Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ALMASZADE Gamer Gadzhi Aga kyzy (r. 1915), the Azerbaijan actress of ballet, the ballet master, the national actress of the USSR (1959). The first Azerbaijan dancer. With 1936 at Theatre of opera and ballet by him{it}. Ahundova. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ALMEJDA (Almeida) Fransishku (ok. 1450-1510), the Portuguese seafarer, the conqueror of some terrains in Zap. India; 1-st viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in India (1505-09).
  • ALMEJDA-GARRET (Almeida Garrett) ZHuan Baptishta yes Silva Lejtan (da Silva Leitao) (1799-1854), the Portuguese writer. The representative of romanticism. Patriotic poem "Kamoens" (1825), a historical drama " to the Miss Vein Visenti " (1838), the novel " the Arc over. Anna " (1845-51).
  • AL-NI ALLOY (from aluminium and a nickel), magnetically hard alloys Fe (basis{fundamentals}) with Ni (20-34 %) and Al (11-18 %), sometimes with additives Cu, Co, Si, Ti. Produce permanent magnets.
  • ALOA, the state in terrain of an austral part of the modern Sudan since 6 century, in 15 century has hitted under an authority of arabs.
  • ALOV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1923-83), the Russian film director and the scripter, the national actor of the USSR (1983). Has delivered with producer V.N.Naumovym films: " the Alarming youth " (1955), "Paul Korchagin" (1957), " the World entering " (1961), " the Nasty joke " (1966), "Trot race" (1971), " the Legend of the Tylosis " (1977), "Teheran - 43" (1981), "Shore" (1984), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1985, posthumously).
  • ALOGISM (from a - a negative prefix and grech. logismos - reason), 1) denial of logic intellection as means of achievement of true; rratsionalizm, the mysticism, fideism contrast logic intuition, belief or revelation. 2) In stylistics the going violation{disturbance} in speech of logical connections with the purpose of stylistic (including comic) effect: " never I shall forget - he was or not, this evening " (A.Blok).
  • SCARLET AND the COTTAGE ROSE WAR 1455-85, internecine war in England, for a holy table between two branches of dynasty Plantagenetov - Lankasterami (in the arms a scarlet rose - tree) and Jorkami (in the arms a cottage rose). The death in war of main representatives of both dynasties and a considerable proportion znati has facilitated establishment absoljutizma Tjudorov. SCARLET AND the COTTAGE ROSE WAR (The Wars of Roses) (1455-85), bloody internecine conflicts between feudal cliques in England, taken the form of extirpation for a holy table between two lines of royal dynasty Plantagenetov: Lankasterami (in the arms a scarlet rose - tree) and Jorkami (in the arms a cottage rose) .Prichiny vojnyPrichinami wars have served a heavy economic situation of England (crisis large votchinnogo economies and fall of his{its} yield) a defeat of England in the Centenary war (1453), deprived feudal lords of a capability to plunder grounds of France; depressing{supression} of revolt of Jack Keda in 1451 (see Keda Jack revolt) and together with nymas - the forces acting against feudal anarchy. Lankastery rested primarily on barons of a backward north, Wales and Ireland, Jorki - on feudal lords of economically more developed southeast of England. Mean nobility, merchants and the prosperous town-dwellers interested in loose development of trade and handcrafts, liquidations of feudal anarchy and establishment of a solid authority, sustained Jorkov. At imbecile king Genrihe VI Lancaster (1422-61) country the clique of several large feudal lords that has provoked grievance in remaining layers of the population corrected. Using this grievance, Richard, duke Jorksky, has collected around of itself the vassals and has gone with them on the London. In battle at Saint Albans on May, 22 1455 he has divided adherents of the Scarlet rose - tree. Discharged soon from an authority, he has again raised rebelion and has declared the claims on the English holy table. With army of the adherents he has gained victories above the opponent at the Blor-hit (on September, 23 1459) and Northampton (on July, 10 1460); During last he has taken prisoner king then has forced the upper chamber to recognize itself as a tread of the state and the successor of a holy table. But queen Margarita, wife Genriha VI, with the adherents has unexpectedly attacked him{it} at Wakefield (on December, 30 1460). Richard has been battered nagolovu and a forest fire in battle. Enemies have chopped off to him a head and have exhibited her{it} on a wall of York in an impregnated-paper corona. The son his{its} Edward at support the column of Warwick has divided adherents Lankasterskoj of a dynasty at Mortimers-cross-country (on February, 2 1461) and Toutone (on March, 29 1461). Genrih VI has been decrowned; he and Margarita ran to Scotland. The winner has become king Edward IV.Эдуард IVОднако war kept. In 1464 Edward IV has defeated adherents Lankasterov in a north of England. Genrih VI has been taken in a film and it is encased in a Tower. Edward's tendency IV to strengthen the authority and to limit freedom feudal znati has reduced in revolt of his{its} former adherents led by Warwick (1470). Edward ran from England, Genrih VI in October 1470 recovered{restored} on a holy table. In 1471 Edward IV at Barnete (on April, 14) and Tjuksberi (on May, 4) has divided army of Warwick and army of wife Genriha of VI Margarita, landed in England at support of the French king Lui XI. Warwick has been killed, Genrih VI in April 1471 is again decrowned and has died (is presumably killed) in a Tower on May, 21 1471. Completion vojnyPosle victories to strengthen the authority, Edward IV began rough handlings both from representatives Lankasterskoj of a dynasty, and with mutinous Jorkami and their adherents. After Edward's mors IV 9 of April 1483 holy table has transfered to his{its} minor son Edward V, but the authority was trapped by junior brother Edward IV, the future king Richard III who all over again has declared itself a tread of minor king, and has then deposed it{him} and has ordered to strangle in a Tower together with his{its} junior brother Richardom (August (?) 1483). Attempts Richarda III to strengthen the authority have called revolts of feudal magnates. Executions and confiscation have set him{it} adherents of both groupings. Both dynasties, Lankasterov and Jorkov, were aggregated around Genriha Tjudora, distant relative Lankasterov who cable cores in France at a yard of king Charles on August, VIII. 7 or 8 1485 Genrih has landed in Milford-Hejvene, easily has passed through Wales and was bridged to the adherents. From their consolidated troops Richard III has sufferred a defeat in battle at Bosvorte on August, 22 1485; he has been killed. King the founder of dynasty Tjudorov has become Genrih VII. Having married on daughter Edward to IV Elizabeth - successor Jorkov, he has aggregated scarlet and white rose - trees in the arms. Political results War of Scarlet and White rose - trees was the last orgy of feudal anarchy before establishment absoljutizma in England. She was led with terrible exasperation and accompanied by numerous assassinations and executions. In extirpation were exhausted and both dynasties have perished. To the population of England war has brought intestine wars, a press of taxes, plunder of treasury, iniquity of large feudal lords, decline of trade, direct robberies and requisitions. During wars the considerable proportion of feudal aristocracy has been exterminated, numerous confiscations of land possessions have undermined its{her} power. Land possessions were at the same time increased and influence of new nobility and a trade merchant layer which become a support absoljutizma Tjudorov has increased. Литература:Jones W. G. York and Lancaster (1399-1485.) London, 1914. Goodman A. The wars of the Roses: Military activity and English society, 1452-1497. London, 1981. Ross C. The wars of Roses: a concise history. London, 1986. The wars of the Roses: From Richard II to the fall of Richard III at Bosworth field seen through the eyes of their contemporaries. / Еd. by Hallam E. London, 1988. Pollard A. J. The wars of the Roses. London, 1988. T.A.Pavlova
  • ALONSO (Alonso) (an ice-film. fam. Martinez del Oyo, Martinez del Oyo) Alicia (r. 1921), the cuban actress of ballet, the ballet master. The foundress of school of cuban ballet, its{her} first classical dancer (Carmen - " Carmen a suite " Bizet - Schedrin, 1967). In the Parisian Opera has reinstated "ZHizel" A.Adana, 1972, " the Latent beauty " P.I.Chajkovskogo, 1974. From Fernando and Alberto А. has organized in Havana troupe " Alicia's А. Ballet " (1948; about 1959 National ballet of Cuba).
  • ALONSO (Alonso) Damaso (1898-1990), the spanish poet. The representative t. n. " Generations 1927 years ". Collections of lyrics " Syny angers " (1944), " the Person and the God " (1955); pioneer transactionses on poetics of spanish Baroque.
  • ALORTSY (the self-title - orang-alor), people in Indonesia. Number of 100 thousand person (1992). Tongue alorsky. Believers - moslems - sunnity, are saved traditional convictions.
  • ALOFI (Alofi), main city and a port about. Niue (possession It is new. Zealand) in Quiet ok. Ok. 1 thousand inhabitants (1984).
  • ALOE, stem of perennial grasses of a set asfodelovyh. St. 350 kinds{views}, primarily in dry ranges of Africa. Medicinal preparations from leaves of different kinds{views} of an aloe apply predominary as biogenic stimulators. Many aloes cultivate as the decorative. The aloe treelike, cultivated in rooms, call as a bitter aloe.
  • "ALPAMYSH", the national - heroic epos for Uzbeks, karakalpakov, Kazakhs, the Bashkir, gornoaltajtsev. The Uzbek version has developed in 14-17 centuries; the origin and add time of other national versions are not studied.
  • ALP-ARSLAN (1029 or 1030-1072 or 1073), the governor of the state Seldzhukidov with 1063. Aggressive marchings to Armenia, Georgia, Compare. Asia. Has gained (1071) victory above the byzantian emperor Roman IV. It is killed during a marching to Bukhara.
  • ALPATOV Michael Vladimirovich (1902-86), the Russian historian of art, the teacher, the doctor of art criticism, the professor, the full member AH the USSR (1954). The master of figurative istoriko-art performance (etudes on a history of Western-European and Russian art; "Andrey Rublyov", 1972). The state premium of the USSR (1974).
  • ALSVIDR (dr .-исл. vsebystrejshy), in the Scandinavian mythology the heavenly horse bearing a chariot of the sun.
  • ALSINDOR (Alsindor) Ferdinand Ljuis (r. 1947), the American sportsman (basketball). The 6-fold champion National basketball associations (NBA) in structure of commands " Milwaukee the Gripe piece " (1969-75) and " Los Angeles Lejkers " (1975-85). The most successful player in seasons 1971 and 1972, and also in a history of NBA on a total sum of the collected glasses (38387).
  • ALTAI, highland in terrain of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. Will consist from hrebtov, Ob generatrix a watershed, Irtysh, Yenisei and the rivers of drainless range of Central Asia. Length over 2000 kms. It is disjointed to naturally Altai, Gobijsky Altai and Mongolian Altai. The highest hrebty naturally Altai - Katunsky, Sev.-and JUzh.-CHujskie reach an altitude of 3000-4000 m (the greatest of 4506 m-. A white grampus) also bear the modern icehouses (a gross area of a glaciation more than 900 км2). Of 1500-2500 m are typical for naturally Altai with weakly fissured crests, disjointed the intermountain hollows wearing the title of steppes - steppe Chujskaja, Kurajskaja also hrebty and masses an altitude, etc. Most the considerable rivers - Katun, Buhtarma, Feeling, Bija. Has more than 3500 lakes (the greatest Teletskoe, Markakol). In Altai are distributed gornostepnye, gornolesnye and high-mountainous landscapes. In a north-east part - the Altay reservation. Altai, especially t. n. Mining Altai (in Kazakhstan), is affluent deposits of polymetals, gold, zhelezALTAJ, city in Mongolia, an administrative centre Gobi-Altay ajmaka. 13 thousand inhabitants. Mild, alimentary promyshlennost.noj ore, mercury, rare metals. Tourism.
  • ALTAI, city in Mongolia, an administrative centre Gobi-Altay ajmaka. 13 thousand inhabitants. Mild, a food-processing industry.
  • ALTAI (Republic Altai) in structure of the Russian Federation. It is derivated 1.6.1922 as Ojrotskaja avt. The region 7.1.1948 is renamed in Mountain - Altay avt. The region, in 1991 is converted to Mountain - Altay SSR, in 1992 - in Republic Altai. 92,6 thousand км2. The population of 196,6 thousand person (1991), urban 27 %; altaians, Russian, Kazakhs. 1 city - Gorno-Altaisk (centre), 2 urban settlements (1991). A large part of terrain - mountains of Altai an altitude up to 4506 m (. A white grampus). Mean temperatures of January from-12 up to-32 °S, July 9-18 °S. A rainfall from 100 (in intermountain hollows) up to 1000 mm annually. The rivers - bass. Ob; large lake - Teletskoe. Woods take 1/4 terrains. The Altay reservation. An industry: wood, wood-working, mild, alimentary and a building materials. There is an electrical industry. Production of mineral building timbers. The main{basic} branch of an economy - animal husbandry (sheeps, goats, a large horned stock, horses, yaks), cultivate marals and East deers. Beekeeping. A trapping. Crops of feed and grain crops. The main{basic} transport main - CHujsky a tract. Gornoklimatichesky health resort CHemal.
  • The ALTAY TONGUES, the hypothetical macrofamily of tongues integrating of 3 tongue families: Turkic, Mongolian, tunguso-manchurian. Some scientists fall into to the Altay tongues also Japanese and Korean tongues. About an origin and an alliance of the Altay tongues there are miscellaneous hypotheses. The title " the Altay tongue " use sometimes and for notation of tongues of peoples living on Altai, - Altay, Khakass, Tuva, etc.
  • The ALTAY RESERVATION, in Republic Altai. It is based in 1932. The area ok. 882 thousand ga. In terrain Teletskoe an eskar. A taiga from a larch, cedar forests, Alpine meadows, mountain tundra. A sable, a brown bear, a maral, etc.
  • ALTAY TERRITORY, in the Russian Federation. 169,1 thousand км2. The population of 2654 thousand person (1991), urban 58 %. 11 cities. 30 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Barnaul. Takes a part of Altai and accumbent to it{him} in a north of a part of West Siberian plain. Mean temperatures of January-19 °C, July 19 °C. A rainfall of 150-200 mm annually (in mountains up to 1500-3000 mm). The rivers bass. Ob. An industry: a machine industry, chemical and petrochemical, mild (textile), alimentary, mining (complex ores, gold, mercury, etc.). A large grain husbandry (primarily wheat). Crops of sugar-beet, sunflower, a flux, a hemp; cultivate a potato, vegetables. A fruit growing. Cattle breeding, primarily dairy - meat. A poultry breeding. Beekeeping. Hunting of fur animals. From Biisk to Mongolia goes CHujsky a tract. Navigation across Ob.
  • The ALTAY UNIVERSITY, Barnaul, is based in 1973. Plots experts on physical, mathematical, chemical, biological sciences, philologies, to the right, economy, a history. Ok. 5 thousand students (1991).
  • The ALTAY TONGUE (ustar. ojrotsky), falls into to Turkic tongues. Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • ALTAIANS (the self-title - altaj-kizhi), people in Republic Altai (59 thousand person). Number in the Russian Federation 69 thousand person (1992). Are divided on ethnographic groups: altaj-kizhi, telengity, telesy, teleuty, tubalary, chelkantsy, kumandintsy. Tongue Altay. Believers - orthodox, a part baptists; traditional convictions are saved.
  • " ALTAN TOBCHI ", " Altan tovch " (characters. - a golden button, the golden canopy), the Mongolian annals of 17 century, a historical and literary monument.
  • ALTAR (an armour. altaria, from altus - high), a table of oblation; originally a place for immolations in the open air. In Other. Greeces and Rome - separate structures; in Christian temples - tables ("holy tables") for administering the Sacrament, in roman catholic - the decorative walls. An altar call also all eastern part of a temple, separabled altarnoj as a barrier{a working against}, and in orthodox temples from 14-15 centuries - an iconostas.
  • ALTAUZEN Jack (Jacob) Moiseevich (1907-42), the Russian poet. In poems " the Feelerless enthusiast " (1929) and "Firstgeneration" (1933) - geroizatsija everyday lives of the first five-tap holes. Has perished at the front.
  • MALLOW, stem of grasses of a set malvovyh. Ok. 12 kinds{views}, in Eurasia. A root of a mallow medicinal use in medicine and a veterinary science.
  • " ALTUN JARUK " (" Golden luster "), the full title " Irradiant golden luster, above all the extolled tsar - book ", a monument drevneujgurskoj writings of 10 century, transfer{translation} Buddhist verouchitelnogo compositions from the Chinese tongue.
  • ALTOONA (Altoona), city on the orient the USA, pieces. Pennsylvania. 52 thousand inhabitants (1990). A large railway junction. A railway machine industry. University. A museum of a railway construction.
  • ALTUNJAN Tatul Tigranovich (1901-73), the Armenian choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1965). The founder and the artistic administrator of the State chapel of Armenia, Band Armenian national songs and dancings and Chapels of a choral society of Armenia. The professor of the Yerevan conservatory (with 1971). The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • ALTUKHOV Jury Petrovich (r. 1936), Russian genetics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses in range population, evolutionary and biochemical genetics. Theoretically and experimentally has justified new approaches to conservation and intelligent use of biological resources.
  • THREE-COPECKS PIECE (from tat. The three-copecks piece - gold), an arcaded Russian coin and schetno-monetary unit from 15 century 1 three-copecks piece is peer to 6 Moscow or 3 Novgorod money (Novgorod money the copeck has received later the title); the title "pjatialtynnyj" for a 15-cheap coin was saved. In 1654 are exhausted copper, in 1704 - silver three-copecks pieces. In 1841-1916 copper and silver three-copecks pieces were pinched out.
  • THREE-COPECKS PIECE - DEPE (Three-copecks piece - tepe), gorodishche epoch of bronze (3-2-С one thousand up to n. e.) for a seconds. Meana in the south Turkmenii. Residues of inhabited, craft, cult quarters, a pyramidal tower; burials.
  • ALTYNSARIN Ibraj (1841-89), the Kazakh teacher - educator, the writer, the specialist in folklore, the ethnographer. The first teacher - Kazakh. Under initiative Altynsarina the Kazakh schools with education{learning} on the native language are open{discovered}. The writer of tutorials native and Russian for Kazakh children.
  • ALTIN TAGH, mountains in the west of China, disjoint Tarimskuju and TSajdamskuju hollows. Length of 800 kms, an altitude up to 6161 m. Icehouses. Deserts and semideserts.
  • ALTYNTU, a backbone on Altai, to the west from Teletskogo an eskar. Length of 70 kms, an altitude of 2361 m. Dark coniferous (chernevaja) a taiga.
  • ALUKSNE (up to 1917 official title Marienburg), city in Latvia, on coast an eskar. Aluksne, in 49 kms from zh.-d. An item. Gulbene. 10,9 thousand inhabitants (1989). Shop of Riga software VEF, etc. The Enterprises. It is known with 1285.
  • ALUNANS Adolf (1848-1912), the Latvian actor, the producer, the playwright. On the scene with 1866. The organizer of the first national theatre (1870, Riga). The writer of comedies, including "Homebred" (1869), " who chanted late at night " (1888), dramas.
  • ALUNANS JUris (1832-64), the Latvian poet and the public figure, the initiator of national written poetry (collection "Pesenki", 1856).
  • ALUND (from English alundum), in a technical publications the USA the title of alundum.
  • ALUNITE (from frants. alun - alum) (alunite), a mineral of a class of sulphates, KAl3 [SO4] 2 [OH] 6. Dense and friable masses. Hardness 3,5-4,5; firmness of 2,6-2,8 g / sm3. Deposits in the Russian Federation (Far East), Azerbaijan, in the west of Ukraine, in the USA, Chinese People's Republic, Australia, Iran, Mexico, etc. From alunitovyh ores besides an alumina receive a potassium sulphate, sulfuric acid, and also vanadium and galy.
  • ALUPKA, city (with 1938) on Austral coast of Crimea, in 17 kms from Yalta. 10,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A climatic health resort. A palace - museum (M.S.Vorontsova's former palace, 19 century), landscape parks.
  • ALUR (the self-title - zhoalur), nilotsky people in Zaire (450 thousand person) and Uganda (300 thousand person, 1992). Tongue dho alur. Hold on to traditional convictions.
  • ALUR-SETAR (Alor Setar), city in Malaysia, on p-ove Malacca, an administrative centre pieces. Gym shoes. 72 thousand inhabitants (1980). The commercial and industrial centre of rice-growing area.
  • ALUSHTA, city (with 1902) on Austral coast of Crimea, in 45 kms from zh.-d. An item. Simferopol. 37,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A climatic health resort. Museums: istoriko-study of local lore, a nature, S.N.Sergeeva-Tsenskogo's literary - memorial museum.
  • The ALPHABET in programming, system irresolvable, confidently distinguishable from each other numerals (characters, digits, punctuation marks, etc. numerals), programming languages used for construction.
  • The ALPHABET (from the title of the first two characters of the Grecian alphabet: an alpha and a beta, modern-greek - vita), set{combination} of characters, the syllabic marks, etc. graphemes of the given system of the letter, located in the fixed order.
  • ALPHAEUS Kapernaumsky (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, father of apostles of James Alfeeva and the evangelist of Matthew (gospels Marcan 2:14; the gospel of St. Matthew 10:3). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on May, 26 (on June, 8).
  • ALPHAEUS Katalitsky (Kalitsky) (mind{wit}. In nach. 4 century), the Christian martyr, the smith damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on September, 28.
  • ALFER (from aluminium and an armour. Ferrum - iron), magnetically soft alloy Fe (basis{fundamentals}) and Al (~13 %). Produce primarily electro-acoustic (magnetostrictive) transducers.
  • ALFYOROV Zhores Ivanovich (r. 1930), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR 1979), the vice-president of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1991; vice-president AN the USSR with 1990). The chairman of Presidium of the Leningrad (St.-Petersburg) centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science with 1989. Transactionses on semiconductors, heterojunctions and devices on their basis{fundamentals}. The lenin premium (1972), the State premium of the USSR (1984).
  • ALFYOROV Nikolay Semenovich (1917 - 82), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1978), corresponding member AN the USSR (1979). Worked in Sverdlovsk; band of historico-revolutionary square (1974).
  • ALFYOROV Irina Ivanovna (r. 1951), the Russian actress, the deserved actress of Russia (1993). With 1972 in Moskovsk theatre him{it}. Lenin Komsomol (with 1991 - "Lenkom"). At kino with 1972. It was taken out in films: "Vasily Buslaev" (1982), " the Person with an accordion " (1985), " Night entertainments " (1991), TV movies "Purgatory", " is authorized to declare TASS... ", etc.
  • ALFIMOV Michael Vladimirovich (r. 1937), Russian fizikohimik, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1981). The main{basic} transactionses in range of photochemistry, besserebrjanoj photos. Has justified a capability of building of highly sensitive - luminescent photographic materials.
  • ALHANCHURTSKAJA the VALLEY, tectonic kickdown between Terskim and Sunzhenskim hr. To Ciscaucasia. Length of 110 kms, width up to 10 kms.
  • ALCHEMY (pozdnelat. alchimia), donauchnoe a direction in development of chemistry. Having arisen in Egypt (3-4 centuries n. e.), has received especially a wide circulation in Zap. To Europe (11-14 centuries). A main purpose of alchemy - presence t. n. " A philosophical stone " for metamorphosis{transformation} of basic metals into gold and silver, obtaining of an elixir of longevity, the generalpurpose solvent, etc. The Positive role of alchemy - in discovering or improvement (during search of a miracle means) ways of obtaining of practical valuable products (mineral and vegetative paints, glasses, enamels, metal alloys, acids, alkalis, salt), and also in development of some methods of a laboratory engineering (distillation, sublimation, etc.).
  • ALCHEVSK (in 1931-61 Voroshilovsk, in 1961-92 Kommunarsk), city on Ukraine, Lugansk region. A depot. 126 thousand inhabitants (1989). Integrated iron-and-steel works, cokery, etc. Mountain - metallurgical institute. Historical, geologo-mineralogical museums. Has arisen in 1825.
  • ALCHEVSKAJA Hristina Alekseevna (1882-1931), the Ukrainian poetess and the teacher. Daughter H.D.Alchevskoj. Lyrics (collections of verses " Melancholy on the sun ", 1907; to " my edge{boundarouse} ", 1914; "Waking", 1917) has reflected revolutionary moods.
  • ALCHEVSKAJA Hristina Danilovna (1841-1920), the Ukrainian teacher - educator. With 1862 organizer of sunday schools on Ukraine. The co-author of bibliographic transactionses " What to read to people? " (3 volumes, 1888-1906). The founder of a technique of education{learning} to the letter adult.
  • ALCHEVSKY Ivan Alekseevich (1876-1917), the singer (the lyrico-dramatic tenor). With 1910 in Major and simultaneously Mariinsk theatres. Has become famous for performance{fulfillment} of a consignment of Hermann ("Queen of spades" P.I.Chajkovskogo).
  • ALCHEDAR (Alcedar), gorodishche tivertsev 6 - nach. 12 centuries for like village in Moldova. Strengthening, home units, workshops and so forth.
  • ALYKULOV Barpy (1884-1949), the Kirghiz poet - akyn. The master of the poetic form; follower Toktogula. Oblichitelno-satirical products{creations}, including a poem about heavy domination for Kirghiz Kokandskogo hanstva. Skazyval also the national epos.
  • SHERRY - PLUM (tkemali), a tree of a stem a plum, a fruit crop. Cultivate in countries of Asia. In edible fruits (process also on jam, compotes, etc.) organic acids, Saccharum, redoxons, В1, В2, etc. Productivity 8-10 (up to 40) kg from a tree. A seedling for plums, a peach, etc.
  • "AL-AHRAM" see "Ahram".
  • ALBIAN STAGE (Alba) Alvares de Toledo Fernando (1507-82), duke, the spanish commander, the governor of Netherlands (historical) in 1567-73. Attempted to suppress the Netherlands revolution. In 1580 has conquered Portugal.
  • ALBIAN STAGE - LONGUM (Alba Longa), ancient city to a southeast from Rome. Under the legend, it is based ok. 1152 up to n. e. In nach. 1-st thousand centre of the Latin union; in 7 century up to n. e. It eroded by Romans.
  • ALBANES of Valerianas Ivanovich (1881-1919), the navigation officer of Russian arctic expedition G.L.Brusilova on a schooner " St.. Anna " (1912-14). Has saved statements from the ship's log of expedition missing without a message.
  • ALBACETE (Albacete), city in Spain, in region. Murcia, an administrative centre prov. Albacete. 129 thousand inhabitants (1991). Arcaded manufacture of knives. Wine-making. Chemical, tanning, a cement industry.
  • "ALBATROSS", the aircraft manufacturing firm of Germany. It is based in 1909, has become the first supplier of an aeronautical engineering for armed forces of Germany. In total in this firm 100 models of airplanes are built from above. In 1931 factories " Albatrosses " went to "Fokke-Woolf".
  • ALBATROSSES, set of oceanic birds of order of petrels. Length up to 1,5 m, side panels in scope{span} up to 4,25 m. Highly ability to gliding flight is developed. 13 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics primarily Austral hemisphere, few kinds{views} - in a north Quiet ok. Nest colonys on oceanic islands. Number of some kinds{views} is reduced. Belospinnyj the albatross is extremely rare.
  • ALBEDO (from pozdnelat. albedo - whiteness), the value defining ability of a surface to reflect a torrent dropping on it{her} of electromagnetic radiation or particles. The albedo is equal to attitude{relation} of a reflected torrent to dropping. In astronomy the important characteristics of planets, etc. bodies of the Solar system.
  • ALBENIS (Albeniz) Isaak (1860-1909), the spanish composer, the pianist. Among compositions - " the Spanish suite " (1886), "Spain" (1890), "Iberia" (1908) for a piano, a symphonic suite "Catalonia", sarsuely.
  • ALBERT (d'Albert) Ezhen d ' (1864-1932), the german pianist - virtuoso (pupil F.Lista), the composer. By origin the Frenchman. Opera " Valley " (1903), etc.
  • ALBERVIL (Albertville), the title of. Kalemie in Zaire up to 1968.
  • ALBERVIL (Albertville), city on the orient France, for interflow rr. Izer and Arli. 18 thousand inhabitants (1982). Electrometallurgy. XVI winter Olympic Games (1992).
  • ALBERDI (Alberdi) Huan Bautista (1810-84), Argentina political and the public figure, the philosopher, the writer, the economist. Together with E.Echeverriej participat in building a secret society for organization of extirpation against H.M.Rosasa's dictatorship. In 1839-52 in expulsion{relegation}, then on diplomatic service. The writer of the book " the Crime of war " (Russian transfer{translation} 1960), expressing the protest against militarism.
  • ALBERS (Albers) Joseph (1888-1979), the german and American artist. The master of geometrical abstractionism in his{its} most clear and stringent version. Worked with 1933 in the USA. Has bridged tradition "Bauhauza" to the American postpicturesque abstraction.
  • ALBERT (Albert), the title an eskar. Mobutu-Sese-Seko in Africa up to 1973.
  • ALBERT I (Albert) (1875-1934), Belgian king with 1909.
  • ALBERT I background Appeldern (Albert) (12-13 centuries), diocesan Riga (1199-1229), has distributed christianity in Lifljandii, the founder of order " brothers Christly knights " (mechenostsev) (1202).
  • ALBERT II (r. 1934), Belgian king with 1993, from Saksen-Koburgskoj dynasties. Son Leopolda III.
  • ALBERT GREAT (Albertus Magnus), Albert background Bolshtedt (ok. 1193-1280), the german philosopher and the theologian, the representative of scholasticism, the black friar. Began rearrangement and encyclopaedic systematization of roman theology on the basis aristotelizma, completed by his{its} pupil Thomas Aquinas. Taught in Cologne and Paris. Tracts about minerals, plants, animal, etc.
  • ALBERT (Alberta), 1) a province on a southwest of Canada. 661,2 thousand км2. The population 2,5 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Edmonton. 2) the Coal basin in Canada. It is developed with it is grey. 19 century. The area over 250 thousand км2. Reserves ok. 228 million t. Production ok. 54,4 million t (1988) open way.
  • ALBERTI (Alberti) Leon Battista (1404-72), the italian scientist, the architect, the theorist of art of epoch of Early Revitalization. Theoretical tracts (" About a statue ", 1435, " About painting ", 1435-36, " About art of building "; it is published in 1485) have extended experience of the modern to him arts and humanistic science in range of study of an antique inheritance. In the architecture used antique order system (church Sant-Andrea in Mantua, 1472-94, palace Ruchellai in Florence, 1446-51) .ALBERTI (Alberti) Leon Battista (on February, 18 1404, Genoa - April 1472, Rome), the italian humanist, the philosopher, the architect, the artist, the theorist of art. Was born in family of the notable Florentine exile. Studied for known humanist Gasparino yes Bartsitstsa in Padua, then in Bologna for Franchesko Filelfo and at university after which terminal has become the doctor canonical and a civic right. A little bit{Some} flying ministered for church ierarhov, and with 1432 and up to the extremity of life took place the abbreviator (some kind of the notary) at papal kurii. The writer and the architect Literary heritage Alberti is rather different: to 1425 comedy "Filodoks" (1890) concerns, then tracts "Deifira" (1481) and " About advantages and hardships of occupation by sciences " (1890) have been written; the first three books of dialogues " About family " (1844) are constituted in 1432-1434, in 1440 or in 1441 to nymas one more is supplemented; in 1435 tracts " About a statue " (1568) and " About painting " (1540) are composed, much later, in 1449, Ten books about art of building " (1485) are built "; between 1434 and 1443 tracts " About the right " (1890) and "High priest", " the Biography St. have appeared. Potita " (1568), "Теодженио (1490 dialogues and " About calmness showers " (1844); after 1443 the allegorical tract " Mom, or about sovereign " (1520), in 1449 - " Mathematical entertainments " (1568) is written; "Table-talks" concern to most considerable products consequent a flying (1890) and "Domostroj" (1848). Under design Alberti in 1446-51 B.Rossellino has built palace Ruchellani - new phylum of a private residence - palace, in registration of fronts of churches the Dignity - Franchesko to Rimini and the Dignity - Andrea in Mantua Alberti used motives drevnerimskoj architectures (triumphal arcs and arcades) .Krug occupations and entrainments Though a large part of life Alberti has conducted in Rome and other cities of Italy and only occasionally navedyvalsja to Florence, under influence of pulses of cultural and art medium of this city there was his{its} world outlook, the circle of his{its} occupations and entrainments more and more extended. The person of scalene bestowals and broad crop, Alberti is known first of all as the given away theorist of art and the architecture; At the same time, he and architects - practices, the writer of well-known architectural designs, was engaged in painting, a sculpturing and other kinds{views} of art, and not only graphic - he was well disassembled in music and perfectly{finely} played on an organ. As the writer - humanist his{its} attention both a life of society, and foundations of family attitudes{relations}, both problems of the person, and principles of managing, and problems of ethics, policy, the right, psychology equally involved. He found out major knowledges of mathematics, optician, mechanics, conceived and designed different devices and instruments, devoted special activities to breeding of fine woods of horses, secrets of a women W.C., codes{ciphers}, a graphology. The baking plate to become this vseohvatnosti interests and creative aspirations personality Alberti, emblematichnaja for all Renaissance humanism. Immeasurable diligence and persistence he achieved unusual successes in physical preparation and military exercises, perfectly acquired any branch of science and art, formed the moral appearance, persistently educated in itself philantrophy, manner, generosity, restraint - such, becoming already for contemporaries a person - legend, he is embodied in the biography of 15 century which authorship not without justification attribute itself Alberti. Сочинения:Десять books about art of building. М., 1935. T. 1-2. Religion. Virtue. Fate and fate // Compositions of italian humanists of Renaissance (XV eyelids). М., 1985. Seconds 152-161. About family // Experience of millenary. М., 1996. Seconds 362-411. Alberti L. B. Opere volgari. Bari, 1960-1973. V. 1-3. Литература:Леон Battista Alberti. М., 1977. Mancini G. Vita di Leon Battista Alberti. Roma, 1911. Gadol J. Leon Battista Alberti. Universal man of the early Renaissance. Chicago; London, 1969. About. F. Kudryavtsev
  • ALBERTI (Alberti) Rafael (r. 1902), the spanish poet. Anti-fascist and revolutionary verses (collections of " Stanza Huana Panadero ", 1949; " Poems of expulsion{relegation} and hope ", 1976), anti-war " Ballads and songs of the river Parana " (1954), the lyrical collection " Verses on love " (1967), a poetic cycle " About painting " (2 izd., 1968), the play " Night of war in museum Prado " (1956), the book of memories " the Forgotten grove " (1959), "Pablo Picasso" (1977). The international Lenin premium (1965).
  • ALBERTINA (Albertina), actuarial collection in Vienna: drawings, miniatures, posters, gravures, lithographs of Western-European masters. It is based in 1776 as a collection of duke Albert.
  • The ALBERT-CHANNEL (Albert Kanaal), in Belgium, bridges rr. Maas (for Liege) and Schelde (for Antwerp). It is open{discovered} in 1939. Length ok. 130 kms.
  • The ALBIGENSIAN WARS 1209-29 attempted under the initiative of the papacy crusades of the severo-French knights on the south of France against albigenses. At the end of wars crusaders has adjoined with the troops and the French king Lui VIII. albigenses have been routed and the part of the Toulouse county is adjoined to royal domain.
  • ALBIGENSES, participants of heretical motion in JUzh. France 12-13 centuries, adherents of the doctrine of catarrhs. Opposed tenets of a latin church, a church landholding and a tithe. Albigenses were adjoined with a part aboriginal znati. Are convicted by Ecumenical council 1215, are routed in Albigensian wars.
  • ALBINAS (it is grey. 2 century), the antique philosopher - platonik writing in the Grecian tongue. The writer " the Tutorial platonovskoj " - taught philosophy in Smyrna, one of the fullest expositions of philosophy Platona in the season{term} of mean platonizma.
  • ALBINI (Albini) Ex (1905-1977), the italian architect. Construction of 1930th differ laconic singleness of component parts and purity of lines (a country house in Milan, 1938). In 1960-70-С - on items of rationalism (the building Hot ban, Italy, 1967). Was engaged also in restoral and construction of museum buildings (activity on restoration of palaces of Renaissance, the new building of museum Tezoro di Dignity Lorentso in Genoa, 1952).
  • ALBINISM (from an armour. albus - white), inborn absence of a xanthopathy, a hair, an iris of the eye of eyes for the person and animal; for plants - absence of green colour. An organism, denuded colour, call as an albino.
  • ALBION (Albion), the title of the British islands known still{even} for ancient Greeks.
  • CAMPOS ALBISU (Albizu Campos) Pedro (1893-1965), one of chiefs of motion for independence of Puerto Rico; with 1930 chairman of Nationalist party.
  • ALBITE (from an armour. albus - white), porodoobrazujushchy a mineral of group plagioklazov, Na [AlSi3O8]. White, yellowish, pinkish crystals; units. Half-and-halfs are often. Hardness 6-6,5; firmness ok. 2,6 g / sm3. Ceramic raw material.
  • ALBITOFIR, an effusive rock, paleotypal analog of the andesite, consisting primarily from an albite.
  • SILK TREE, stem of trees and bushes of a set of pod-bearing plants. Ok. 125 kinds{views}, in tropics, subtropics, primarily Eastern hemisphere. Т. n. A silk - tree - an ornamental plant. For some silk trees a fine wood and affluent tannins a bark.
  • ALBITSTSI (Albizzi), the Florentine stem, which representatives took in 13 - 1-st floor. 15 centuries the maximum state positions in Florence; rivaled with it come from Medici.
  • ALBIAN STAGES Michael Nilovich (1851-1911), the Russian writer. Psychologism and bytopisatelstvo in stories " Day of the total " (1879), " Unknown street " (1881), " the End of Unknown street " (1882), the novel "Long robe" (1883). In the trilogy " Day yes night " ("Melancholy", 1890; "Fatherless", 1901; " Glafirina secret ", 1903) - dramatic nature of existence of the inhabitants who have been held down by a monotonicity of ordinary life.
  • ALBUM (from frants. album), 1) tangled{interlaced;bound} leafs for drawing, autographes, collections. 2) Collection of reproductions, photos, drawings, etc., issued by the way books, often with an explanatory comment.
  • " ALBUM of BOREAL MUSES ", the Russian literary almanac issued in Petersburg in 1828 A.I.Ivanovskim. A.S.Pushkin, P.A.Vjazemskogo, N.M.Jazykova, I.I.Kozlova's products{creations} are typed, etc.
  • ALBRECHT BRANDENBURG (Albrecht von Brandenburg) (1490-1568), the last grandmaster of Teutonic order (with kon. 1510); in 1525, having paid grounds of order in society duchy, has become the first duke of Prussia.
  • ALBRECHT the BEAR (ok. 1100-70), the german feudal lord, one of chiefs of aggression against polabskih slavs on which grounds has based markgrafstvo Brandenburg (markgraf with 1150).
  • ALBRECHT (Albrecht) Fridrih Rudolf (1817-95), Austrian ertsgertsog, field marshal (1863). During avstro-italian war by 1866 commanding Austral army which has gained victory in battle under Kustotsej.
  • ALBUQUERQUE (Albuguergue), city on a southwest the USA, pieces. New Mexico. 385 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs of 449 thousand inhabitants). An international airport. The large centre of probes in range of atomic energetics. Development, manufacture of automatic weapon. A climatic health resort; the tourist centre.
  • ALBUMENS, the simple globular proteins keeping in an albumen, whey of blood, milk and seeds of plants. Are applied in a confectionery and textile industry, and also in medicine.
  • ALBUNEJA, in Other. Rome one of Sivill, tiburskaja sivilla.
  • ALVARADO ARELJANO (Alvarado Arellano) Uberto (1927-74), the secretary general of a Central Committee of the Guatemalan consignment of transactionses with 1972. The writer, the publicist. It arrested and killed.
  • ALVARADO MONSON (Alvarado Monzon) Bernardo (1925-72), the secretary general of a Central Committee of the Guatemalan consignment of transactionses with 1954. arrested and killed.
  • ALVARES (Alvarez) Luis Uolter (1911-1988), American physics. Has discovered electron capture (1938). Has created the modern technique of activity with bubble chambers. Has discovered many resonances (1960). The Nobel Prize (1968).
  • ALVARO (Alvaro) Korrado (1895-1956), the italian writer. Realistic products{creations} about life of peasants: stories, the story " People from Aspromonte " (1930.) Roman " the Short youth " (1946); diaries (1954, 1959).
  • ALVEN (Alfven) Hannes (r. 1908), Swedish of physics and astrophysicses, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1958). The founder of hydromagnetics, has predicted one of phylums of waves in plasma (wave Alvena). The Nobel Prize (1970). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1971).
  • ALVEN (Alfven) Hugo (1872-1960), the Swedish composer, the teacher, the conductor. For the first time in the Swedish symphonic music used national folklore. Ballets " Mountain king " (1923), " the Lascivious son " (1957), 5 concordances, chamber compositions.
  • ALVENA WAVES, cross waves in the plasma, extending along a magnetic field with speed, where r - firmness, H - magnetic density. The title by name Hannesa Alvena.
  • ALVEOLA (from an armour. alveolus - a cell, a deepening, an alveole), 1) jachejkovidnyj the tip department of gland included in an acinus. 2) Puzyrkovidnoe education in a lung of mammals, braided a network{grid} of capillaries. Through walls of alveolas (in lungs of their person over 700 million) there is a gas exchange. 3) the Dental hollow - a deepening in a maxilla in which it is evaluated the root a tooth.
  • ALVEOLITIS, 1) the inflammation of the dental hollow, is routine in connection with infitsirovaniem wounds in the moment or after an odontectomy. 2) the Inflammation of air cells without a defeat of bronchuses.
  • ALVER (Alver) Betti (an ice-film. A name and fam. Elizabeth Lepik, Lepik) (1906-89), the national writer of Estonia (1981.) Roman " the Mistress of a wind " (1927). Collections of verses " the Dust and fire " (1936), " Volant city " (1979), " Corals in river Emajygi " (1986). The spiritual integrity of the lyrical hero, a concreteness of zoetic component parts, container{capacity} of artistic images are characteristic for poetry.
  • ALVIS (dr .-исл. vsevedajushchy), in the Scandinavian mythology a dwarf, svatavshijsja to the daughter of the god the Torah; in conversation with Torus Alvis gives the description of the world in tongue of gods, people and inhabitants of a underground kingdom (" the Higher Edda ", to " Speech Alvisa "). Overtaken by a dawn, the dwarf turns to a stone.
  • ALVY, in the Scandinavian mythology of the godhood or natural spirits; on " the Junior Edda " (" Vision Gjulvi ") are divided on irradiant alvov light, living in a celestial hall, and black alvov the darkness, living underground. In " the Higher Edda " are opposed the maximum gods - aces.
  • ALGAZEN, see. Ibn al-Hajsam.
  • ALHAMBRA, the palace - clasp (it is grey. 13 - kon. 14 centuries) bliz Granada (Spain). A bright sample of the moorish architecture. Affluently decorated halls (Two sisters, Mirador de Doraha, etc.), bunched around of the Boom of myrtles and the Boom of lions. Charles's V unfinished palace (1526).
  • ALGICIDES (from an armour. alga - a marine grass, an alga and caedo - I kill), chemical drugs from group of herbicides for destruction of water plants in channels, water reservoirs, etc.
  • ALGOLOGY (from an armour. alga - an alga and... logija) (phycology), the section of botany investigator algae.
  • "AL-GUMHURIJA", see "Gumhurija".
  • ALDGELM (640-709), the English church figure and the latin writer. Abbe Malmsberijskogo of a monastery, later - diocesan Shernbornsky. The writer of the collection of "Riddle".
  • ALDEBARAN, a a Taurus, an aster of 1-st stellar magnitude; the red jumbo, a luminosity in 150 times more solar.
  • ALDEHYDES, the organic compounds keeping aldehydic group CHO. Examples of aldehydes - formaldehyde, acetic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, acrolein, a vanillin. Receive oxidation of primary alcohols, etc. methods. Apply in manufacture of polymers, organic synthesis, as odorous substances.
  • ALDER (Alder) Kurt (1902-58), german chemists - organics. Has developed (1928, together with O.Dilsom) a fundamentals of a diene synthesis. The Nobel Prize (1950, together with O.Dilsom).
  • ALDINY, the title of books (ok. 1100), issued in 1495-1597 in Venice Manutsiem Aldom the Higher, his{its} son Paolo and grandson Aldom Junior. Publishing mark - a dolphin wreathing an anchor.
  • ALDOSES, monosaccharides which molecules contain aldehydic group. On figure of atoms of carbon in a molecule (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8) distinguish aldotriozu, aldotetrozy, aldopentozy, aldogeksozy (napr., a glucose), etc. Compare. Ketoses.
  • ALDOSTERONUM, hormone animal and the person, (corticosteroid) produced over bark suprarenal glands; adjusts{regulates} mineral metabolism in an organism, primarily exchange Na +, To + and waters.
  • ALDROVANDA, a stem of water entomophagous plants of a set of a sundew family. At a tangency of a hexapod to a tomentous leaf he densely is occluded. 1 kind{view}, in midland coastal waters of all climatic belts of Eastern hemisphere, excepting Far North.
  • ALENDE the STATE PSYCHIC (Allende Gossens) El Salvador (1908-73), the president of Chile in 1970-73; was put forward{introduced} the unit National unity. One of organizers (1933) and the leader of Socialist party of Chile, in 1939-42 Minister of Health, with 1945 senator (in 1966-69 chairman of a senate). The international Lenin premium (1973). It is killed during military tumble.
  • ALI, d'Aji (d'Ailly) Pierre (1350-1420), the French seminary student and the church figure, the chancellor of the Parisian university, diocesan in Kambre, a cardinal bird. Was the papal legacy at emperor Sigizmunde. Participant Paduanskogo and Konstantsskogo cathedrals where promoted overcoming of split of the Roman catholic church. The writer of the commentary to Peter Lombardskogo's "Maxims", held on U.Okkama's to nominal direction.
  • ALKABALA (from the arab. Al-servitude - collection), the tax to deals in Spain (12 century - 1845) and its{her} colonys (2-n a floor. 16 - nach. 19 centuries). Introduction alkabaly in 1571 in Netherlands (historical) has served one of halters to overall revolt 1572 in a north of country.
  • ALKALD (isp. alcalde, from the arab. Al-thurify - the judge), 1) in medieval Spain the officer executed{designed} administrative functions in provinces. 2) In the modern Spain and some states of Latin America the chapter of urban administration.
  • ALKLAD (from aluminium and English clad - coated{obtected}), a semifinished item (a leaf, a pipe) from an aluminium alloy, coated{obtected} from both parties for a corrosion prevention a layer of high-purity aluminium or other aluminium alloy.
  • ALCOVE (frants. alcove), a niche{well} in a wall for a bed.
  • ALKOR, g the Major She-bear, an aster of 4-th stellar magnitude, component with Mitsarom a double star (a physical pair with angular distance 11,8 '); at acute sight both asters are discernible to the naked eye.
  • ALMA, the river in Crimea. 83 kms. Weeps on terrain of the Crimean zapovedno-hunting, the m runs in Black. During the Crimean war 1853-56 on Alma Russian troops have been battered anglo-franko-turetskimi by a troops (20.9.1854).



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