Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ALMAGRO (Almagro) Diego de (1470?-1538), spanish konkistador. Has organized 2 expeditions along western shore JUzh. America in 1524-26; the participant of seizure of Peru (1533), headed a marching in Chile (1535-36).
  • ALMADEN (Almaden), a mercurial deposit in Spain (prov. Sjudad-Real, It is new. Castile), the world's largest. Vulkanogenno-hydrothermal. Length of an ore-bearing zone ok. 20 kms. It is developed from 4 century up to n. e. Common stocks 40 тыc. t Нg at the content in ore of 0,5-1,5 %. A underground mining of 0,34 thousand t Нg (1985.) Center of production-. Almaden.
  • ALMADI (Almadies), headland on p-ove cape Verde; the most western point of Africa (17°32 ' z. d., 14°45 ' seconds sh.).
  • ALMA - MATER (an armour. alma mater, characters. - feeding mother), the arcaded student's title of university (producing " spiritual I peep ").
  • ALMAN (Ahlmann) Hans (1889-1974), the Swedish glaciologist and the fiziko-geographer. The participant of expedition to Spitsbergen (1931, 1934), to Iceland (1936-38), Greenland (1939-40). The long-lived glaciological probes in Scandinavia (conditions of originating of icehouses and their feed).
  • The ALMANAC (from the arab. The almanac - a calendar), 1) the acyclic collection of cramps, entertaining or reference, often theme (napr., the nursery geographycal almanac "Terrestrial globe"). 2) the Collection of literary works, consolidated to any attribute (theme, genre, regional).
  • ALMANDINE, mineral of group of pomegranates, Fe3Al2 [SiO4] 3. Red, violet-red, brown crystals, solid masses. Hardness 7-7,5; firmness of 3,8-4,3 g / sm3. In mica slates, granite pegmatitah, granites. Abrasive; diaphanous, beautifully colored crystals - precious stones.
  • AL-MANSUR, see. Mansur.
  • ALMAFUERTE (Almafuerte) (an ice-film. Name Pedro Bonifasio Palasjos) (1854-1917), the Argentina poet. The representative of serotinal{late} romanticism, the writer bogoborcheskih sonnets and poems (the book of "Smashing", 1906, etc.).
  • ALMENDA [a nem. Allmende, from compare - verh.-nem. al (ge) meinde - that belongs to all], in rannefeodalnoj Zap. To Europe the land lands located in the aggregate use of members of a community. With development of feudalism almendy feudal lords seized{caught}.
  • ALMERIA (Almeria), city and a port in Spain, in avt. Region. Andalusia, an administrative centre prov. Almeria. 15,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Maslobojnaja, kozhevenno-boot, pulp and paper, a cement industry; wine-making, manufacture of musical instruments. Ruins of Arabian strength (8-11 centuries), a cathedral (15 century, it rearranged{reconstructed} in 16 century).
  • ALMETYEVSK, city (with 1953) in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, on r. Zaj. 133 thousand inhabitants (1992). A crude production and gas. Manufacture of machines and the equipment for an oil-extracting industry; factories: wood-working, reinforced concrete constructions, etc. Initial point of an oil pipeline "Friendship". Theatre.
  • ALMKVIST (Almquist) Charles Junas Luve (1793-1866), the Swedish writer. Roman " the Jewelry of queen " (1834) spirit of romanticism, the social - critical novel " Will leave! " (1839), the realistic story from country life " the Mill in SHelnure " (1838).
  • ALMODOVAR Pedro (Almodovar; an ice-film. Name Kalsada de Kalatrava, Calzada de Calatrava) (r. 1951), the spanish continuity writer, the producer, the actor, the composer. The postmodernist, the spokesman of philosophy of the generation which have left on a forestage after fall of a mode Ex in 1975. The creative development began from theatrical company " Los Goljardos ". At kino inherited L.G.Berlangi and L.Bunjuelja's traditions. World popularity was brought to him with a "black" comedy " Women on the verge nervous failure{stall} " (1988), success films had " High heelpieces " (1991), "Kika" (1993), etc.
  • ALMORAVIDY, the title of a dynasty and the state in the Sowing. To Africa (1050-1146). To 1090 state actuated Morocco, Zap. Algeria, Zap. Sahara, Muslim Spain, islands Balearskie. The state Almoravidy is deleted Almohadami.
  • ALMOHADY, the title of a dynasty and the state in the Sowing. To Africa (1146-1269). The state Almohady is derivated during extirpation with Almoravidami. The greatest expansion of terrain to 1161 at Abd al-Mumine. Disintegration of the state began from season{term} Rekonkisty.
  • PARALLEL OF ALTITUDE (arab)., the small circle of celestial sphere parallel horizon.
  • ALPAK, the thin dense silk fabric with the smooth dim background and shining drawing by the way colours or geometric patterns. Apply to a dutchman and as platjevuju a tissue.
  • ALPACA, a domestic cloven-hoofed animal of a stem of llamas; a hybrid of a guanaco and vikunji. Cultivate in a high-mountainous belt of Peru and Bolivia (a valuable wool).
  • AT PAR (ital. al pari, characters. - on the same level), correspondence of an exchange (market) stock market values rate or currency to their nominal value (parity).
  • AT PAR (Alpari) Djula (1882-1944), the Hungarian political figure. The member of a Central Committee of Communist party of Hungary, was included in government of the Hungarian Soviet republic, after its{her} depressing{supression} - in emigrations, edited issuings of Komintern. In 1940 in Paris it is seized gestapo. Has perished in Zaksenhauzene.
  • ALPEROVY, family of Russian circus actors - clowns. Sergey Sergeevich (1859-1923) - the White clown, acted in a duet from Bernardo (the Yellow clown), with 1910 worked with son Dmitry Sergeevichem (1895-1948).
  • ALPERT Maxim Vladimirovich (1895-1980), the Russian master of photoart. One of ancestors of the domestic production reportazhnoj photos.
  • The ALPINE STRAIN (Celtic), is secreted with some anthropologists in structure evropeoidnoj strains for the population of some mountain areas of Europe (Switzerland and accumbent ranges of France, Germany, Austria and Italy). The broad face, dark eyes and a hair are characteristic brahikefalija.
  • The ALPINE VEGETATION, is distributed in mountains (2000-3500 m above sea level). Nizkotravnye carpet meadows (cereals, sedges, primroses, etc.), low shrub formations (rhododendrons, a whortleberry, etc.). It is used as summer pastures.
  • The ALPINE WRINKLED GEOSYNCLINAL RANGE, the most pullet{most young man} part of the Mediterranean geosynclinal belt including kajnozojskie wrinkled mountain structures from the Alpes (in the west) up to the Himalayas (on the orient). In development of the alpine wrinkled geosynclinal range 2 stages (trias - paleogene and neogen - antropogen), disjointed are secreted with the alpine ripple mark.
  • The ALPINE RIPPLE MARK, era tektogeneza predominary in a Cenozoic; it was exhibited within the limits of geosynclinal ranges which developed in Mesozoic and paleogene. In the alpine ripple mark there were wrinkled mountain structures of the Alpes, Caucasus, Pamir, the Himalayas and many other.
  • The ALPINE VIOLET, see. A cyclamen.
  • The ALPINE SCAPES, mountain troops in italian and French armies.
  • The ALPINE BELT, natural altitudinal belt in mountains, primarily moderate and subtropical latitudes. The alpine vegetation prevails{dominates}. It is located above an alpestrine belt, at the considerable altitude of mountains it is replaced nivalnym by a belt. In the Alpes and on Zap. Caucasus the alpine belt - at the altitude 2200-3000 m, on austral downslopes of the Himalayas - at the altitude 3600-5000 m. Summer pastures.
  • The ALPINE PHYLUM of the RELIEF, phylum of a relief of the highlands, undergone to an intensive glaciation. Sharp-pointed tops and the sharp crests worm-eaten by circuses, abrupt and rocky downslopes are characteristic.
  • ALPIN Lion Moiseevich (1898-1986), Russian a geophysics, the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences (1947), one of founders of geophysical prospecting by electric means in the USSR, the creator of scientific school. Transactionses on development of fundamental theory of prospecting geophysics and resistivity logging.
  • ROCK GARDEN (from the Alpes), a plot in botanical to a garden, park, square for cultivation of mountain (alpine) plants on hills artificially erected from stones.
  • MOUNTAINEERING, kind{view} of sport, climbing on hard-to-reach mauntains. The first climbing clubs have arisen in is grey. 19 century In the International union of climbing associations (UIAA; it is based in 1932) 44 countries (1991).
  • The ALPES (a nem. Alpen; frants. Alpes; ital. Alpi; from kelt. alp - a high mountain), the highest (up to 4807 m, Mont Blanc) range Zap. Europe. Are located in France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Liechtenstein; spurs of a mountain in Slovenia and Germany. Length ok. 1200 kms, width up to 260 kms. Will derivate a convex arch to northwest. A cross valley from Bodenskogo an eskar. Up to an eskar. Komo separate on high with characteristic alpine phylum of relief Zap. The Alpes and lower Vost. The Alpes. The wrinkled structure of the Alpes is built basically by motions of the alpine age. The axial zone of the Alpes is combined crystalline and metamorphic by breeds, on a rim - flishevye and molassovye formations. It is a lot of lakes of a tektoniko-glacial origin (Geneva, Bodenskoe, Komo, etc.) . Up to an altitude of 800 m prevail{dominate} cultural landscapes, up to 1800 m - broad-leaved and coniferous forests, are higher - alpestrine and Alpine meadows, rocks, icehouses (ok. 1200). The Alpes - one of the major recreation areas of Europe. Center of mountaineering, tourism, mountain skiing.
  • ALSMIK Peter Ivanovich (r. 1907), the selector, academician VASHNIL (1979), academician AN of Belarus (1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). Transactionses on selection, genetics and a seed growing of a potato, the writer of high-yield and disease-resistant grades. The state premium of the USSR (1951, 1974).
  • ALTO (ital. alto, characters. - high), 1) a consignment in the fitch, executed by low nursery or women voices. Sounds and notiruetsja is higher than the tenor. 2) the Low nursery voice. 3) the String stringed musical instrument skripichnogo sets, is more than violin.
  • ALTO (Alt) Hermann (1889-1954), german the mechanics and the engineer, one of founders of a geometrical method of synthesis of mechanisms. The main{basic} transactionses are dedicated the theory of machines and mechanisms. In kon. 1920 has developed synthesis krivoshipno-polzunnyh mechanisms, in 1932 - synthesis of multilink mechanisms; has put in pawn a fundamentals of dynamic synthesis of mechanisms.
  • ALTAIR, a Orel, an aster of 1-st stellar magnitude; together with Vegoj and Denebom will derivate t. n. A major summer triangle.
  • ALTAMIRA (Altamira), a cave in prov. Santander (Spain) with inking wall plotting (bisons, etc. animal) madlenskoj crops of a serotinal{late} paleolith.
  • ALTAMIRA-I-KREVEA (Altamira for Crevea) Rafael (1866-1951), the spanish historian. Probeed a history of medieval Spain.
  • ALTAMIRANO (Altamirano) Ignasio Manuel (1834-93), the mexican writer, the public figure. Romantic prose proniknuta ideas of patriotism: novels "Klemensija" (1869), "Surco" (it is issued 1901), verses, literary criticism.
  • ALTANI Ippolit Karlovich (1846-1919), the Russian conductor and the chorus master. In 1882-1906 main conductor of Major theatre.
  • ALTDORFER (Altdorfer) Albrecht (ok. 1480-1538), the german painter and the schedule{chart} of Renaissance, the chapter of the Danube school. One of the first european landscape writers, figured the substantial world in his{its} diversification and poetry (" the Kind{View} in the Danube valley ", ok. 1520-1525, " Alexander's Battle ", 1529).
  • ALTERATION (from medieval an armour. alteratio - change), in music - increase and kickdown of a stage{step} ladovogo zvukorjada without change of its{her} title. Accidentals - a sharp, a flat, a take - sharp, a take - flat; a mark of cancellation of an alteration - bekar.
  • ALTERMAN (Altermann) Teodor (1885-1915), the Estonian actor, the producer. On the scene with 1902. With 1906 at theatre " Estonia ", one of his{its} organizers.
  • ALTERNARIAS, the blights called by parasitic fungi. The alternaria of cabbage is especially nocuous. On leaves hulls within the limits of which the tissue disappears.
  • ALTERNATIVE (frants. alternative, from an armour. alter - one of two), necessity of selection of one of two or several alternative capabilities; each of capabilities eliminating one another.
  • ALTERNATE FUEL, receive basically from raw material of not petroleum origin, apply to reduction of consumption of petroleum. Front views of alternate fuel: the liquefied and compressed combustible gases (napr., methane); spirits, products of their thorough revision and a mix with petrol (napr., methanol, a methyl - tretbutilovyj an ether); fuel mixes (napr., vodno-coal); synthetic liquid fuel; hydrogen.
  • ALTIMETER (from an armour. altum - an altitude and... Meter), the same, that the altimeter.
  • ALTING (althing), the title of parliament in Iceland.
  • ALTIPLANO (Altiplano), a western part of an internal tableland of Central Andes JUzh. America, between 16 and 22 °ju. sh. An altitude of 3300-3800 m. A volcanic plateau and hollows with lakes and solonchaks. On north-east steppe, in the west and the south of desert and a semidesert.
  • ALTITUDE (from an armour. altitudo - an altitude), the same, that a true altitude.
  • ALTMAN Natan Isaevich (1889-1970), the Russian painter, the sculptor and the schedule{chart}, the deserved artist of Russia (1968). Picturesque portraits ("A.Ahmatova", 1914), case histories, registration of performances. Has executed from a nature a sculptural portrait (1920) and a series of sketches of V.I.Lenina.
  • ALTOVYJ the OBOE (an oboe d'amur), the version of an oboe, differs from him{it} a pear-shaped funnel-shaped opening, in the major dimensions and a formation. See. An oboe, the English horn.
  • ALTRUISM (frants. altruisme, from an armour. alter - other), selfless care of the blessing of other people. The term is entered by O.Kont as counter by implication to the term "egoism".
  • ALTFATER Vasily Mihajlovich (1883-1919), the Russian commander. The participant of 1-st world war, counteradmiral (1917). After October revolution in 1918-19 first commanding Naval forces and the member of Republic RVS.
  • ALTSHULER Lev Vladimirovich (r. 1913), Russian physics, the creator of scientific school. The main{basic} transactionses in range of high-pressure physics, shockwaves, the detonation phenomena, a X-ray structural analysis. The lenin premium (1962). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1949, 1953). The premium of the American physical Society (1991).
  • ALTSHULER Semen Aleksandrovich (1911-83), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1976). The explorer of an electronic paramagnetic resonance. Has theoretically justified an acoustic paramagnetic resonance.
  • ALTJUSSER (Althusser) Lui (1918-90), the French philosopher. The main{basic} transactionses on a history of philosophy, the theory of knowledge, dialectic and a historical materialism. Views Altjussera are close to ideas of structuralism.
  • ALPHA (a), the first character of the Grecian alphabet. Peren.: an alpha and an omega - the beginning and an end; the basis{fundamentals}, essence.
  • "ALPHA - BANK", the Russian business bank. It is based in 1991, Moscow. An ownership capital of 0,7 bln. rbl.
  • ALFANO (Alfano) Ex (1876-1954), the italian composer, the pianist. The director of the musical licea in Bologna (with 1919) and Turin (1923-39), a conservatory in Pezaro (1947-50). Opera " Anastasis " (on L.N.Tolstomu, 1903), etc., has finished opera " Турандот " Dzh. Puccini (1925).
  • AL-FARABI, see. Farabi.
  • The ALPHA-DECAY (a-disintegration), kind{view} of a radioactive decay of atomic nucleuses when the alpha-particle is released, nuclear charge decreases on 2 units, mass number - on 4. It is known over 3000 a-active nucleus which majority is received{obtained} artificially.
  • ALFARO (Alfaro) Eloj (1842-1912), the president of Ecuador in 1895-1901, 1906-11. Has conducted disestablishment, nationalization of a part church latifundy, has entered society education. It is killed.
  • ALPHA-RAY SPECTROMETER, gauge meter of power (energy spectrum) of alpha-particles.
  • ALPHA THERAPY, medical application of a-particles (radon baths, radioactive bandages, etc.); a kind{view} of radial therapy.
  • ALPHA-PARTICLE (a-particle), the stripped atom of helium keeping 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
  • ALFELD, a part of plain Srednedunajskoj in Hungary, to the orient from r. Danube. The large part of a surface ploughed up.
  • GIGOLO I, Afonsu (Affonso) (1111 or 1109-1185), the first king of Portugal, with 1139, from the Burgundian dynasty. Successfully wared against arabs, in 1147 has released Lisbon.
  • GIGOLO I (Alfonso) Voitel (?-1134), king of Aragon and Navarry with 1104. Has won from arabs Saragossa (1118), has routed troops Almoravidov for strength Kutanda (1120), has sufferred from them a defeat for strength Fraga (1134).
  • The GIGOLO III Great (838-910 or 912), king of Asturias with 866. Has won from arabs a number{series} of areas northward from r. Tagus. The aristocracy headed synovjami of Gigolo I, has forced it{him} to abdicate (910).
  • GIGOLO V African (1432-81), king of Portugal with 1438, from Avisskoj dynasties. In 1458-71 has trapped a number{series} severoafrikanskih terrains. Promoted organization of many expeditions to coasts of Africa.
  • The GIGOLO VI Valiant (1030-1109), king of Leon with 1065 and Castile with 1072. Has won from arabs of Toledo, Valencia, Almeria. Having sufferred a defeat in 1086 at the Splat, in 1108 at Uklese, has lost a number{series} won before grounds.
  • The GIGOLO VII (1104-57), king of Castile and Leon with 1126. Has become the sovereign of Aragon, Navarry, Portugal and of some the French terrains (Fua, Komenzh, Monpelje). Successfully participat in Rekonkiste.
  • GIGOLO X Wise (1221-84), king of Castile and Leon with 1252. Has won from arabs the Sherry, Cadiz, etc. TSentralizatorskaja policy of the Gigolo X has come across resistance znati, in 1282 authorities (to correct his{its} son Sancho has become) have been actually denuded.
  • The GIGOLO XI (1311-50), king of Castile and Leon with 1312. Self-contained regulations with 1325. Led tsentralizatorskuju policy. In 1348 has emited the charter fixing personal liberty of peasants. Successfully wared against arabs. Has died at osade Gibraltar.
  • The GIGOLO XIII (1886-1941), king of Spain in 1902-31, from a dynasty of Burbons. It is decrowned in the beginning of Spanish revolution 1931-39.
  • ALFORS (Ahlfors) Lars (r. 1907), the American mathematician, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1988). Transactionses on comprehensive analysis.
  • ALFRED GREAT (Alfred the Great) (ok. 849 - ok. 900), king of an Anglo-Saxon kingdom Wessex with 871. Has aggregated under the authority a number{series} of adjacent Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. At Alfrede Great 1-st are constituted obshcheanglijsky the collection of laws and a part of " the Anglo-Saxon chronicle ".
  • ALFERI (Alfieri) Vittorio (1749-1803), the italian playwright, the creator of a national tragedy of a classicism. In tracts and tragedies of the political content supported association of Italy, condemning tyranny ("Kleopatra", "Maria Stjuart", "Saul", etc.); the autobiography " Life Vittorio Alfjeri... " (it is issued 1806).
  • ALGECIRAS (Algeciras), city in the south of Spain, a port on Mediterranean m. of 101 thousand inhabitants (1989). A climatic and balneal health resort. Machining of a fuse, oil processing and petrochemistry; fishery.
  • ALTSIONA, see. Keik.
  • "ALTSIONA", the Russian literary almanac emitted in Petersburg in 1831-33 E.F.Rozenom. Among writers of the almanac - And. With Pushkin, V.A.Zhukovsky, P.A.Vjazemsky, E A.Baratynsky, S.P.Shevyrev, V.F.Odoevsky, etc.
  • ALCHIATI (Alciati) Andrea (1492-1550), the italian jurist and the writer - erudite. The writer of the collection of the "Emblem" becoming the main{basic} source of allegorical motives in fine arts and national crop of Europe of 16-18 centuries.
  • ALSHVANG Arnold Aleksandrovich (1898-1960), the Russian musicologist and the pianist, the doctor of art criticism. Transactionses on a history of Russian and foreign music.
  • ALLIANCE (frants. alliance), the union, association (it is routine the states, organizations).
  • ALLIANCE of SOCIALIST DEMOCRACY, anarchist organization, M.A.Bakuninym in September 1868 in Geneva under the title the International alliance of socialist democracy is built. In 1869 it formally dissolved, but actually kept activity, having entered in 1-st Internatsional as his{its} Geneva section (under the title the Alliance of socialist democracy - the Master section). Has broken up soon after Bakunin elimination from Internatsionala (1872).
  • ALUMEL, alloy Ni (basis{fundamentals}) with Al, Mn, Si, Co, Zn (in the sum ok. 6 %). High thermoelectric coefficient, a constance of thermoelectric properties. Produce thermocouples chromel - alumel (on working temperatures up to 1000 °C), compensatory wires.
  • ALUMINATES, chemical combinations of adamant with oxide of other metal. Sodium aluminates NaAlO2 - a mordant at a staining of tissues. Aluminates of calcium Ca (AlO2) 2 - a main constituent part of a rapid-setting alumina cement, YAlO3 - a laser material spinels (aluminates of metals of II group) use in manufacture of refractories as semiprecious stones.
  • ALUM, crystallohydrates of double salts such as MAl (SO4) 2.12H2O, where M - singly charged cation (napr., To +, Na +, NH4 +, etc.). Colourless crystals, well water soluble. Apply at a staining of tissues, a tanning, water treating, in medicine. See. Alum natural.
  • ALUMINIUM ORE, rocks, raw material for obtaining aluminium. Basically bauxites; to aluminium ores concern also nefelinovye sienity, alunitovye, nepheline - apatitovye of breed, etc.
  • ALUMINIUM (an armour. Aluminium, from alumen - alum), Al, a chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 13, atomic weight 26,98154. Siver-white metal, mild (2,7 g / sm3), flexible, with high electric conductivity, tпл 660 °S. It is reactive (on air it is covered with a protective oxide layer). On natural occurrence takes 4 place among elements and 1 among metals (8,8 % from mass of earth crust). Some hundreds minerals of aluminium (aluminosilicate, bauxites, alunites, etc.) are known. Receive an electrolysis of alumina Al2О3 in a melt of cryolite Na3AlF6 at 950 °S. Apply in aircraft, construction (a structural material, predominary by the way alloys with other metals), the electrical engineer (a replacer of copper at manufacturing cables, etc.), a food-processing industry (foil), metallurgy (addition element), aluminothermies, etc.
  • ALJUMINIJORGANICHESKIE CONNECTIONS, contain in a molecule atom of aluminium, directly the bound with carbon. Are known aljuminijorganicheskie connections such as R3Al, R2AlX, RAlX2, where R - an organic radical, X - halogen, hydrogen or OR. Aljuminijorganicheskie connections - components of catalysts (t. n. Ziegler catalysts - natty) synthesis of stereoregular polymers.
  • ALUMINIZING, the same, that an alitizing.
  • ALUMINIUM OXIDE (alumina), Al2O3, colourless water-insoluble crystals, tпл 2044 °S. Receive from bauxites, nephelines, a caolin, alunites. Raw material in manufacture of aluminium, the catalyst, adsorbent, refractory and abrasive. See also Emery, Ruby, Sapphire.
  • ALUMINIUM the SULPHATE, Al2 (SO4) 3, colourless crystals. Solves in water. Apply to the same purposes, as alum.
  • ALUMINIUM FLUORIDE, AlF3, colourless crystals. Badly solves in water. Is part of an electrolyte for obtaining and clearing of aluminium.
  • ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE, AlCl3, colourless crystals. Solves in water. The catalyst in organic synthesis and at petroleum refining, a reactant for an activated sludge process, wood processings.
  • ALJUMINOZ, the professional pneumokoniosi, is stipulated by influence of a dust of aluminium and his{its} connections.
  • ALUMINOTHERMY (from aluminium and grech. therme - heat, heat), obtaining of metals and alloys restoration of oxides of metals by aluminium which is accompanied by secretion of a fair quantity of heat (see. A metallothermy).
  • " ALJUMINUM KOMPANI OF AMERICA " (Aluminum Company of America), the aluminium company the USA. It is based in 1888. Sales volume 9,8 billion dol., a net profit 861 million dol., smelting of aluminium 1,2 million t, figure occupied in 59 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • ALUMINOGEL, microporous body. Receive drying of a jelly of oxyhydroxide of aluminium; apply in technique as adsorbent, the carrier of catalysts.
  • ALJUMOGIDRIDY, chemical combinations such as M [AlH4] n, where M - metal in oxidation state n. Solid matters, are decomposed by water with secretion Н2. Are applied as reducing agents, mother substances in synthesis of hydrides and to preparation of catalysts of hydrogenation.
  • ALUMINOSILICATE, group porodoobrazujushchih minerals of a class of silikates; alumosilicic connections with cations of alkali metals (field spars, micas, minerals of clays, etc.).
  • ALUMOTRINITROTOLUENE, water-resistant explosive, granular mixture of molten trotyl with a powder of aluminium. Heat of explosion of 5,3-5,6 MDZH/KG. Apply by the open activities in encroached proof breeds.
  • ALJUTORSKY TONGUE, tongue aljutortsev, a small nationality{national character} in the Russian Federation (number ok. 3 thousand person, 1992), on north-east a shore p-ova Kamchatka, falls into to the chukotsko-Kamchatka family paleoaziatskih tongues.
  • ALYABYEV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1787-1851), the Russian composer. Vocal creativity in traditions of Russian urban folklore nach. 19 century. Romances ("Nightingale", etc.), including on texts social soundings ("Beggar"). One of first has embodied in music A.S.Pushkin's lyrics. Among other compositions - operas, ballets, kamerno-tool{kamerno-instrument}, theatrical music.
  • ALASKA (Alaska), a bay Quiet ok. For coasts the Sowing. America, between p-ovom Alaska and mainland. Width for an orifice more than 2200 kms. Depth up to 4929 m. In Alaska - archipelagoes Kadiaks, Alexander and island of Queen Charlotte. Main ports: Sjuard, Prins-Rupert.
  • ALASKA, peninsula in northwest the Sowing. America (the USA, pieces. Alaska), between Ivory a hall. Beringova m. and Quiet ok. Length of 700 kms, width of 10-170 kms. It is occupied basically Aleutian hr. Mountain tundra.
  • ALASKA, staff the USA, in northwest the Sowing. America. 1519 thousand км2. The population of 599 thousand person (1993). Adm. ts. - Juneau. An aboriginal population - Indians, eskimos, aleuts. In 17-18 centuries it is open{discovered} Russian zemleprohodtsami, basing a number{series} of settlements, 1 - in 1780th. In 1799 the Russian-American company with the right of exclusive use by crafts and minerals is built. In 1867 Alaska has been sold by imperial government the USA, up to 1884 in management of the military ministry the USA, in 1884-1912 district, then terrain, about 1959 staff the USA.
  • ALASKA RANGE, in the south of Alaska, in system of Cordilleras the Sowing. America (USA). Length ok. 1000 kms. An altitude up to 6193 m (. A poppy - Kinli). Coniferous forests, mountain tundra. Icehouses.
  • ALJASKINSKOE FLOW, warm current in a north-east part Quiet ok.; boreal branch of Severo-pacific flow.
  • ALJASKIT, an intrusive sour rock; the granite keeping less 5 % of colour minerals. For the first time it is found on p-ove Alaska (from here the title).
  • AMAUROSIS (from grech. amauros - dark, blind), the same, that blindness.
  • AMAGASAKI, city and port in Japan, on about. Honshu. 498 thousand inhabitants (1991). Large industrial suburb Osaka. Metallurgy, a machine industry; chemical, etc. an industry.
  • AMADEJ SAVOJSKY (Amadeo de Saboya) (1845-90), king of Spain in 1870-73; it is selected kortesami during Spanish revolution 1868-74; in conditions{situation} of acute political crisis has abdicated.
  • AMADIES (Amadeus), drainless salinous ephemerical lake, in a central part of Australia. Ok. 8700 км2.
  • AMADU (Amado) Georges (r. 1912), the Brazilian writer. In the social - revolutionary novel - dilogii " Boundless grounds " (1943) and "City Ilheus" (1944), " Red shoots " (1946), " the Underground of freedom " (1952), etc., stories, stories has transmitted power and originality of the Brazilian national character. Novels " Recurring of the lascivious daughter " (1977), " the Military single-breasted coat, the academic uniform, a nightshirt " (1979). Art biographies. The international Lenin premium (1951).
  • AMAZONAS (Amazonas), staff in northwest of Brazil, in bass. r. Amazon. 1567,9 thousand км2. The population 2,1 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Manaus.
  • AMAZONITE (amazonian stone), mineral, version of microcline, colored ions of lead in bluish-green or green colour. In pegmatitah, granites. An ornamental stone.
  • The AMAZON, a coat frock for a horseback riding.
  • The AMAZON (Amazonas), the river in JUzh. To America, basically in Brazil, the greatest on liquid water content in the world. Length from a main headstream r. Maranjon 6,4 thousand in km, from a headstream r. Ucayali over 7 thousand in km. The area of basin of 7180 thousand км2. Runs in Atlantic ok. St. 500 inflow (ok. In 20 length over 1500 kms): Ucayali, Madiera, Tapajos, Xingu, Isa, Japura, to the Riu-Negro, etc. Average discharge of water of 220 thousand m3 / with. Inflows are distributed to 1400 kms from a mouth. It is navigable on 4300 kms. Primary ports: Iquitos, Manaus, Obidus, Santaren, Is whitewashed. In the rivers bass. Amazon up to 2000 kinds{views} of fishes.
  • AMAZONS, in the Grecian mythology people of women - voitelnits living in M.Azii or in piedmonts of Caucasus. Entered close relations with men only for conservation of a stem (the born boys referred or slayed, girls abandoned).
  • AMAZONOMAHIJA, battle of the Grecian heroes (Bellerofonta, Gerakla, Teseja, Ahilla, etc.) and amazons. A popular scene in the Grecian art.
  • AMAZONIAN LOWLAND (Amazonian region), in bass. r. Amazon, primarily in Brazil, and also in Columbia, Ecuador, Peru. The largest on the Earth (over 5 million км2), with predominary equatorial climate, a heavy-bodied high-water fluvial net and the wet ever-green forests (selvas).
  • AMALITSKY Vladimir Prohorovich (1860-1917), the Russian geologist and a paleontologist. Has discovered (1896; pipettings 1899-1914) fossils amphibian and kowtowing a Permian (t. n. A Severodvinsk fauna).
  • AMAL, an oil deposit in Libya (the Saharo-Libyan oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open{discovered} in 1959. Deposits on depth of 1,8-4,5 kms. Beginning inventories 204 million t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,85 g / sm3. Center of production - Bengasi.
  • AMALGAM (medieval an armour. amalgama - an alloy), an alloy of mercury with other metal. Amalgam apply, napr., at gold plating, in manufacture of mirrors, in nonferrous machine industry (amalgamation).
  • AMALGAMATION in nonferrous machine industry - a way of extraction of metals from ores or concentrates through mercury. At watering by mercury metals will derivate amalgams and are abjointed from rock refuse. It is used basically for extraction of noble metals.
  • AMALGAMATION, in economy - one of forms of a centralization of the capital by means of amalgamation of business as a result of which they lose former independence.
  • AMALDI (Amaldi) Ugo (1875-1957), italian mathematician and the mechanics. The main{basic} probes fall into group theories and mechanics. Has introduced the investment in the theory of continuous transformation groups and geometry of exterior ballastics. The president of the Italian mathematical society (1941-43).
  • AMALDI (Amaldi) Edoardo (1908-89), italian physics, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on spectroscopy, a nuclear physics, an elementary particle physics. Participat (1934) in discovering a neutron moderation in substance.
  • AMALRIK Andrey Alekseevich (1936-80), the Russian writer, the publicist. Doubly it was adjudged to the reference (1965) and to the conclusion in camps of a stringent mode (1970). With 1976 in emigration. Whether the greatest popularity was received with the istoriko-sociological composition " Soviet Union up to 1984 years Will exist? ". In absurdistskih the plays noted by a block type, irony, an alogism, satirically figures the Soviet real. Books: " Not desired traveling to Siberia " (1970); " the Note of the dissident " (1982), etc.
  • AMALRIK (Amalric) Bensky (mind{wit}. ok. 1207), medieval mistik, the founder of religious sect amalrikan. Taught at the Parisian university. It{him} panteisticheskoe the doctrine has been convicted on Parisian (1210) and Lateran (1215) cathedrals in Rome.
  • AMALRIK Leonid Alekseevich (r. 1905), the Russian film director, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1965). Cartoon films - fairy tales: " the Grey neck " (1948), " Magic shop " (1953), " Koshkin the dwelling " (1958), "Djujmovochka" (1965), "Tower - teremok" (1971), etc.
  • AMALTEJA, the guide of the Jove, is open{discovered} by E.Barnardom (the USA, 1892). The dimensions 135 h 85 h 75 kms, mean distance from the Jove of 181300 kms, cycle time 0,498 sut.
  • AMAN (Aman) Teodor (1831-91), the Romanian painter and the schedule{chart}. The founder of School of fine arts in Bucharest (1864). Patterns on themes of a national history, portraits, idyllic scenes of country life, etchings with the plotting of peasants.
  • AMANAT (arab)., the hostage.
  • AMANGELDY IMANOV (1873-1919), one of chiefs of the Central Asian revolt 1916 and extirpation for the Soviet authority in Kazakhstan. It is killed by adherents of "Alash-horde".
  • AMANZHOLOV Kasym (1911-55), the Kazakh poet. Collections of lyrical verses " the Confession of life " (1938), "Storm" (1948), poems from life of Kazakhstan. Has entered into the Kazakh verse the 10-syllabic line.
  • AMEN the Market (1908-81), the Turkmen actor, the playwright, the national actor of the USSR (1965). With 1929 at Turkmen theatre of a drama him{it}. Mollanepesa (Ashkhabad).
  • AMANULLA-KHAN (1892-1960), the Afghani king in 1919-29. Has headed liberation war against the Great Britain, has achieved confession of full independence of Afghanistan (1919). In 1919 has concluded with the Soviet state the amicable agreement, in 1926 - from the USSR about neutrality and the relative{mutual} non-aggression. Reforms of Amanully-khan promoted development of national economy and crop, strengthening of national independence of the state. As a result of rebelion will overthrow, has emigrated.
  • AMAPA (Amapa), staff in a north of Brazil. 142,4 thousand км2. The population of 289 thousand person (1991). Adm. ts. - Makapa.
  • AMARAVATI, city in a central part of India, pieces. Maharashtra. 434 thousand inhabitants (1991). Cotton industry. Residues of most major of kept indian memorial structures - mortar boxes (originally construction of 2 century up to n. e.). Reliefs from Amaravati are well-known.
  • "AMARAVELLA", association of artists, adherents kosmizma; existed{breathed} in Moscow in 1923-28. Under N.K.Roerich and M.Chjurlenisa's influence team members (A.P.Sardan (Rams), B.A.Smirnov-Rusetsky, P.P.Fateyev, V.T.Chernovolenko, S.I.Shigalev) created painting and to the schedule{chart}, combining inoplanetno-galactic themes with motives of occultism and eastern mysticism (the title of a society goes back to the Sanskrit word "Amaravati", " a mansion immortal ").
  • AMARANTH (amaranth), stem predominary annual grasses of a set amarantovyh. Ok. 60 kinds{views}, in warm and moderate belts. Weedy, grain, vegetable, ornamental plants. Due to high nutritiousness and singleness of cultivation it is widely introduced into crop in many countries, especially tropical.
  • AMARI, see Tsetlin M.O.
  • AMARILLIS, a stem of bulbous plants of a set amarillisovyh. 1 kind{view}, in JUzh. To Africa. Cultivate everywhere in rooms and greenhouses.
  • AMARILLISOVYE, a set of monocotyledonous plants. Perennial grasses, are more often with bulbs. Ok. 1100 kinds{views} (85 stems), the majority in JUzh. To Africa, Center. And JUzh. To America. Many amarillisovye cultivate as ornamental plants (a narcissus, amarillis, a crinum, gippeastrum, etc.).
  • AMARILLO (Amarillo), city in the south the USA, pieces. Texas. 158 thousand inhabitants (1990). Large shopping center of a farming area (cattle, wheat, a sorghum). Copper refining, assembly of automatic weapon, air, a food-processing industry. Bliz Amarillo - large storehouse of helium.
  • AMARNA (Tel-el-Amarna), an occupied point in Egypt, at-sight capitals of Other Egypt Ahetatona at pharaon Ehnatone (14 century up to n. e.). Palaces, temples, residential buildings, barns, workshops, archive of documents (see. Tel-el-Amarnsky archive).
  • AMASONAS (Amazonas), terrain in the south of Venezuela. 175,8 thousand км2. The population of 60 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - Puerto-Ajakucho.
  • AMAT (Amamat) (dr .-егип. pozhiratelnitsa), in egyptian mythology a monster dwelling{living} in Duate and gobbling trespassers.
  • AMATI (Amati), family of italian masters of stringed instruments. An ancestor - Andrea (ok. 1520 - ok. 1580), the creator of a violin of classical type. His{its} sons: Andrea Antonio (ok. 1540 - after 1600) and Dzhirolamo (1561-1630). The son of the latter - Nikolo (1596-1684) which instruments are appreciated especially highly is most known. Pupils Nikolo Amati: his{its} son Dzhirolamo of 2-nd (1649-1740), A.Gvarneri, A.Stradivari.
  • AMATERASU, in sintoizme the supreme goddess, olitsetvorenie the Suns.
  • AMATSUMARA, in Japanese mythology the godhood who has produced a magic mirror - one of relics of Japanese emperors; the promoter of smiths.
  • AMASHUKELI Elgudzha Davidovich (r. 1928), the Georgian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1988), corresponding member AH (1988). A statue "Mother - Gruzija" (1958, 1963) and a monument to Vakhtang Gorgasalu (1967) to Tbilisi, a monument of Victory in Burn, a memorial of Glory to heroes - seamen in Poti (both 1979) differ lapidarnostju volumes, patheticalness of modes{images}. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • BARN (turki)., the elementary granary.
  • AMBARKATSIJA (frants. embarquement - loading, planting), loading of a troops on the ships{spacecrafts} (court) with the purpose of delivery in the appointed place.
  • AMBARNAJA the RAT, the same, that a grey rat.
  • GRAIN MOTH, the butterfly of a set of true moli onion. The pest (caterpillars) of a grain and zernoproduktov. It is distributed widely. Front fenders silver-gray with hulls.
  • GRANARY MITES (grain, or flour, mites), a set of mites of order akariformnyh. Length of 0,2-0,5 mm. Ok. 70 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Dwell{live} in soil, holes and nests animal, on roots and green parts of plants. At harvesting granary mites are recorded from fields on warehouses where they damage a grain, a meal, etc. foodstuffs.
  • AMBARNYE MELONWORMS, butterflies of a set of melonworms. Pests (caterpillars, especially mill, grain and flour) grains and zernoproduktov. Are distributed widely.
  • GRANARY WEEVIL, the bug of a set of weevils. A grain pest and zernoproduktov. It is distributed widely. Length of 2,2-3,7 mm, dark brown.
  • AMBARTSUMOV Eugeny Arshakovich (r. 1929), the Russian statesman, the politologist. In 1973-91 head of a department of Institute of economy of world system of socialism AN the USSR. In 1990-93 deputy of a Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation. C 1995 salting in Mexico.
  • AMBARTSUMJAN Victor Amazaspovich (1908-96), astrophysicses, the academician (1943) and the president (in 1947-93) AN Armenia, academician AN the USSR (1953), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1968, 1978). The founder and director Bjurakanskoj of an astrophysical observatory (1946). One of founders of a theoretical astrophysics. Transactionses on a cosmogony of asters and galaxies, a stellar dynamics, transient{non-stationary} asters, gas fogs. Has discovered (1947) and probeed sidereal systems of new type (sidereal associations). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1950). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1971). The state premium of the Russian Federation (1995).
  • AMBARTSUMJAN Ruben Sergeevich (1911-71), fizikohimik and metalloved, corresponding member AN the USSR (1966). Has created new corrosion-resistant structural alloys, methods of protection of metals from corrosion. The lenin premium (1960), the State premium of the USSR (1949, 1953).
  • AMBIVALENCE (from an armour. ambo - both and valentia - force), duplicity of experience when the same object invokes{produces} simultaneously counter feelings in the person, napr. Love and hatred, pleasure and displeasure; one of feelings sometimes exposs to replacement{expulsion} and is masked other. The term is entered by E.Blejlerom.
  • AMBIOPHONIC SYSTEM (from an armour. ambi - circle, around and grech. phone - a note), set{combination} of electro-acoustic devices (microphones, boosters, reverberators, speakers), used in theatrical, concert, etc. halls for maintenance of good audibility and volumetric sounding in any point of a hall, and also building of acoustic effects.
  • AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION, simultaneous conveyance in the ionized medium (napr., plasma) charged particles of both marks, napr. Electrons and positively ionized atoms in a direction of incidence{dip} of their concentration.
  • AMBISTOMY, a set caundal amphibian. Length from 8 up to 30 see 4 stems, 35 kinds{views}, in the Sowing. To America. Dwell{live} in the wet places; eggs put aside in water. A larva - an axolotl. 5 kinds{views} in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • AMBITION (from an armour. ambitio), ambition, the vanity, the tightened self-love, self-conceit; arrogance.
  • AMBLIGONIT, a mineral of a class of phosphates, LiAl [PO4] (F, OH). Contains variable quantity F and OH, sometimes Н2О; impurity{additives} Na, V. White, sometimes svetlookrashennye, macrocrystalline units. Hardness 6-6,5; firmness ok. 3 g / sm3. Pegmatitic cable cores, albitizirovannye granites.
  • AMBLYOPIA (from grech. amblys - blunt, loosened and ops - an eye), the slackening of sight stipulated by the functional distresses of the visual evaluator.
  • AMBODIK-MAKSIMOVICH Nestor Maksimovich (1744-1812), one of founders of a scientific obstetrics and creators of a medical nomenclature in Russia, the first Russian professor of an obstetrics. The writer of the first Russian guiding on an obstetrics, medicochirurgical, anatomo-physiological and new botanical dictionarys.
  • AMBON (Ambon), main city and a port of islands Molukkskih in Indonesia, on about. Ambon, an administrative centre prov. Maluku. 206 thousand inhabitants (1990). Fishery. University.
  • AMBONTSY (the self-title - ambointsy), people in Indonesia. Number of 600 thousand person (1992), an aggregate number of 635 thousand person. Tongue malayan. Believers - christians - reformaty, moslems - sunnity.
  • AMBERGRIS (from the arab. anbar), voskopodobnoe the substance which is generatrix in a digestive tract of a cachalot; sometimes an ambergris find in water or on coast. Use in perfumery (as fixing agent of aroma of spirits).
  • AMBRAZAJTITE (Ambrazaityte) Niele (r. 1939), the Lithuanian singer (mezzo-soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1977). With 1966 at the Lithuanian theatre of opera and ballet.
  • EMBRASURE (frants. embrasure), an aperture in a shore fortification for a delivery of fire from instruments, a small arms and supervision{observation}. See also the Loophole.
  • RAGWEED, in botany - 1) scurfs of a mycelium of some thecasporous fungi, courses lining in wood in which the larvas of bugs - bark beetles eating this mycelium live. 2) the Stem annotinous and perennial grasses of a set of a thistle family. 40 kinds{views}, primarily in America; as zanosnye in many countries; quarantine weeds. Pollen of a ragweed (in mass) invokes{produces} a hay fever.
  • RAGWEED (ambrosija) (grech. ambrosia), in the Grecian mythology " nutrition of gods ". A ragweed together with a nectar (" a beverage of gods ") give gods immortality and a perpetually youth.
  • AMBROLAURI, city (with 1966) in Georgia on r. Rioni. 3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry; a clothing factory. Theatre. A museum of fine arts.
  • AMBROS (Ambros) August Wilhelm (1816-76), the Austrian historian of music, the composer. The professor of the Prague conservatory and university (with 1869), the Austrian conservatory (with 1872).
  • AMBULATORY (from an armour. ambulatorius - committed on the move), treatment-and-prophylactic establishment predominary in village districts, at the separate enterprises, etc., helping coming ill and domiciliary on the main{basic} medical trades (therapy, surgery, an obstetrics, a pedonosology).
  • OUT-PATIENT MAP, see in an item. A case history.
  • AMBUNDU (mbundu, the self-title - kimbundu), people of group to a bow in Angola. 2,15 million person (1992). Tongue kimbundu. Hold on basically of traditional cults. There are roman catholics and adherents of syncretic cults.
  • EMBOUCHURE (frants. embouchure, from bouche - companies), a way of a folding of lips, tongue at the game on duhovyh musical instruments.
  • AMBO (from grech. ambon - elevation), in orthodox tserkvah elevation before an altar from which sermons are uttered, is read gospels.
  • AMVROSIEVKA, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Donetsk region. A depot. 24,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Cement combine, the enterprises mild, a food-processing industry, etc. The Istoriko-study of local lore museum.
  • AMBROSE (in the world Zertis-Kamensky Andrey Stepanovich) (1708-71), the Russian church figure and the writer, archbishop Moscow (1768), the writer of transfer{translation} "Psaltiri" from a biblical Hebrew.
  • AMBROSE (in the world Kljucharev Alexey Iosifovich) (1821-1901), the Russian spiritual writer and the church figure, archbishop Kharkov (with 1882). Compositions: " the Alive Word " (1882), " the Full homiliary " (1902).
  • AMBROSE (1791-1863), bosno-saraevsky metropolitan (1835); in 1846 has transfered in staroobrjadchestvo, having laid foundation belokrinitskoj hierarchies.
  • AMBROSE (in the world Ornatsky Andrey Antipovich) (1778-1827), the Russian spiritual writer, diocesan Penza and Saransky (with 1819), with 1825 in Kirillo-Belozersky a monastery. The writer of " the History of the Russian hierarchy " (t. 1-6, 1807-15).
  • AMBROSE (in the world Podobedov Andrey) (1742-1818), the Russian church figure, the ecclesiast; metropolitan Novgorod and St.-Petersburg (with 1801), the rector of the Moscow spiritual academy. Has constituted " the Guiding to reading the Scriptus Dilapidated and the New testament " (1779, it is reissued 1811).
  • AMBROSE (in the world Protasov Alexey Ivanovich) (1762-1841), the Russian church figure, the ecclesiast; archbishop Kazan and Tver, the rector of the Petersburg spiritual academy. The writer of " Latin grammar " for spiritual schools; the collection of sermons " Words and speeches " (1856).
  • AMBROSE (ok. 1430 - ok. 1494), Russian cutter and the jeweller. Products{creations} of Ambrose (a carved icon - skladen) reflect Andrey Rubleva's influence.
  • AMBROSE (in the world Serebrennikov (or Serebryakov) Abraham) (1745-92), the Russian church figure, the ecclesiast. Archbishop Ekaterinoslavsky (1786), the locum tenen ekzarhii Moldo-Vlahijskoj (1789). The writer " the Quick reference guide to an oratorio Russian " (1778); has transferred{translated} " Lost paradise " Milton (1780; 2 izd., 1802).
  • AMBROSE (in the world Yushkevich Andrey) (1690-1745), archbishop Novgorod, the ecclesiast. The handwritten composition " the Substantial indication{reading} of differences between grecheskoju and rimskoju papskoju church ".
  • AMBROSE Optinsky (in the world Alexander Mihajlovich Grenkov) (1812-91), ieroshimonah, starets, the spiritual writer. In " the Collection of letters and points... " (hours 1-2, 1894-97), " Collection of letters... To temporal persons " (1906) - proniknutoe an atmosphere of direct dialogue with the interlocutor nauchenie to principles of Christian life. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church.
  • AMGA, the river in Yakutia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Aldan. 1462 kms, the area of basin of 69,3 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 190 m3 / with. It is navigable on 472 kms.
  • AMGUN, the river in Khabarovsk kr., the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Amur. 723 kms, the area of basin of 55,5 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 600 m3 / with. It is navigable on 330 kms. It is affluent a fish (a Siberian salmon, a humpback, the sturgeon).
  • AMGUEMA, the river on north-east of the Russian Federation. 498 kms, the area of basin of 28 thousand км2. The m runs in Chukchi.
  • AMGUEMA, the river on north-east of the Russian Federation. 498 kms, the area of basin of 28 thousand км2. The m runs in Chukchi.
  • AMDERMA, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Nenets avt. Okroes., in 940 kms from Naryan-Mar, to the orient from prol. Yugorski Shar, a port on shore Karskogo in m. of 5,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Bliz Amdermy - deposits of fluorite.
  • AMDO, the title of a north-east part of plateau of Tibet, in China. An altitude of 3500-5000 m. Dry steppes.
  • AMEBEJNAJA the COMPOSITION (from grech. amoibaios - alternate, alternating), a composition (routinely poetic), at which during all product{creation} fragments (verses, stanzas), the bound among themselves parallelism (V.J.Bryusov "Stone mason") alternate. Goes back to alternate singing of 2 singers or choruses in national creativity.
  • AMEBIASIS of the person (amebic dysentery), chronic invazionnoe disease: a recidivous gemorragicheski-ulcerous colitis, sometimes with abscesses in a liver, etc. organs.
  • AMEBOTSITY, the colourless blood cells of Invertebrata conforming to leucocytes of vertebrates and the person.
  • AMOEBAS, a class (or order) Protozoa superclass of Rhizopoda. The dimensions from 15-20 a micron up to 1 mm and more. The majority dwells{lives} in fresh water reservoirs, some in soil; there are parasitic forms, napr. A dysenteric amoeba.
  • AMEZIUS (Amesius) Giljelmus (latinizir. The form of a name of William Ejmza, Ames) (1576-1633), English reformatsky the seminary student. The professor of divinity in Franekere (1621). Held on to stringent puritan views; compositions against Arminius, remonstrants and roman catholics.
  • AMENEMHET I, the egyptian pharaon ok. 2000-1970 up to n. e., the founder of XII dynasty. Struggled for intensifying of a central authority. "Lecture" Amenemheta I to his{its} son Senusertu was saved.
  • AMENEMHET III, the egyptian pharaon ok. 1849-1801 up to n. e., from XII dynasty. Greeks attributed to him construction of the huge building in Fajjume, received the title "Labyrinth".
  • AMENORRHEA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. men - month, rheo - I stream), absence of a menses. The physiological amenorrhea is supervised in nursery age, during pregnancy, lactation and in the season{term} of a menopause; a pathological amenorrhea - at hereditary, endocrine, nervous, gynecologic diseases.
  • AMENTET, in egyptian mythology the goddess of a kingdom dead, the patroness died, vstrechajushaja them in Duate.
  • AMENHOTEP III, the egyptian pharaon ok. 1405-1367 up to n. e., from XVIII dynasty. At a nem the power of Egypt has reached{achieved} apogee, sooruzheny temple Amona-Ra in Luxor and a doleful temple with huge statues Amenhotepa III - " colossuses Memnona ".
  • AMENHOTEP IV, the egyptian pharaon in 1368-1351 up to n. e., son Amenhotepa III. Attempting to break power fivanskogo hieratic priesthoods and aged znati, has acted as the religious reformer, having entered a new state cult of god Atona and having made capital of the state of. Ahetaton (the modern Amarna), itself has accepted name Ehnaton (characters. " ugodnyj Atonu ").
  • AMENTIA (from an armour. amentia - a folly), a kind{view} of a stupefaction (an incoherence of intellection, a fragmentariness of perception, inordinate exaltation with a consequent amnesia).
  • AMERIGO VESPUCHCHI, see Vespuchchi And.
  • AMERICA, the parts of the world formed by 2 mainlands - Boreal America and South America; border{limit} between them routinely carry out{conduct} on Darjenskomu, sometimes Panama to isthmuses. It is located in Western hemisphere, between Atlantic and Quiet ok. In the Sowing. To America often secrete Central America and islands of West Indies. Into structure of America enter also about. Greenland and a number{series} of other neighboring islands. A gross area of America 42,5 million км2. The population 724 million person (1990).
  • AMERICA BOREAL, see Boreal America.
  • AMERICA CENTRAL, see Central America.
  • AMERICA AUSTRAL, see South America.
  • " AMERIKAN BRODKASTING KOMPANI " (Ej-Bi-Si; American Broadcasting Company), one of three national ethereous commercial broadcasting companies the USA. It is based in 1943 (a television network in 1953), Washington. The Capital sitis " belongs to communication association ".
  • " AMERIKAN EARPHONE END TELEGRAPH " (American Telephone and Telegraph), the electrotechnical and electronic company the USA largest in country on extension{issue} of the low-current equipment. It is based in 1885. Issues a communication equipment, a computer, etc. electronics, maintains American and international circuits long-distance telephone and teletype exchange. Sales volume 35,2 billion dol., a net profit 1,7 billion dol., figure occupied in 304 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • " AMERIKAN ERLAJNS " (American Airlines), airline the USA, one of master in the world. " The American encyclopedia " operates services in Ka "AMERIKANA", see.
  • "AMERIKANA", see " the American encyclopedia ".
  • AMERICANISMS, words and the expressions borrowed from the American version of the English tongue, napr. In Russian "gangster".
  • AMERIKANOIDNAJA STRAIN, see. The American strain.
  • AMERICAN - MEXICAN WAR 1846-48, is attempted the USA. As a result of war the USA have trapped over 1/2 mexican terrains that has constituted almost 1/3 modern terrains USA.
  • The AMERICAN - PANAMA CONTRACTS 1903, 1936, 1955. By agreement 1903 USA have received for ever and ever a zone of the Panama terrain for a structure and operation of Panama canal; contracts 1936 and 1955 updated service conditions of the channel and his{its} zone.
  • The AMERICAN - PANAMA CONTRACTS 1977. Under the American - Panama agreements for Panama canal Panama establishes{sets} the sovereignty above the channel on January, 1 2000. Denunciation of all former American - Panama agreements, liquidation of a zone of the channel are provided, etc. Under the American - Panama agreements for the permanent neutrality and operation of the channel the USA together with Panama guarantee neutrality of the channel.
  • The AMERICAN - PHILIPPINE WAR 1899-1901, the USA against the Philippine Republic (it is professed in 1898), has reduced in fall last and to metamorphosis{transformation} of Philippines into possession the USA (in 1934 have received an autonomy, about 1946 independent state, see. Philippines).
  • AMERICAN - FRENCH AGREEMENT 1778, is signed in Paris in a period of war for independence in the Sowing. To America 1775-83. France promised to shadow " freedom, the sovereignty and independence " the USA in their extirpation with the Great Britain.
  • AMERICAN - JAPANESE CONTRACTS 1951, 1960. The agreement of safety 1951, is signed in San Francisco. According to the agreement the USA could have the armed forces and military bases in Japan. Agreement 1960 for the relative{mutual} cooperation and safety, is signed in Washington. Has substituted and has supplemented agreement 1951.
  • The AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION of the HELP, see "ARE".
  • The AMERICAN ACADEMY of CINEMA ARTS AND SCIENCES (Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, AMPAS), the American film-academy, public organization in the USA. It is based in Hollywood in 1927.12 sections - director's, actor's, stsenarnaja, etc., film-archive, the library, a review room. With 1929 annually adjudges secret ballot the premium "Oscar" for the best American film and achievements in different ranges of the American kino, the best foreign film of year, and also for the investment in motion picture arts as a whole.
  • The AMERICAN WHITE BUTTERFLY, the butterfly of a set of she-bears, a quarantine pest of fruit crops in the Sowing. To America and Europe. Side panels snow-white, often with hulls. Eats (caterpillars) leaves, entangles a web of a branch.
  • The AMERICAN STRAIN (amerikanoidnaja strain), enters in major mongoloidnuju strain. Combines alongside with mongoloidnymi attributes some evropeoidnye features (absence epikantusa, hardly prominent naze, etc.). It is distributed in the Sowing. And JUzh. To America (Indians). Some anthropologists consider{count} as its{her} do-it-yourself major strain. Since the part of the Asian population in epoch of Pleistocene (about 30 thousand up to AD) migrated flying on the ice bridge through Bering strait on the American continent.
  • The AMERICAN FEDERATION the TRANSACTIONS - CONGRESS of the INDUSTRIAL TRADE UNIONS (APHTHAS - KPP), the largest professional association in the USA, it is built in 1955 by interflow of the American federation of transactionses (it is based in 1881) and the Congress of industrial trade unions (is based in 1935). In structure of APHTHAS - a check point of 90 trade unions, over 14 million members (1993). Enters into the International confederated states of loose trade unions.
  • " The AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA " ("Amerikana"; The Encyclopedia Americana), the generalpurpose encyclopedia in the USA, 1 izd. In 16 vol., 1903-04, New York. With 1918 it is emited (with the partial updating a material) publishing corporation " Грольер ". In 30 volumes; over 60 thousand points. With 1923 the year-book " the American encyclopedia " leaves.
  • The AMERICAN GRIFFONS (the American condors), section of birds of order sokoloobraznyh. Length up to 112 sm, side panels in scope{span} up to 3 m. A head and a part of a neck naked. 1 set, 7 kinds{views} (including a condor), in America. Eat primarily an offal. Number is reduced. The Californian griffon - in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • The AMERICAN MONKEYS, the same, that shirokonosye monkeys.
  • RHEAS, the same, that nandu.
  • The AMERICAN FOUL BROOD, a communicable disease of larvas of bees; ill larvas perish, turning to dark brown tough mass with an odor of a joiner's glue.
  • The AMERICAN LEGION, in the USA organization of participants of different wars, founded in 1919, holds on to conservative orientation in political-military problems.
  • The AMERICAN TROTTER, legkouprjazhnaja breed of horses, is introduced in is grey. 19 century in the USA. Are wanton, hardy. In Russia the crossing with the Oryol trotter introduces Russian trotter. Cultivate in the Sowing. To America and Europe predominary for the sporting purposes.
  • The AMERICAN FOOTBALL, the sporting command game with an oval ball in the USA (since 1870th), Canada, etc. countries. It is similar to rugby.
  • The AMERICAN ENCROACHMENT on grenadu, was comprised on October, 25 1983. The direct excuse for encroachment of a troops the USA and six other countries of Caribbean basin was assassination of the chapter of national - revolutionary government of Grenada Morisa Bishop. It has been declared, that the unstable conditions{situation} in country represented threat for American citizens were there. M.Bishop government conducted social reforms, is open{discovered} expressed support F.Kastro's to course, aspired{tried} to friendship from the USSR. The landing the USA has been introduced from an island in December 1983, but military presence of other countries was saved. The fast and successful operation on "putting in order" on Grenada was used by government the USA for overcoming of " the Vietnamese set of symptoms ".
  • AMERICANS of the UNITED STATES of AMERICA, people, the main{basic} population the USA. An aggregate number 194,2 million person (1992), including in the USA 193 million person. Number in Canada 350 thousand person, Mexico 135 thousand person, the Great Britain 120 thousand person. Speak on the American version of the English tongue. Protesters believing main{basic} and roman catholics.
  • AMERIKJAN TSolak Keropovich (1887-1964), the actor, the national actor of Armenia (1947). On the scene with 1909. With 1931 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Mravjana.
  • AMERINDY (abbr. from English American Indians), a name title of Indians of America.
  • AMERICIUM (an armour. Americium), Am, the chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 95, falls into to actinoids. It is radioactive, most stable isotope 243Am (a half - life 7370 flying). The title from the word "America" (on a place of discovering). Silvery metal, firmness of 13,67 g / sm3, tпл 1173 °C. It is received{obtained} artificially. A mix 241Am and 9Be - a neutron-source in a non-destructive testing.
  • AMERLING (Amerling) the Karelian Glory (1807-84), the Czech person prominent in cultural matters and national education. Tutorials and methodical allowances on natural sciences.
  • AMERSFORT (Amersfoort), city in Netherlands. 102 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry and metal working, a chemical, alimentary, textile industry.
  • AMETHYST, mineral, diaphanous violet version of crystal. Colour often irregular. Large, beautifully colored crystals of an amethyst - precious stones. Manufacture of synthetic amethysts is adjusted.
  • AMETHYSTS Ernest Mihajlovich (r. 1934), the Russian statesman, the lawyer, the expert in range of the international law. With 1968 on scientific activity. With 1991 member of the Constitutional court of the Russian Federation.
  • AMETROPIA (from grech. ametros - disproportionate and ops - an eye), violation{disturbance} of a refraction (refrangibility) of an eye in the form of a near-sightedness or a hyperopia.
  • AMET-KHAN the Anthurus (1920-71), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1943, 1945), the lieutenant colonel (1946), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1961). In Great Domestic war in a fighter aviation; 150 air breakages, has personally knocked down 30 and in group of 19 airplanes. Has tested{experienced} over 100 airplanes. The state premium of the USSR (1953). Has perished at airplane test.
  • AMIDE, a Japanese name buddy Amitabhi, lords of paradise.
  • AMIDOL (hydrochloride 2, 4-диаминофенола), grayish crystals. In a water solution it is fast oxidized with oxygen of air. Showing substance in a photo.
  • AMIDES of the ACIDS, derivative acids in which molecules the He - group is displaced on amino group NH2. Napr., an amide of sulfuric acid H2SO4 - sulphaminic acid HOSO2NH2; an amide of acetic acid CH3COOH - acetamide CH3CONH2; a full amide of metacarbonic acid H2CO3 - carbamide NH2CONH2 (urea).
  • AMIK, in the Grecian mythology son Posejdona, tsar bebrikov. Has called on kulachnyj crocked eggs of the argonauts, pulled in to the shore his{its} countries. It is killed in duel Polidevkom.
  • AMYLASES, ferments of a class of the hydrolases, catalyzing hydrolytic decomposition of polysaccharides (starch, a glycogen, etc.) for all living organisms. Participate during digestion for the person and animal. Are used in a distillery industry and in a bread baking, and also by manufacture of a glucose.
  • AMYL ACETATE, CH3COOC5H11, a colourless liquid with a fruity odor, tкип 149,2 °C. The solvent of coating compositions, extragent.
  • AMYLE NITRITES, esters of amyl alcoholes and nitrous acid HNО2. One of amyle nitrites - izoamilnitrit (CH3) 2CHCH2CH2ONO (a yellow liquid with a fruity odor, tкип 99 °C) - a vasohypotonic medicinal preparation and antidote at a hydrocyanism and its{her} salts.
  • AMYL ALCOHOLES, C5H11OH. From 8 structure isomerides the greatest value has isoamyl alcohol (CH3) 2CHCH2CH2OH - the main{basic} component of a fusel oil; a colourless liquid with off-flavour, tкип 132,1 °C. From amyl alcoholes receive primarily esters - amyl acetate, isoamyl acetate.
  • AMYLOSE, the linear polysaccharide derivated by residues of a glucose. Is part some starch (routinely 10-30 %). The solution of an amylose is imbued by an iodine in blue colour.
  • LARDACEOUS, proteinaceous - carbohydrate dystrophia; education and systemic (or local) adjournment in tissues of a proteic substance of an amyloid; it is stipulated generically (napr., at periodic{batch} disease); can arise as complication of persistent infections (napr., an osteomyelitis), etc.
  • AMYLOPECTIN, the branched polysaccharide derivated by residues of a glucose. Is part some starch (routinely 70-90 %). In t. n. Wax-likes grades of corn, barley, rice starch will consist only of an amylopectin. The solution of an amylopectin is imbued by an iodine in red violet colour.
  • AMYLOPLASTS, see. Leucoplasts.
  • AMIMIA, absence of a facial expression at mental disorders, a parkinsonism, a defeat of facial nerves.
  • AMINE - BACK Zebo Muhiddinovna (r. 1948), the Tadjik actress, the ballet master, the national actress of the USSR (1986). On the scene with 1965. With 1978 artistic administrator of Tadjik vokalno-choreographic band "Zebo" built by her{it}.
  • AMINO ASIDS, a class of the organic compounds keeping carboxylic (-COOH) and amino groups (-NH2); have properties and acids, and the groundings. Participate in an exchange of nitrogenous substances of all organisms (mother compound at a biosynthesis of hormones, vitamins, mediators, pigments, purine and pirimidinovyh the groundings, alkaloids, etc.). Natural amino asids over 150. Ok. 20 major aminikislot minister monomer units from which all proteins (an order of connection of amino asids in them are constructed is determined by a genetic code). The majority of microorganisms and plants synthesize amino asids necessary for them; animal and the person are not capable to education t. n. The essential amino asids received with nutrition. Industrial synthesis (chemical and microbialogic) of some the amino asids used for enrichment of nutrition, forages, as raw products for manufacture of polyamides, dyes and medicinal preparations is run in.
  • AMINOPEPTIDAZY, ferments of a class of the hydrolases, catalyzing hydrolytic decomposition of polypeptides on the part of loose amino group (compare. Carboxypeptidases). Finish a proteopepsis in an intestines.
  • AMINIPLASTICS (the urea-formaldehyde plastics), plastics materials on the basis{fundamentals} mochevino-or melamino-formaldehyde resins. From aminiplastics - granular molding compounds produce, napr., bodies of television receivers, from laminated plastics - an encasing of furniture, etc.
  • AMINOSUGAR, simple Saccharum, keeping amino group. In a nature are most distributed a glucosamine (in structure of polysaccharides of cell walls, a chitine) and galaktozamin (in structure of polysaccharide of cartilages).
  • HYDROXY AMINES, the organic compounds keeping in a molecule one or several amino-and hydroxyl (alcohol) groups; see, napr., colamines.
  • AMINOTRANSFERAZY (transaminases), ferments of a class of transferases, it is reversible{convertible} catalyzing transmission of amino groups from amino asids on ketonic acids. Catalyzed aminotransferazami reactions of transamination communicate between proteinaceous and a carbohydrate metabolism in living organisms.
  • AMINOPHENOLS, the aromatic compounds keeping in a molecule amino group and a hydroxyl group; colourless crystals: ortho - aminophenols (tпл 174 °C), meta-aminophenols (tпл 123 °C), rodinals (tпл 190 °C). Are applied in manufacture of dyes and as showing substances in a photo. See also Rodinal.
  • AMINES, organic compounds, substitution products of atoms of hydrogen in ammonia NH3 organic radicals R: primary RNH2, secondary R2NH, tertiary R3N (R, napr., CH3, C2H5, C6H5). The amines keeping in a molecule 2, 3, 4 and more NH2-groups, call accordingly di-, three, a tetra and Polyaminums; amines with one NH2-group sometimes call as monoamines. Aliphatic amines receive routinely an alkylation of ammonia, arylamines - restoration of nitro compounds. Are applied in manufacture of dyes, explosive and medicinal substances, polymers. Amines and their derivative are distributed in a nature (napr., alkaloids, amino asids).
  • The AMEN (grech. amen, from other - evr. - yes there will be correctly, truly), a traditional concluding remarks of prays and sermons in christianity and a judaism.
  • AMIOTROFICHESKY the LATERAL SCLEROSIS, chronic progressing organic disease of central nervous system, presumably virus nature: a defeat of propulsion neurones of a spinal cord, a trunk and a cerebral cortex with an atrophy of muscles, paresises, paralysises.
  • AMIR HAMZAH (Amir Hamzah) (1911-46), the Indonesian poet. In collections " Quiet songs " (1937), " Fruits of melancholy " (1941) influence sufizma. Has transferred{translated} old indian poem "Bhagavadgita".
  • AMIR HOSROV DEHLEVI (1253-1325), the indian poet, the scientist, the musician. The turki by origin. Wrote on persian, a urda and a Hindi tongues. 5 lyrical sofas: " Gift of a youth " (1272), " the Completeness of perfection{efficiency} " (1293), etc., 5 poems ("Anchovy"). Literaturovedcheskie and historical transactionses.
  • AMIRALD (Amiro) (Amyraldus, Amyraut) Moiz (1596-1664), French reformatsky the seminary student, the professor in Somjure. In the composition " the Tract about predetermining " shadowed idea of salvage of all believers. The composition " Christian moral " (1652-60).
  • AMIRANASHVILI Medea Petrovna (r. 1930), the Georgian singer (soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1976). Daughter P.V.Amiranashvili. With 1954 at the Georgian theatre of opera and ballet. The professor of the Tbilisi conservatory (with 1982).
  • AMIRANASHVILI Peter Varlamovich (1907-76), the Georgian singer (baritone), the national actor of the USSR (1950). With 1930 at the Georgian theatre of opera and ballet. The state premium of the USSR (1947).
  • AMIRANASHVILI SHalva JAsonovich (1899-1975), the historian of the Georgian and Iranian art, corresponding member AN the USSR (1943), academician AN of Georgia (1955). The director of the Museum of arts of Georgia in Tbilisi (with 1939).
  • AMIRANI (the child of the sun), the hero of the national epos of ancient Georgia "Amiraniani". The myth about Amirani rodstven to the myth about Prometee.
  • AMIRANTE ISLANDS (Amirantes Islands), archipelago of coral islands (ok. 150) in Indian ok. 85 км2. Of the state Seychelles are part.
  • AMIRASLANOV Ali Agamaly ogly (1900-62), the geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). Transactionses on geology of deposits of non-ferrous metals of Ural, Kazakhstan, Transbaikalia and Compare. Asia.
  • AMIRDOVLAT Amasnatsi (1420 or 1425-96), the Armenian doctor. The writer of transactionses " Favour of medicine " (1469), keeping anatomic, physiological, hygienic cramps and the description of the diseases known for medieval medicine, and " Waste for neuchej " (1482), in which it is described (in 6 tongues in the alphabet) ok. 3000 pharmaceuticals.
  • AMIROV Fikret Meshadi Dzhamil ogly (1922-84), the Azerbaijan composer, the national actor of the USSR (1965), corresponding member AN of Azerbaijan (1980), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1982). Opera " Севиль " (1953), ballet " One thousand and one night ". (1979), symphonic music (mugamy "Schur", "Kjurdovshary", 1948), concerts for a piano with an orchestra, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1949, 1980).
  • AMIRHAN Fatih Zarifovich (1886-1926), the tatar writer, the publicist - educator. The founder of the newspaper "Ale - islah" ("Reform", 1907-09). The story " the Tatar girl " (1909), stories.
  • AMIRHANOV Habibulla Ibragimovich (1907-86), Azerbaijan physics, academician AN of Azerbaijan (1949), corresponding member AN the USSR (1970). Transactionses on thermal properties of substances, physical properties of semiconductors and semiconductor elements.
  • AMIREDZHIBI CHabua (Mzechabuk) Iraklievich (r. 1921), the Georgian writer. Roman " Date Tutashhia " (kn. 1-2, 1972-75; the script of film of "Coast", 1980, the State premium of the USSR, 1981).
  • AMITABHA (sanskr. Nonmeasurable light), budda, control paradise grounds Sukhavati; under a name of the Amide it was especially honored in Japan.
  • AMITAJUS (sanskr. Nonmeasurable life), budda - the promoter of longevity; it was especially honored in Tibet, China and Mongolia.
  • The AMICI (Amici) Giovanni Battista (1786-1863), italian botanik and optician. First has described motion of a protoplasm in a plant cell and a pollen tube (1823). Has invented an immersion objective of a microscope (1827).
  • AMICHIS (Amicis) Edmondo de, see De Amichis Edmondo.
  • AMLINSKY Vladimir Iljich (1935-89), the Russian writer. Stories, stories (often on the documentary basis{fundamentals}) about life of youth (" Ernest Shatalova's Life ", 1968; " Not dull garden ", 1979), the biographic story about the father, scientist - genetics " will be justified each hour... " (1986). A sketch " On the deserted tombs... " (1988) about N.I.Buharin.
  • AMMAN, capital of Jordan. 1,2 million inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Cement, oil refining, textile, a tobacco industry. University. Archeologic and Islamic museums. In an antiquity it is known as Rabbat-Ammon, in ellinisticheski-Roman epoch - Philadelphia. In 1921 has become capital emirata Transjordan. With 1946 capital of independent Jordan. Ruins of Roman and Arabian constructions.
  • AMMI, a stem of biennial grasses of a set umbrella. Ok. 10 kinds{views}, predominary in the Mediterranean; 1 kind{view} - ammi dental - on Caucasus. This kind{view} and ammi major cultivate for obtaining the medicinal preparation having spasmolytic action.
  • AMMONIA (from grech. hals ammoniakos - muriate of ammonia), NH3, colourless gas with a sharp suffocating odor; firmness of 0,681 g / sm3 (-33,35 °S), tпл-77,7 °S, tкип-33,35 °S; at pressure 0,9 MPa it is liquefied{condensed} at ambient temperature. We shall well dissolve in water; a water solution - spirit of ammonia. Receive catalytic synthesis from nitrogen and hydrogen under pressure. Apply in manufacture of a nitric acid and fertilizers (4/5 made ammonia), ammonievyh salts, formonitrile, soda. A luquid ammonia - a cooling agent, vysokokontsentrirovannoe fertilizer. It is explosion-hazard. It is toxic.
  • AMMONIA SOLUTIONS, 1) complexes (metallamines), addition products of ammonia to salts, napr. [Cu (NH3) 4] Cl2. Apply in an analytical chemistry (many ammonia solutions are painted{pigmented}), to division of metals. 2) Fluid nitrogenous fertilizers for miscellaneous soils under different agricultural crops (water solutions of a urea, an ammonium nitrate, saturated NH3).
  • AMMIAN MARTSELLIN (Ammianus Marcellinus) (ok. 330 - ok. 400), the Roman historian. The writer of the "Particular acts" circumscribing events (wars, palace intrigues, etc.) from board of emperor Nerves (kon. 1 century) up to 378. From 31 books have reached 14-31-n (the season{term} with 353 on 378).
  • AMMONIA LIQUOR, 1) water (18-25 %-s') caustic ammonia NH3; it is used primarily as fluid nitrogenous fertilizer and for an ammoniation of forages. 2) the Water part of the condensation moisture which is generatrix at machining by water of gases of a charring (t. n. nadsmolnaja water); except for NH3 contains some H2S, CO2, etc. impurity{additives}. It is applied as raw material in manufacture of an ammonium sulphate.
  • AMMONIUM NITRATE (ammonievaja saltpeter, nitrate of an ammonium), NH4NO3, colourless hygroscopic readily soluble crystals in water, tпл 169,6 °S. A component (oxidant) of many industrial blasting explosives (ammonites, ammonals, etc.); nitrogenous fertilizer (ok. 34 % N).
  • It AMMONIACAL - SELITRENNYE BLASTING EXPLOSIVES, a class (aquanites, aquatrinitrotoluenes, ammonals, ammonites, granulity, detonity, etc.), which main{basic} constituent part - an ammonium nitrate. Can contain nitro compounds, combustible materials, inactive fillers. Are hygroscopic, inclined to a sealing.
  • AMMONALS, group ammoniacal - selitrennyh the blasting explosives keeping nitro compounds and an aluminium bronze. Heat of explosion of 5,1-5,9 MDZH/KG, are water-resistant. Are applied in shafts, harmless on gas and a dust.
  • AMMONIEVAJA SALTPETER, the same, that an ammonium nitrate.
  • AMMONIATION, machining of a drinking water by ammonia some secs prior to a chlorination for maintenance more the long-lived disinfecting effect and an avoidance of education hlororganicheskih the connections attaching to water a unpleasant odor and tang.
  • AMMONIATION of FORAGES, machining of forages (a silage, a press, straw, etc.) ammonia or his{its} derivative for enrichment by their nitrogen.
  • AMMONIUM, NH4 +, singly charged cation. Is part some nitrate of ammonium NH4NO3, an ammonium sulphate. (NH4) 2SO4, etc. salts of an ammonium.
  • AMMONIUM Alexandria (3 century), the Christian writer, has constituted "Diatessaron" - gospel harmony.
  • AMMONIUM (Ammany) Nikomidijsky (mind{wit}. 305 or 311), the Christian martyr, the adolescent damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana; pupil Vavily Nikomidijskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 4 (17).
  • AMMONITES, group ammoniacal - selitrennyh the blasting explosives keeping nitro compounds; sometimes nitrate esters and salt - flame arresters. Heat of explosion of 3,4-5,5 MDZH/KG. Are hygroscopic, inclined to a sealing, are insensitive to impact, abrasion and fire. Are applied in underground workings, harmless on gas and a dust, and above ground.
  • AMMONITES, subclass (or superorder) extinct marine Cephalopoda of mollusks. Are known from Devonian up to a chalk inclusively; have been eurysynusic. A diameter of a shell from several centimeters up to 2 m. Ok. 1500 kinds{views}, fast smenjavshih one another in time, in this connection ammonites - the important group of managing minerals.
  • AMMONIUM NITRATE, the same, that an ammonium nitrate.
  • AMMONIUM PEROKSOSULFAT (an ammonium persulphate), (NH4) 2S2O8, colourless crystals. Well solves in water. The strong oxidant, at the presence of a moisture secretes oxygen and ozone. The initiator of a polymerization, a means for potching and disinfections, a reactant in a photo and an analytical chemistry.
  • AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE, the same, that an ammonium peroksosulfat.
  • AMMONIUM the SULPHATE, (NH4) 2SO4, colourless crystals. Well solves in water. Apply as fertilizer, in manufacture of a viscose rayon.
  • AMMONIUM CHLORIDE (muriate of ammonia), NH4Cl, colourless crystals. Nitrogenous fertilizer (up to 25 % N) for neutral{inert} and alkaline soils under the crops weakly reacting to excess yellowwort (sugar-beet, rice, corn). Apply also in manufacture of dry galvanic cells, at soldering and tinning, in medicine, as the smoke generator.
  • AMMOSOV Alexander Nikolaevich (1823-66), the Russian poet. Poem "Elegija" (" the Has-damascene daring!... ", 1858) has become national odes.
  • AMMOPHOS, double combined fertilizer for miscellaneous soils under different agricultural crops. Basically NH4H2PO4 impure; contains not less than 43 % P2O5 and 11 % N. Solves in water.
  • AMMUN Iraklijsky (mind{wit}. Between 307-324), the deacon, the martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 1 (14).
  • AMNESIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. mneme - memory{remembrance}, memory), absence of memories or incomplete memories on events and experiences of the fixed season{term}. Miscellaneous kinds{views} of an amnesia are supervised at many diseases of a brain.
  • AMNESTI INTERNESHNL, see Emnesti Interneshnl.
  • AMNION (grech. amnion), one of embryonic membranes for kowtowing, birds, mammals. Will derivate a cavity, the filled a liquid protecting a germ from bruises and ensuring an aqueous medium for his{its} development. The similar environment is present for some Invertebrata (napr., hexapods).
  • AMNIOTY, the maximum vertebrates (kowtowing, birds, mammals) for which at early stages of development embryonic membranes will be derivated, including an amnion.
  • AMNESTY (from grech. amnestia - oblivion, pardoning), discharging of punishment under criminal law or changing of the punishment appointed as court by more mild. Implements under the solution of the chief of state or the maximum representative body of an authority. Amnesty can be general (for all faces which convicted or have been instituted criminal proceedings under fixed articles of the criminal law) or private{individual} (see. Pardon).
  • AMNOKKAN, the Korean title r. Yalu Jiang.
  • AMO (the Joint-stock machine-building society), mark of domestic lorries and the buses released in 1924-34 factory AMO (nowadays the Moscow motor-works him{it}. I.A.Lihacheva). Carrying capacity of the first lorries in USSR АМО-Ф15 1,5 t, passenger capacity of buses AMO-4 22 persons.
  • AMOGHASIDDHI, budda, honored in Tibet, a saver of a north; it was figured green, with a raised arm{hand}.
  • AMOY, city in China, see. Hsiamen.
  • AMOK (malajsk)., subitaneously originating mental derangement (exaltation with aggression and wanton assassinations), described predominary for natives Malayan arh. Consider{count} as a version of a twilight condition.
  • "AMOKO" (Amoco), the petroleum company the USA. It is based in 1889, up to 1985 - " the Standard ojl kompani (Indiana) ". Sales volume 21,2 billion dol., a net profit 2,1 billion dol., a crude production 40 million t, from them of 45 % in the USA, a thorough revision 44,1 million t, figure occupied in 53,4 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • AMON, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the god - promoter Thebes, has gradually become to be identified with supreme god Ra (Amon-Ra).
  • AMONASHVILI SHalva Alekseevich (r. 1931), the Georgian teacher and the psychologist. One of creators of system of elementary education of children of six-year age. Transactionses on psychology and a technique of elementary education.
  • AMONIT Melitinsky (mind{wit}. 298), one of 33 kappadokijskih the soldiers - martyrs damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
  • AMONTON (Amontons) Guillaume (1663-1705), French the mechanics and physics. Transactionses under the theory of abrasion, a thermometry, improvement of physical devices. Has shown (1699), that abrasion is proportional to the relative{mutual} pressure rubed. Has constructed a hygrometer (1687), a mercurial barometer (1695), the air thermometer (1702). Has come to idea of an absolute zero which under his{its} data will be received at - 293,8 °S.
  • AMORALISM (immoralizm), denial of intellectual foundations and the conventional standards of behaviour in a society, nigilistic attitude{relation} to any moral principles.
  • AMOREI, see. Amority.
  • AMORELI, grades of a cherry with pink both light-red fruits and uncoloured juice (the Bottle, the Blister beetle early, etc.).
  • AMORIM (Amorim) Enrike (1900-60), the Uruguayan writer. The social trilogy "Carriage" (1933), " Poseljanin Agiljar " (1934) and " the Horse and its{her} shade " (1941) - about gaucho; the political novel " Victory does not come itself " (1952); the poetic collection " Washing Rhodinum " (1960).
  • AMORITY (amorei), semiticheskie nations, natives of Arabia. In 24-16 centuries up to n. e. Were settled on the Syrian steppe. Ok. 1894 up to n. e. Have trapped Babylon and have based a kingdom played the considerable role. Palestines have gradually mixed up with local population Dvurechja, Syria.
  • The ABSORBER (from frants. amortir - to slacken, extenuate), the device for cushioning in machines (the automobile{car}, an airplane, etc.) and structures, for protection against concussions and impulsive load. In the absorber use springs, torsion bars, rubber elements, and also liquids and gases.
  • DEPRECIATION CHARGES, process of gradual transference of cost of instruments of labour in accordance with their physical and an obsolescence on cost made with their help of production, activities and services with the purposes of accumulation of money resources for a consequent complete rebuild. Depreciation charges are effected on prescribed allowances of amortization{shock-absorption}, their dimension is established{set} for the fixed season{term} on a concrete kind{view} of a fixed capital (group, a subgroup) and expresses, as a rule, in percentage to their book value.
  • AMORTIZATION{SHOCK-ABSORPTION} (from medieval an armour. amortisatio - settlement), 1) gradual snashivanie funds (the equipment, buildings, structures) and transference of their cost in parts on produced production (see. Depreciation charges). 2) Reduction of value of the property taxed (for the sum of the capitalized tax). 3) In technique - absorption, cushioning, vibrations, etc. (see. The absorber).
  • AMORPHOUS STATE, the condensate condition of substance defined by isotropy of physical properties, stipulated by a unregulated arrangement of atoms and molecules. As against a crystalline state transition from solid amorphous in fluid descends gradually. In amorphous state there are different substances: glasses, pitches, plastics materials, etc.
  • AMORPHISM (from grech. amorphos - shapeless), formlessness, a vagueness.
  • AMORPHOUS METALS (metglassy, metal glasses), metals and alloys with the amorphous structure which is generatrix at very quick chilling of a melt (speed up to 106 K/s).
  • AMORPHOUS TONGUES, see. Isolating{insulating} tongues.
  • AMOS, the hebrew prophet of 8 century up to n. e., convicting officers, usurers, judges. Amos's sermons were part of the Bible.
  • AMOSES Ivan Afanasjevich (1800-78), the Russian shipbuilder, the engineer - general (1872). Many from constructed Amosovym the ships{spacecrafts} were the most perfect samples of shipbuilding technique of that time.
  • AMOSES Nikolay Mihajlovich (r. 1913), the Ukrainian surgeon, academician AN of Ukraine (1969), corresponding member AMN (1961), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1973). The main{basic} transactionses on a heart surgery and lungs, biological and medical cybernetics. The writer of the book " Ideas and heart " (1965), etc. The Lenin premium (1961).
  • AMPEL (grech. A grape), in the Grecian mythology beloved Dionisa. The god has presented Ampelu a uva and has hung up her{it} highly on a tree. Having mounted for it{her}, the young man has falled and was divided. Has been transformed{has been turned into} into mia maid.
  • AMPELOGRAPHY (from grech. ampelos - a grape and... grafija), science about kinds{views} and grades of a grape. It is connected with uvologiej.
  • AMPELOPSIS, the same, that vinogradovnik.
  • MPELOTERAPIJA (from grech. ampelos - a grape and therapy), treatment by a grape or grape juice of an anaemia, chronic diseases of a liver, bilious ways, kidneys, etc. It Is carried out{is conducted} routinely in combination to a dietotherapy and a climatotherapy.
  • AMPELOUS PLANTS (from a nem. Ampel - a trailing flower vase), ornamental plants with pendent, creeping or runners (a spiderwort, a bell - flower brittle, etc.).
  • The AMPERE, 1) unit of force of a current flow in a SI, is meant And. 1А = 3.109 in terms of СГСЭ=0,1 in terms of C.G.S.M.; it is called named A.Ampera. 2) Unit of a magnetic potential difference in a SI (the aged name an ampere turn). 1 And = 0,4 p a gilbert = 14p.3.109 a unit. C.G.S.E.
  • AMPERE (Ampere) Andre the Goosefoot (1775-1836), the French scientist, the foreign member Petersburg AN (1830), one of founders of an electrodynamics. Has offered a rule called as his{its} name, has discovered (1820) mechanic interaction of currents and has placed{installed} the law of this interaction (the law of Ampere). Has constructed the first theory of magnetism.
  • AMPERE the LAW, the law of mechanic interaction of two currents current in small cuttings of explorers, located on some distance from each other. From the law of Ampere follows, that parallel explorers with the currents current one-way, are attracted, and in counter - make a start. The law defining force from which the magnetic field acts on a small cutting of an explorer with a current calls as the law of Ampere also.
  • AMPERES - BALANCE, the same, that current balances.
  • AMPERE TURNS, 1) product{creation} of figure of twists of a winding on which the current flow weeps, on value of amperage. 2) the Aged name of unit of a magnetic potential difference (see. Ampere).
  • The AMMETER (from amperes and... Meter), an electrical measuring instrument for a force sensing permanent and (or) alternating-current; in an electric circuit it is actuated in succession. The scale of the ammeter is calibrated in mkA, mA, And or kA.
  • AMPEROMETRIC TITRATION, electrochemical method of a quantitative analysis at which a terminal point of a titration find on jump of current intensity at an electrolysis.
  • AMPERE-SECOND, unit of quantity of an electricity; the same, that a coulomb.
  • AMPERE-HOUR, off-system unit of an electric quantity, equal 3600 Kl. The Amp-hr is meant. In ampere-hours routinely express a charge of accumulators.
  • EMPIRE STYLE (from frants. empire, characters. - empire), style in the architecture and an ornamental art of three first decades of 19 century, finished development of a classicism. Solid lapidary, pointed out monumental forms and affluent decoras (military emblems, a decorative pattern), a support on an art inheritance of imperial Rome, ancient greek arhaiki, Other. Egypt ministered to implementation of ideas of state power and military force. Style an empire style has developed in the season{term} of empire of Napoleon I in France where it{he} was distinguished with ceremonial magnificence of the memorial architecture and palace interiors (S.Persje's architects, Item. F.L.Fonten). The empire style expressed ideas of majesty of the government and in the architecture of lines evropejskiih countries, including and in Russia where he has given classical samples of town-planning, public structures, urban and usadebnyh is dry-rot (architects A.D.Zaharov, A.N.Voronihin, K.I.Rossi, V.P.Stasov), monumental sculptures (I.P.Martos, F. F. Schedrin).
  • AMPLY (Apion) (1 century), apostle from 70-ти (the Message to Romans 16:8), diocesan Diospolsky (Palestine), the martyr damaged in. Odissa (nowadays Varna, Bulgaria). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on October, 31 (on November, 13).
  • AMPLITRON (from an armour. amplifier - the booster and... A throne), the electronic device of magnetron type for a distributed amplification of microwave oscillations.
  • VOLTAGE (from an armour. amplitudo - value), the greatest deviation{rejection} of value oscillating on the fixed law from average value or from some value conditionally adopted for null; see. Sinus-wave oscillations.
  • PROBABILITY AMPLITUDE, the same, that wave function.
  • AMPLITUDE MODULATION, the periodic{batch} magnitude variation of oscillations with frequency, it is significant smaller, than frequency of oscillations. It is applied in radio engineering (especially in broadcasting), optician, soundman, etc.
  • AMPLITUDE-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC (frequency characteristic), relation of voltage of oscillation on an output of the device from frequency of an input harmonic signal. It is measured on a frequency drift permanent on an input amplitude. The amplitude-frequency characteristic shows, how his{its} separate wave constituents are transmitted, and allows to evaluate distortions of his{its} spectrum.
  • The AMPLITUDE ANALYZER of pulses, the device for presence of the partition law of voltages of electric pulses. It is applied, napr., in radiolocation and radio communication at the analysis of complex waves.
  • The AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATION CIRCUIT, the device for secretion (selection) of electrical signals which voltage exceeds some preset level (operating threshold).
  • AMPLIFICATION (from an armour. amplificatio - expansion), a stylistic figure: pumping in the text synonymic tropov or recurring uniform{homogeneous} designs (words) (" I the secret premeditation caressed, suffered, pined and suffered affliction ", M.J.Lermontov).
  • ROLE (frants. emploi, characters. - application), rather resistant phylums of theatrical roles conforming to age, appearance and style of the game of the actor: the tragedian, the comedian, the hero - the lover, the soubrette, inzhenju, travesti, the gawk, rezoner, etc. In 20 century this concept grows out of use.



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