALMA-ATI MEDICAL INSTITUTE, is based in 1931. Plots doctors of the main{basic} trades. In 1991 ok. 7 thousand students.
  • DIAMOND, mineral, one of crystalline polymorphic updatings carbon, C. Versions of diamond - a ballas, a carbonado, a side. Crystallizes in cubic singonii. Colourless or colored octahedral crystals. The hardest mineral (hardness 10 on a mineralogical scale); firmness ok. 3,5 g / sm3, high refractive index (2,417). The semiconductor. Large diaphanous crystals of diamond - precious stones of 1-st class. The world's largest diamonds: " Kullinan " (3106 kar), "Ekselsior" (971,5 kar), "Jonker" (726 kar). It is applied in an industry as abrasive. Workable deposits are connected to kimberlites, stream gravels. Main foreign getting{procuring} countries: the republic of South Africa, Zaire, Botswana, Namibia. In the Russian Federation deposits in Yakutia, on Ural. Synthetic diamonds receive from black lead and carbonaceous substances with is grey. 50th of 20 century. Annual manufacture of synthetic diamonds a little bit{some} one million karat (basically for technical needs).
  • DIAMOND, city (with 1977) on Ukraine, Lugansk region. A depot (Stakhanov). 7,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A metallurgical plant.
  • DIAMOND MOUNTAINS, in KNDR, see. Kymgansan.
  • The DIAMOND TOOL, is produced with use natural or synthetic diamonds for the worker (basically cutting) parts: abrasive wheels and bars (with powdery diamonds), cutters, a cutter, a spinneret{die}, boring, etc. instruments (with crystals of diamond). It intended for machining solid materials.
  • DIAMOND SYNDICATE, the international company on sales of natural diamonds of the republic of South Africa, Zaire, Namibia, etc. countries. It is based in 1892. Monitors 60-70 % of the capitalist market of diamonds (kon. 1980th). A prevailing role the company " De Bierce konsolidejted majns " plays (republic of South Africa).
  • DIAMOND FUND of the Russian Federation, state collection of precious stones and the jewels having historical, art and material value, and also unique golden and platinum nuggets. It is based in 1922. With 1967 in Moskovsk the Kremlin the stationary value an exhibition of Diamond fund is open{discovered}.
  • DIAMONDS Alexander Ivanovich (1859-1920), the Russian spiritual writer, the professor of Novorossisk university on stand of a church law; the writer of the book " the Secret confession in the Orthodox church " (t. 1-3, 1894).
  • DIAMONDS Boris Nikolaevich (1827-76), the Russian writer, the critic. Comic verses and parodies (the collection "Dissonances", 1863; a baking plate psevd. B.Adamantov). Poetic narrations on historical and religious scenes (" Stories from life of Christian men of faith ", 1865; a poem " Vladimir's epiphany ", 1874). Literary - critiques, feuilletons. Transfers{translations}.
  • ALMALYK, city (with 1951) in Uzbekistan, the Tashkent region of 116,4 thousand inhabitants (1991.) Center of nonferrous machine industry. Mining-and-metallurgical integrated works, chemicals plant, etc. The cogeneration station.



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