Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • The AMPULA (an armour. ampulla), 1) hermetically a soldered glass vessel with a fine-bored neck for conservation in a sterile condition of medicinal solutions, etc. 2) In anatomy - bladder-like expansion of any tubate organ.
  • AMPUTATION (from an armour. amputatio - blocking off), a surgical operation - removal of a peripheric part of an organ (extremities are more often); it is applied at a gangrene, a permanent injury, etc.
  • AMRIKJAN Mihrdat Ovanesovich (1843-79), the Armenian actor and the theatrical figure. On the scene with 1859. With 1863 in G.A.Chmshkjana's movable troupe. One of founders of scenic realism at the Armenian theatre.
  • AMRITA (sanskr. Immortal), in induistskoj mythologies a special drinking, the elixir of immortality procured by gods from ocean in the beginning of creation.
  • AMRITSAR, city in northwest of India, pieces. Punjab. 709 thousand inhabitants (1991). Textile, machine-building, a chemical industry. It is known manufacture of tissues, carpets, metal wares, bones, leathers. It is based in kon. 16 century. The main religious centre sikhov. " The golden temple " sikhov (it eroded in 1761, then recovered{restored}).
  • AMRUSH (Amrouche) Jean El Muhuv (1906-1962), the algerian poet. The initiator of the algerian literature in French. The collection " Berberskie songs Kabilii " (1939), epichesky skaz " Immortal the Yogurt " (1946), a patriotic poem " Algerian battle " (1958, it is published 1962).
  • AMSDORF (Amsdorf) Nikolay (1483-1565), the closest friend and employee Luther.
  • AMSTERDAM (Amsterdam), capital of Netherlands. 695 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs over 1 million inhabitants). A port on Boreal m. (freight turnover over 20 million т). International airport Shiphol. A machine industry (air, ship-building, electronic), chemical, oil refining, polygraphic, a farmaceutical industry. Traditional jeweller manufacture, almazogranenie. Underground railway. 2 universities. State and urban museums, Dwelling Rembrandta. Ok. 50 channels, 500 bridges. Games of IX Olympic (1928). For the first time it is mentioned in 1275. In 17 century the centre of trade and the credit of world value. In 1795-1806 capital Batavskoj of republic, later - the Netherlands kingdom. Gate Sint-Antonisport (nowadays a historical museum, 15-17 centuries); Gothic Aged church (osn. In 13 century) and New church (15-16 centuries); Boreal and Eastern churches (both - 17 century).
  • AMSTERDAMSKO-ROTTERDAMSKY BANK (Amrobank; Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank N. V.), the business bank of Netherlands heading financial group - Amrogruppu. It is based in 1964.2 head offices and 760 branches in country. Foreign subdividings more than in 20 countries, including representation in Moscow. Has majority sharing{participation} in 4 foreign banks. Enters into an international bank grouping. In kon. 1980th the sum of assets, an ownership capital and profit compounded{made} accordingly [billion guldens (billion dol. The USA)]: 168,1 (84), 6 (3) and 3,4 (1,7).
  • AMT (amt), an administrative and territorial unit (district) in Denmark.
  • AMTMAN-BRIEDIT (Amtmanis-Breditis) (Amtmanis-Brieditis) Alfreds (1885-1966), the Latvian producer, the actor and the teacher, the national actor of the USSR (1953). On the scene with 1903. With 1919 at the Latvian theatre him{it}. Upitsa (Riga, with 1944 artistic administrator). The professor of the Latvian conservatory (with 1949). The state premium of the USSR (1948, 1950, 1951).
  • AMTORG (Amtorg Trading Corporation), the joint-stock company established in 1924 in New York; the commission agent - intermediary of foreign trade operations between the USA and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (up to 1991 from the USSR).
  • AMUAJ (Amuay), city and a petroexport port in Venezuela. Ok. 5 thousand inhabitants. Annual freight turnover 40 million t. Oil processing.
  • AMUDARINSKY RESERVATION, in Turkmenii. It is based in 1982. The area 50000 ga. In a valley r. Amu Darya and adjacent areas Zaunguzskih of Kara Kum. A Bukhara deer, a Middle Asian gazelle; a pheasant, etc.
  • AMUDARINSKY KLAD, golden and silver things (only 177 subjects) and coins (1300 pieces) 4-2 centuries up to n. e. It is retrieved in 1877 for ford on r. Amu Darya (Tadjikistan).
  • AMU DARYA, (Amu, Oks, Balh), the river in Compare. Asia. 1415 kms, the area of basin of 309 thousand км2 (about one . Kerki). It will be derivated by interflow Pjandzha and Vakhsh; the m. runs in Aral, derivating delta (in the shallow seasons{terms} does not reach it{him}). Average discharge of water for. Kerki ok. 2000 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation (channels Karakumsky, Amu-Bukhara, etc.). On the average flow Kyzylkumsky reservation. In a lower reaches fishery. Regular navigation from Chardzhou. Near to Amu Darya - Urgench, Nukus, Termez.
  • AMULET (from an armour. amuletum) (apotropej, has protected), a subject which, on superstitious submissions, is capable to guard his{its} master from disasters.
  • AMULY (an armour. Amulius), in Roman mythology tsar Albian stages Longs, expelled the brother Numitora and devoted in vestalki his{its} daughter I Hover Silviju, afterwards given birth twins Romula and Rema.
  • AMUNDSEN (Amundsen) Rual (1872-1928), the Norwegian polar traveller and the explorer. First has passed Northwest passage on vessel "Joa" from Greenland to Alaska (1903-06). Supervised over expedition to Antarctic Region on vessel "Fram" (1910-12). First has reached{achieved} the South Pole (14.12.1911). In 1918-20 has passed along boreal coasts of Eurasia on a vessel of "Modes". In 1926 supervised over the first flight through an arctic pole on an airship "Norway". Has perished in Barentsevom m. during searches of italian expedition of U.Nobile.
  • AMUNDSENA the MOUNTAIN, in Vost. To Antarctica, in western part Uilksa of the Earth. An altitude of 1445 m. It is open{discovered} D.Mousona's by australian expedition in 1912.
  • AMUNDSENA the BAY, the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok., between coasts of continental Canada and islands Banks and Victoria. Length of 445 kms, width up to 213 kms, depth up to 285 m. A large part of year it is coated{obtected} with ice.
  • AMUNDSENA the HOLLOW, in the Sowing. Ledovitom ok., between hr. Lomonosov and Gakkelja. Length ok. 2000 kms, width of 200-400 kms, depth up to 4485 m.
  • AMUNDSENA the PEST, Quiet ok., for coasts of Antarctica, between 100 and 123 °z. d. The area of 98 thousand км2, depth up to 585 m. It is coated{obtected} with ice.
  • AMUNDSEN-SKOTT (Amundsen-Scott) (Pole), the American midland polar station (with 1957) in area of the Austral geographycal pole, at the altitude 2800 m.
  • AMMUNITION (polsk. amunicja, from an armour. munitio - strengthening, equipment), subjects (belts, ascuses, etc.), facilitating to servicemen wearing of weapons, an ammunition; in the Russian Army call as military equipment. Horse ammunition - subjects for zaprjazhki, sedlovki and vjuchenija animal.
  • CUPID (Cupid), in Roman mythology the godhood of love. Corresponds{meets} Grecian Erotu.
  • CUPID (mong. Jara - Muren, a whale. Heilongjiang), the river on the Far East. It will be derivated by interflow rr. Shilka and Argun. Runs into Amurense firth Ohotskogo in m. Length of 2824 kms, from a headstream of Argun (Hajlar) - 4440 kms, the area of basin of 1855 thousand км2. The large part of basin falls at terrain of the Russian Federation. A feed predominary from aestivo-autumnal monsoon rains. Average discharge of water 10900 m3 / with (the greatest 40000 with a summer in high waters). Floods are characteristic. Main inflow: Zeya, Bureya, Amgun - at the left, Sungari, Ussuri - on the right. It is navigable. On Amur - Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Nikolaevsk - na-Amure. Fishery. Across Amur passes a part of border{limit} of the Russian Federation with China.
  • AMURO-YAKUTIYA MAIN, B.Never's highway - Tommot - Yakutsk. 1162 kms. It is constructed in 1930-37, binds Yakutia to the Transsiberian trunk line.
  • AMURO-YAKUTIYA MAIN, railway Berkakit - Tommot - Yakutsk. 830 kms. Is under construction with 1985.
  • AMURRU, see. To March.
  • AMURSANA (1722-57), one of sovereign princes Ojratskogo hanstva, the figure of antimanchurian liberation movement in Mongolia in 50th of 18 century. Has headed revolt in Dzungaria. In 1757 ran to Russia where has died.
  • CUPID - SANAN Anton Mudrenovich (1888-1939), kalmyksky the writer. The autobiographical story " Mudreshkin the son " (1925), story "Aranzal" (1932), " In steppe " (1935). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • AMURSK, city (with 1973) in the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk kr., landing stage on r. Amur. 59,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). Lesopilno-wood-working and tselljulozno-cardboard combines.
  • The AMURENSE MILITARY FLOTILLA, is officially built in 1906 for the defence of border{limit} of Russia on rr. Amur and Ussuri. During the Civil war it has been seized by Japanese interventionists, in 1920 it is recreated. Participat in operations in the season{term} of the sovetsko-Chinese conflict 1929, in Manchurian 1945 operation.
  • The AMURENSE RANGE, in the Russian Federation. 363,7 thousand км2. The population of 1074 thousand person (1991), urban 68 %. 10 cities. 33 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Blagoveshchensk. A large part of terrain gorista, in the south - plain Zejsko-Bureinskaja. Mean temperatures of January from-24 up to-33 °S, July 18-21 °S. A rainfall of 800-900 mm annually. The main river - Amur. Lesopokrytaja the area - 65 % of terrain. An industry: mining (gold, coal), wood, wood-working, electrotechnical, machine-building, alimentary. Zejskaja a river plant. The main{basic} farming area of the Far East. Crops grain (wheat, an oat, barley), a soya bean; a potato growing, a vegetable raising. Meat-and-milk animal husbandry; beekeeping, a deer - raising, a fur farming. A hunt. On terrain the Transsiberian and Baikal-Amur trunk lines pass. Navigation across Amur, Zeya, Bureya, etc.
  • The AMURENSE BAY, for a northwest coast a hall. Peter the Great Japanese m. Length ok. 65 kms, width of 9-20 kms, depth up to 20 m. A port - Vladivostok.
  • The AMURENSE GOOSEBERRY, kind{view} of an actinidia.
  • The AMURENSE FIRTH, predustjevaja a part r. Amur, in a north of the Tatar prol., between continental Asia and boreal part about. Sakhalin. Length ok. 185 kms, width up to 40 kms, depth of 3-4,5 m.
  • The AMURENSE COSSACK ARMY, is built in 1858 in Priamurje and Primorski Krai (the centre - Blagoveshchensk). In 1889 from him{it} it is secured{discharged} Ussurijskoe the Cossack army. In 1916 population of 49 thousand person, ok. 970 thousand tithes of ground. In 1-Ї world war has exhibited 2 horse shelf, 7 horse hundreds, 1 battery. In 1918 it is abolished.
  • PLAIN AMURSKO-ZEJSKAJA, in basins of the rivers Amur, Zeya (and its{her} inflow Selemdzha and Urkan), in the Amurense region. An altitude up to 904 m. A surface gently rolling. Larch and pine forests.
  • CUPIDS, non-proprietary name of 2 stems of fishes of a set karpovyh - a white amur - fish and a black amur - fish. Length up to 1,2 m, weigh up to 32 kg. In the rivers of China and bass. Amur. Are acclimatized in the European part of Russia and Compare. Asia. Object of a craft and cultivation.
  • AMPHIBIANS, the same, that amphibian.
  • AMPHIBIA (from grech. amphibios - a master double mode of life), 1) the automobile{car}, capable to travel overland and water, with a water-proof body, a propeller or a water jet propulsive device, a water control surface. 2) the Wheeled aeroplane, fitted for take-off from ground and water and planting to them. 3) the Snowmobile for which the body on skis is substituted for the best about
  • AMFIBOLIJA (from grech. amphibolia - equivocacy), a figure of speech - the syntactical design conceding different interpretations (napr., " In Seneke stringent stoicism / for a long time has blasted an organism ", A.N.Maykov) .ja overland and water.
  • AMPHIBOLITE, the black solid or schistose metamorphic rock consisting in main{basic} from the amphibole and mean plagioklaza. Firmness of 2900-3150 kg / m3. Black versions - carpentry and facing stones.
  • AMFIBOLIJA (from grech. amphibolia - equivocacy), a figure of speech - the syntactical design conceding different interpretations (napr., " In Seneke stringent stoicism / for a long time has blasted an organism ", A.N.Maykov).
  • AMPHIBOLES, group porodoobrazujushchih minerals of subclass of chain (tape) silikates with the general formula (And, В) 7-8 [Z4О11] 2 (HE, F) 2, where And - To, Na, Ca; B - Al, Fe3 +, Fe2 +, Mg, etc.; Z - Si, Al. The basis{fundamentals} of structure - t. n. amfibolovaja a tape [Si4О11]. Distinguish monoclinic and more infrequent rhombic amphiboles. Green, brown, black spicular, fibrous crystals. Hardness 5-6,5; firmness of 2,8-3,6 g / sm3. Are part magmatic and metamorphic of breeds. Total in earth crust up to 10 % (on mass). In an industry are applied chemical and heat-resistant fine-fibered amfibolasbesty.
  • AMPHIBRACH (grech. amphibrachys, characters. - from both parties brief), the poetic meter formed by the 3-composite autopodiums with strong a mestome on 2-nd syllable (an AND-to-AND cercuit; napr., " Not the wind blusters above a milletgrass "). The most common dimensions of Russian sillabo-tonic amphibrach - 4-стопный (with nach. 19 century) and 3-стопный (with it is grey. 19 century).
  • AMPHIDIPLOID (from grech. amphi - from both parties, diploos - double and eidos - a kind{view}) (allotetraploid), the hybrid organism received{obtained} by a crossing of 2 miscellaneous kinds{views} (or stems) plants or animal; in his{its} cells full diploid sets of chromosomes of both kinds{views} (or stems) combine{blend}. A particular case allopoliploidii. An example of an amphidiploid - a rye-wheat hybrid (tritikale).
  • AMPHICARPY (from grech. amphi - from both parties and karpos - a fruit), education on a plant of above-ground and underground fruits, napr. For an oxalis. Underground fruits develop from an ovary inpouring{insinuating} after fertilization in soil.
  • AMFIKTIONIJA (Amphiktionia), in Other. Greeces the religious - political union of nations and cities with a general sanctuary{holy place}, treasury, rules of warfare. It is most known delfijskaja amfiktionija (the centre - Delfy) in which 12 communities Compare entered{included}. Greeces and Thessaly.
  • AMFILOHY (in world Sergievsky Paul Ivanovich) (1818-1893), diocesan Uglichsky (1888), curate of Yaroslavl archdiocese; arheograf, the philologist, paleograf; corresponding member Petersburg AN. Has described many Grecian and slavonic manuscripts, has constituted " the Dictionary from Pantekta Antiochus of 11 century " (1889), " the Description of manuscripts Voskresenskoj novoierusalimskoj libraries " and " Kondakary 12-13 centuries ".
  • AMPHIMIXIS (from grech. amphi - from both parties and mixis - mixture{mixing}), routine phylum of sexual process for animal and plants at which there is an interflow of nucleus of men's and women sexual cells. Compare. An apomixis.
  • AMPHIPROSTYLE (grech. amphiprostylos), phylum of an ancient greek rectangular temple in the plan, having kolonnye porticoes on flank fronts.
  • AMFISBENY, a section scutal. Are close to lizards. Length up to 70 sm, 3 sets, ok. 140 kinds{views}, primarily in tropical America, Africa and Zap. Asia. A body worm-shaped. Conduct digging mode of life. Can be shaded slide in holes by a tail forwards (from here 2 title - dvuhodki).
  • AMPHITHEATRE (from grech. amphitheatron), 1) an antique structure for shows: oval бъСnС around of which terraces places for spectators (the Collosseo in Rome) placed. 2) Places in auditorium (at theatre and a circus behind front stalls) or in the auditories located by terraces.
  • AMPHITHEATRES Alexander Valentinovich (1862-1938), the Russian writer, the journalist. Feuilletons (including " Sirs Obmanovy ", 1902, about imperial family). Fictional products{creations} from life of Russian society (novels "Eight-gang foremen", t. 1-2, 1907; "Nine-gang foremen", t. 1-2, 1910-11). Literary - critiques, plays. With 1921 in emigration.
  • AMFODONTOZ, the same, that a parodontosis.
  • AMPHORA (an armour. amphora, from grech. amphoreus), ancient clay (less often metal) a vessel for fluid and bulk stocks, with spherical or elongated tulovom, 2 vertical handles and a fine-bored throat.
  • AMPHOTERIC CHARACTER (from grech. amphoteros - both that and other), ability of some chemical combinations, napr. Oxyhydroxides, amino asids, depending on conditions to show or the main{basic}, or acid properties. Napr., at the presence of acids Al (OH) 3 behaves as the grounding [Al (OH) 3 + 3НСl " AlCl3 + 3H2O], at the presence of alkalis - as an acid [Al (OH) 3 + NaOH " NaAlO2 + 2H2O].
  • AMHARA (the self-title - amara), people in Ethiopia. An aggregate number 2 million person (1992), including in Ethiopia 20,8 million person, Eritrea 180 thousand person, Yemen 15 thousand person. Tongue amharsky. On religion basically christians - monofisity.
  • AMHARSKY TONGUE, tongue of people amhara. The official language of Ethiopia. Falls into to Semitic tongues. Writing on the basis of the Ethiopian alphabet.
  • AMEL (Amiel) Anri Frederik (1821-81), the Swiss poet, the essayist, a translator. It is known "Diary" (since 1847, it is published in 1881, posthumously), noted steep psychologism.
  • AMIENS (Amiens), city in France, on r. Somme, an administrative centre of department Somme and main city of historical range Picardy. 136 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, mild, a chemical industry. The most major in France a Gothic cathedral (Notr-ladies, 13-15 centuries).
  • AMENSKAJA the OPERATION, 8-13.8.1918, during 1-st world war. 4-n the English army and 1-n the French army have broken through front of 2-nd German army to the east of Amiens, having laid foundation a military defeat of Germany.
  • AMENSKY the PEACE TREATY 1802, is encased on March, 27 in Amiens between France both its{her} allies, on the one hand, and the Great Britain - with other; has finished disintegration of 2-nd antiFrench coalition, has supplied{ensured} only short breather. In May 1803 war between the Great Britain and France has sparked again.
  • AME-BUT VAKA-HIKO (dr .-япон. the celestial young man), poslanets celestial godhood Amaterasu on ground. Having grown fond of the daughter of the goddess of ground, has not returned on heavens and has been killed by a celestial boom.
  • AME-BUT MINAKANUSI, in sintoizme the godhood dividing{separating} the root and ground.
  • AME-BUT TOKOTATI, in sintoizme the godhood who has appeared in the first mythical days of creation by the way of a reed.
  • AME-BUT UDZUME, in Japanese mythology the dancing goddess, praroditelnitsa the priestesses making celebratory sacramentals.
  • AN, mark of airplanes, designed under O.K.Antonova's guiding and in the KB of his{its} name. Among them "Ruslan", "Mrija".
  • AN CHUNGYN (1879-1910), the figure of the Korean national-liberation motion. With 1905 participat in guerilla extirpation against Japanese colonialists. Has hereinafter followed the road a personal terror. Has killed the Japanese general resident in Korea H.Ito. It is executed.
  • ANABASINE, alkaloid of a plant a cockspur leafless sets of a goosefoot family; it is contained also in tobacco. On chemical constitution and physiological action it is close to nicotine.
  • ANABASIS, the same, that a cockspur.
  • ANABAPTISTS (from grech. anabaptizo - again I dip, i.e. I baptize for the second time) (perekreshchentsy), participants of radical sectarian motion of age of Reformation of 16 century, primarily in Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands. Demanded secondary baptism (at an age of reason), negated church hierarchy, condemned oof, invoked for introduction of a generality of property. Participat in Country war 1524-26, have formed Mjunsterskuju a commune 1534-35; are routed. Separate elements of the doctrine of anabaptists went in the dogmatist of some Protestant sects.
  • ANABAR, the river in Yakutia. 939 kms, the area of basin of 100 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 610 m3 / with. Runs into m. Laptevyh. In a mouth it is affluent a fish (a vendace, an omul).
  • ANABARSKY the BAY, in a western part in m. Laptevyh. Length of 67 kms, width of 76 kms, depth from 3 up to 12 m. In the south passes in Anabarskuju a lip.
  • ANABARSKY the MASS, a projection dokembrijskogo the base in a north of the Siberian ramp, folded basically arhejskimi (over 3,5 billion flying) gneises, slates, less often marbles. Developments gland, micas, a titanium.
  • ANABARSKOE the PLATEAU, on north-east of Central Siberian plateau. An altitude up to 905 m. In valleys larch-forests, are higher mountain than tundra.
  • ANABASY (sliding bars), a stem of fishes of order okuneobraznyh. Length 10-25 see 10 kinds{views}, in fresh water reservoirs JUzh. Asia and the Philippine islands. Are capable to breath free air and to travel with the help of fins overland.
  • ANABIOSIS (from grech. anabiosis - revival), a condition of an organism at which zoetic processes are sharply retarded that promotes his{its} survival in adverse conditions of temperature, humidity, etc. The Anabiosis is distributed for animal, plants and microorganisms. For some organisms enters into a normal evolutionary cycle (seeds, spores, cysts).
  • ANABOLISM (from grech. anabole - rise) (assimilation), set{combination} of chemical processes in a living organism, directed on education and updating of structural parts of cells and tissues. Compounds{makes} counter to a katabolism the party of a metabolism and consists of synthesis of complicated molecules from more simple with accumulation of power. The most important process of an anabolism having epicyclic value, - a photosynthesis.
  • ANAGLIFOV COLOUR the METHOD (from grech. anaglyphos - relief), obtaining of the stereoscopic (volumetric) plotting with use of 2 colored plotting in complementary colours, components a stereo pair, considered through raznookrashennye light filters (motley glasses). It is applied primarily to building volumetric case histories in manuals, for a space image of a relief on geographycal and geological maps, etc.
  • ANAGRAM (from grech. anagrammatismos - rearrangement of characters), the word or a word-combination derivated by rearrangement of characters of other word or a word-combination. Are used at building aliases (napr., " Hariton Makentin " from "Antiochus Kantemir"), meet in riddles, charades.
  • ANADROMOUS MIGRATIONS of fishes (from grech. ana - up, dromos - trot race and an armour. migratio - transition, resettlement), motion of migratory fishes primarily Boreal hemisphere (a salmon family, sturgeon, etc.) from seas in the rivers for a spawning; compare. Catadromous migrations.
  • LOWLAND ANADYRSKAJA, on north-east of the Russian Federation, on Chukotka. An altitude up to 100 m. Everywhere permafrost. Thermokarst lakes. Fruticose and travjanokochkarnaja tundra.
  • GULF OF ANADYR, in northwest part Beringova in m. Length of 278 kms, width up to 400 kms, depth up to 105 m. Runs r. Anadyr. A port - Anadyr.
  • ANADYRSKOE the TABLELAND, on north-east of the Russian Federation, on Chukotka. Length ok. 400 kms. An altitude of 1221 m. Mountain tundra.
  • ANADYR, city (with 1965), in the Russian Federation, the centre Chukchi avt. Okroes., a port on coast Anadyrskogo a hall. 16,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). The alimentary enterprises. A study of local lore museum. In area a coal mining, gold; a deer - raising, fishery.
  • ANADYR, the river on north-east of the Russian Federation. 1150 kms, the area of basin of 191 thousand км2. Runs in Anadyrsky a hall. Average discharge of water 1680 m3 / with. In the lower flow fishery. It is navigable from a seconds. Markovo (570 kms).
  • ANAZAT, unprivileged estates (peasants, town-dwellers) in rannefeodalnoj Armenia.
  • ANAKARDIEVYE, the same, that sumahovye.
  • ANAKARDIUM, the same, that cashews.
  • ANACONDAS, a stem the snake of a set of boas. Length up to 11,4 m (it is routine 5-6 м). 4 kinds{views}, in tropics Juzh. America, on coasts of the rivers, lakes and bogs. Well float and dive. Eat different vertebrates, assault and domestic animals; to the person are not hazardous. JAjtsezhivorodjashchi.
  • ANAKREONT (Anakreon) (ok. 570-478 up to n. e.), the ancient greek poet - lirik; motives of leveled, meaningly cultivated{incubated} enjoying by sensual pleasures of life prevail{dominate}; an emotional background - hardships of an old age and a presentiment of mors. Mimesis Anakreontu has generated anakreonticheskuju poetry of serotinal{late} antiquity, Revitalization and Enlightenment. In Russia anakreonticheskie verses wrote M.V.Lomonosov, G.R.Derzhavin, K.N.Batyushkov, A.S.Pushkin.
  • ANAKREONTICHESKAJA POETRY, see in an item. Anakreont.
  • ANAKRUSA (from grech. anakrusis, characters. - a repulsion), metric a weak place (see. The strong place and a weak place) in the beginning of a verse before first iktom; routinely it happens permanent volume (1 syllable in jambe and amfibrahii, 2 syllables in anapeste), but vicissitude anakrusy is possible{probable} also (" the Mermaid sailed on the river the light-blue,/lit up full moon... ", M.J.Lermontov). On anakrusu superschematic shocking often drops.
  • ANAKSAGOR from Klazomen in M.Azii (ok. 500-428 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher. Has put forward the doctrine about not blasted elements - "seeds" of things (after called gomeomerijami). A driving principle of the world order - mind{wit} (nus), organizing elements.
  • ANAKSIMANDR (ok. 610 - after 547 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, the representative miletskoj schools, the writer of the first philosophical composition in the Grecian tongue " About a nature ". Pupil Falesa. Has created a geocentric model of cosmos, the first geographical map. Has stated idea about an origin of the person " from animal other kind{view} " (fishes).
  • ANAKSIMEN (6 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, the representative miletskoj schools. Pupil Anaksimandra. Pervonachalom all was considered{counted} with air, from a bodying and which rarefactions arise all things.
  • ANALGEZIRUJUSHCHIE the MEANS (from grech. analgesia - absence of a pain, immunity), the medicinal substances removing or reducing a pain; drug analgezirujushchie a means - Omnoponum, Promedolum, etc., not drug analgezirujushchie a means - pyramidon, Analginum, etc.
  • ANALGESIA, anaesthetization; see. An anaesthesis, Narcosis.
  • ANALEPTICHESKIE the MEANS (from grech. analepsis - restoration), the medicinal substances challenging respiratory and vasomotor centers of a medulla oblongata (Cordiaminum, Corazolum, etc.).
  • The ANALYSIS (from grech. analysis - decomposition), 1) a partition (imaginary or substantial) object on elements; the analysis is inextricably related with synthesis (connection of elements in a unit). 2) the Synonym of scientific probe generally. 3) In formal logic - refinement of the logic form (structure) of reasoning.
  • The ANALYSIS of the NOTE, decomposition of the composite note on a number{series} of simple waves. 2 kinds{views} of the analysis of a note are possible{probable}: frequency - on frequencies of his{its} wave constituents, and temporary, founded on study of change of a signal in time.
  • The EVALUATOR in optician, the device for definition of character of polarization of light (a polarization prism, a polaroid, etc.).
  • EVALUATORS, in biology - the composite systems of sensing nervous educations accepting and parsing irritations, operational on animal and the person. Ensure adaptive organism responses to changes external and an internal environment. Each evaluator will consist from peripheric, or accepting, a department - a receptor (all sense bodys - an eye, an ear, etc.), a conduction part and the maximum nerve centers over bark a brain. The term is entered by I.P.Pavlovym in 1909.
  • ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, section of geometry in which properties of geometrical modes{images} (points, lines, surfaces) are established{set} by a means of algebra through a method of coordinates, i.e. by study of properties of equations which schedules{charts} these modes{images} are. In an analytical geometry lines (surface) of 1-st and 2-nd orders are investigated. Lines (surface) of 1-st order - direct (planes); among lines (surfaces) of 2-nd order - ellipses, hyperbolas, parabolas (ellipsoids, hyperboloids, paraboloids). An analytical geometry for the first time has stated in 1-st floor. 17 century. R.Dekart.
  • " ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY " (complex{integrated} psychology), direction of depth psychology, founded K.G.Jungom in 1913. Which integration - a path{route} to achievement of a wholeness of the personality, its{her} individuations proceeds from comprehension of psychics as independent{autonomous} self-regulating system, founded on a cancellation of consciousness and unconscious. Has exerted influence psychopathology and a psychotherapy, and also philosophical anthropology, a history of crop, etnologiju, mythology, etc. The International society of analytical psychology (with 1958) and year-book "Eranos" (with 1933 - in Zurich), " the Log-book of analytical psychology " (with 1955 - in the London).
  • ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY, direction western, primarily Anglo-American, philosophy of 20 century; reduces philosophy to the analysis of predominary tongue means of knowledge; a version neopozitivizma. Basic currents: 1) the philosophy of the logic analysis using the apparatus of the modern mathematical logic, - logic empiricism (R.Karnap, K.Gempel, F.Frank) and a logic pragmatism (U.Kuajn, N.Goodman); 2) linguistic philosophy.
  • ANALYTIC FUNCTION, function which can be submitted{shown} in some range an ascending power series. The majority of the functions meeting in mathematics and its{her} appendices, - analytic functions. The theory of analytic functions - the major part of a function theory complex{integrated} variable.
  • The ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, considers principles and methods of definition of chemical composition of substance. Actuates a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis. The analytical chemistry has arisen alongside with an inorganic chemistry before other chemical sciences (up to kon. 18 century the chemistry was determined as the science investigator chemical composition of substances). In 2-nd floor. 17 century. R.Bojl has entered concept of the analysis of structure of bodies, has put in pawn a fundamentals of an analytical chemistry as sciences. Application is typical of an analytical chemistry not only traditional chemical (gravimetric analysis, titrimetric analysis), but also physico-chemical (napr., electrochemical methods of the analysis, the photometric analysis) and physical (spectral analysis, akrevatsionnyj the analysis, etc.) methods, and also bioassay techniques, founded on study of reaction of microorganisms on environmental changes of their habitation.
  • ANALYTICAL ACCOUNTS{INVOICES}, accounts{invoices} in which objects of book keeping are in details reflected; see. Analytical accounting.
  • ANALYTICAL TONGUES, phylum of tongues, in which grammar values express not forms of words (as in synthetic tongues), and primarily linkwords, a word order, intonation, etc. Tongues concern To analytical tongues English, French, Bulgarian, etc.
  • ANALYTICAL ACCOUNTING, the system of account entries producing a detailed information on motion of an economic means; is under construction separately under each synthetic account{invoice}. As against the synthetic count it is conducted not only in cost, but also in natural parameters.
  • The ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION, the expression, truth or which falsehood can be established{installed} extremely on the basis of the analysis his{its} grammar or a logic structure. Examples of true analytical expressions - logic laws.
  • ANALOGOUS ORGANS, in biology - are similar for organisms of miscellaneous regular groups on executed{designed} function, but have a different origin and unequal interior (napr., a wing of a bird and the butterfly, a digging extremity of a changa and a mole).
  • ANALOGY, in linguistics - the likening called by influence of one elements of tongue, generatrix more productive and more widespread a model, on the bound with them other elements of tongue. Napr., the Russian form of a genitive epizooty of a singular of "son" instead of the aged form of a genitive epizooty "son" was advanced under influence of forms such as "table", "slave".
  • ANALOGY, in the right - the sanction court of any event which directly has been not settled by the law, by application of the rule of law regulating similar on character attitudes{relations} (legal analogy) or on the basis of general legal principles (analogy of the right). As a rule, it is supposed in unusual cases at the sanction of civil, administrative and labour businesses.
  • ANALOGY (grech. analogia - correspondence, similarity), similarity of subjects (the phenomena, processes) in any properties. The conclusion by analogy - the knowledge received{obtained} from consideration of any object, is tolerated on less studied, similar on essential properties, qualities object; such conclusions - one of sources of scientific hypotheses. Analogy real, analogy of life (an armour. analogia entis), - one of philosophy of roman catholic scholasticism; justifies a capability of knowledge of life of the god from life of the world created by him{it}.
  • ANALOG COMPUTER (AVM), the computing circuit for reproduction (simulation) of fixed ratios between continuously changed physical quantities (machine variables) - analogs conforming initial{starting} variable a decided problem. Are most distributed electronic AVM in which machine variables electric pressures and currents minister, and required ratios are modelled by the physical processes weeping in electric circuits.
  • BREASTWORK (from grech. analogeion - a support for books), in orthodox tserkvah a high support on which at worship service put for reading church books, put icons and a cross.
  • ANAL APERTURE (a fundament, an anal orifice), an aperture of a final part of the alimentary canal, serving for removal from an organism of undigested residues of nutrition.
  • ANALCIME, mineral of subclass of tectosilicates (group of zeolites), Na [AlSi2О6] .2H2О. White, grey, pink crystals. Hardness 5,5-6,0; firmness of 2,2-2,3 g / sm3. By origin hydrothermal, less often magmatic.
  • ANAMNESIS (from grech. anamnesis - memory), set{combination} of cramps on a course of a disease, the living conditions, the transferred diseases, etc., collected{plucked} with the purpose of their use for the diagnosis, the forecast, treatment, prophylaxis.
  • ANAMNII, the lowest pervichnovodnye animal: Cyclostoma, fishes, amphibian. As against amniot, during an embryogenesis for anamny do not arise an embryonic membrane - an amnion and a special germinal organ - an allantois. Are connected in the existence to an aqueous medium.
  • ANAMORFIROVANIE (from grech. anamorphoo - I convert), change of proportions of the plotting is routine on width or an altitude at a photo and filming or a projection. Implements with the help anamorfotnoj baits (napr., a cylinder lens, a mirror), established{set} before a lens taking or a projector, or by means of the relative{mutual} axial pitch of a lens and a plane of a subject (plotting). It is applied primarily in wide-screen kino (at filming the plotting is squeezeed, and at a projection accordingly extends).
  • ANAMORPHOSIS (grech. аna - on, over and morfe - the form), effect of imposing{superposition} of one graphic motive on other, their visual interflow, napr., a sea wave and drawing of a stone, a human body and a wood trunk. It is characteristic both for a nature, and for art (was especially popular in manjerizme and surrealism).
  • PINEAPPLE, stem of grasses of a set of a pineappele family. 5 kinds{views}, in tropical America. Soft, large (occasionally up to 15 kg), sweet-sour, incense compound fruits are edible. Cultivate from an antiquity, primarily in tropics. From leaves of some pineapples receive a fiber{filament}.
  • ANAND (Anand) Vishvanatan (r. 1969), first in India the international grandmaster on chess (1988). The world champion among young men (1987). The claimant for world superiority{championship}; the participant of a world-title match from G.K.Kasparovym (1995, New York, 7,5:10,5). The winner of some large international tournaments and matches.
  • ANAND Mulk Radzh (r. 1905), the indian writer, the public figure. Writes in English. Novels "Kuli" (1936), " the Sword and the Sickle " (1942), the autobiographical trilogy " Seven flying " (1951), " the Choir of a dawn " (1964), " the Confession in love " (1976) are directed against vestiges of a colonialism. The international premium of World advice{council} of the world (1952).
  • ANAND, the valid guide and the pupil of the Buddha, the legendary writer Buddhist canonical sutr.
  • ANANDAVARDHANA, the indian theorist of the literature (pribl. 9 century). Wrote on a Sanskrit. Aesthetic tract "Dhvanjaloka".
  • ANANIASHVILI Nina Gedevanovna (r. 1963), the Russian actress of ballet, the national actress of the Russian Federation. With 1981 at Major theatre. Has executed main consignments in ballets "Nutcracker", " the Latent beauty " P.I.Chajkovskogo, " Romeo and Dzhuljetta " S.S.Prokofjeva, "Quixote" A.Minkusa, etc. Goes on tour abroad. The first premium and a golden medal at the fifth International competition of ballet dancers in Moscow (1985). In 1986 has received the maximum award of Grand prix together with A.Liepoj at International competition of ballet dancers in. Jackson (USA).
  • ANANIJA (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, diocesan Damask, baptizing apostle Paul (Particular acts of apostles 9:10-18); the martyr, has suffered in Elevferopole. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on October, 1 (14), in Roman catholic on January, 25.
  • ANANIJA Babylonian (chaldaic name Sedrah) (mind{wit}. 529 or 522 up to n. e.), one of three jewish young men of a notable origin taken during the babylonian film to a yard of tsar of Nabuchodonosor; for failure{refusal} to bow to the graven image it is casted together with Azaria and Misailom in the heated furnace, but a wonderful mode{image} has remained safe (the book of the prophet of Daniel 1-3). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 17 (30).
  • ANANIJA Ktezifontsky, Selevkijsky (Persian) (mind{wit}. 344), the martyr, the presbyter damaged in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
  • ANANIJA SHIRAKATSI, the Armenian philosopher, mathematician, the cosmographer (7 century). Natural-science views Ananija SHirakatsi have played a major role histories of the Armenian crop.
  • ANANKE, the guide of the Jove, is open{discovered} by S.Nicholson (the USA, 1951). Distance from the Jove ok. 21 million in km, a diameter ok. 20 kms.
  • ANANKE (Ananka), in the Grecian mythology the goddess - implementation of the indestructible law into a nature. Gods are subject to force Ananke even.
  • ANANTA (sanskr. Infinite), in induistskoj mythologies the snake swimming in waters of space ocean; on rings of this snake reclines Vishnu. Other name - SHesha.
  • ANANEV, city (with 1834) on Ukraine, the Odessa region, in 15 kms from zh.-d. An item. ZHerebkovo. 10,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises, manufacture of a building materials, etc. It is known with 1767 as cossack large village Anan.
  • ANANEV Anatoly Andreevich (r. 1925), the Russian writer. The hero Socialist Transactionses (1984). Stories, stories on themes of religion, sketches. Roman " Tanks go a rhomb " (1963) about Great Domestic war, " Versts of love " (1971), " Years without war " (kn. 1-3, 1975-81), " Tablets and an alloying basket " (kn. 1, 1989). The managing editor of the log-book "October" (with 1973).
  • ANANEV Boris Gerasimovich (1907-72), the Russian psychologist, the full member of NPA of the USSR (1968). Transactionses on probe of sensations, sensual knowledge, internal speech, and also age and differentiated psychology.
  • ANANINSKAJA CROP (in archeology) the Iron Age (8-3 centuries up to n. e.), in basins of mean Volga and Kama; the title on d. Ananjino in Tatarii. Gorodishcha and burials. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, a hunt, fishery, metallurgy.
  • ANANICH Boris Vasiljevich (r. 1931), the Russian historian, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on economy of Russia kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries, to a source study; to the issuing of sources.
  • ANAPA, city (with 1846) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr. Nursery climatic and balneogrjazevoj a health resort on coast of Black m. A depot. 56,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). A food-processing industry, prjadilno-weaving mill, etc. In 4-3 centuries up to n. e. At-sight Anapa - antique. Gorgippija, on which pipettings - a museum open-air.
  • ANAPEST (from grech. anapaistos - revertive to a dactyl, characters. - reflected back), the poetic meter formed by the 3-composite autopodiums, with the strong a mestome on 3-rd syllable (the AND-circuit And-); on an initial syllable of a line often superschematic shocking (" THERE, in a night howling icy cold ", A.A.Blok). The dimensions Russian sillabo-tonic anapesta - 4-and 3-стопный are most common (with it is grey. 19 century).
  • ANAPLASMOSISES, invazionnye diseases animal, primarily the ruminantia, called by parasites of blood - anaplazmami. Symptoms: an anaemia, an exhausting.
  • ANAR (a full name and fam. Anar Rasul ogly Rzaev) (r. 1938), the Azerbaijan writer. In prose - social - moral conflicts of duties of urban life. Collections of stories and stories: " Pending a holiday " (1963), " the Rain "Molla Nasreddin - 66" (1970) has ceased " (1968), "Circle" (1973); the novel " the Sixth level of a five-floor house " (1980), etc.
  • ANARCHISM (from grech. anarhia - anarchy), political flow which supported immediate destruction of any government (in outcome of "spontaneous", natural clamp of masses) and building of federation of small-sized independent{autonomous} producers associations, denied a political struggle. The anarchism has developed in 40-70-Х of 19 century in Zap. To Europe. Main ideologists were M.Shtirner, P.Prudon, M.A.Bakunin, P.A.Kropotkin. In Russia in 19 century of idea of anarchism have found reflectance in theory and practice of revolutionary populism in activity of different anarchist groups within Revolution 1905-07 and especially within the Civil war (see in an item. N.I.Mahno).
  • ANARCHO-SYNDICALISM, flow in the working-class movement, were under influence of anarchism. Considered{counted} as the maximum form of organization of workers trade unions (in French - syndicates; from here syndicalism) to which should proceed{pass} production assets. Supported "direct acting" tactics (sabotage, boycott, an economic strike and, as " the maximum form " extirpation, overall economic strike). The greatest distribution{propagation} has received in nach. 20 century.
  • ANASTASEVICH Vasily Grigorjevich (1775-1845), the Russian bibliographer; emitted the log-book "Beehive" (in N1, 1811, article Anastasevicha " About the bibliography "). Has constituted "paintings" of libraries of V.A.Plavilshchikova and A.F.Smirdina, be valuable as indexes{indicators} of the Russian literature of 1-st third of 19 century.
  • ANASTASIEVSKO-TROITSKOE the DEPOSIT petrogas condensate, in Slavyansk area Krasnodar kr. (Severo-Kavkazsko-Mangyshlakskaja an oil-and-gas-bearing province). It is open{discovered} in 1953. Depth of 1,5-2,0 kms. Flush production of petroleum in chinks 14-45 t/sut. Firmness of 0,83-0,91 g / sm3, content S of 0,15-0,25 %. Gas methanoic.
  • ANASTASY I (ok. 430-518), the byzantian emperor with 491. Has facilitated an incidence of taxation of cities, has improved moneys. Sustained monofisitov. Has suppressed the revolts (513-515) headed commanding federatov Vitalianom.
  • ANASTASY SINAIT (7 century), the Christian seminary student, the prior of a Sinaitic monastery over. Ekaterina. The writer polemic transactionses the "Guidebook" dedicated the disproof of different heretical doctrines. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 20, in Roman catholic - on April, 21.
  • ANASTASY Uglichskaja (mind{wit}. 1609), igumenja, prepodobnomuchenitsa, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
  • ANASTASEV Nikolay Arkadjevich (r. 1940), the Russian critic, the literary critic. The professor of the Moscow State University. The main{basic} orb of interests: the American literature of 20 century, V.V.Nabokova's creativity. Books: "Folkner" (1976), " Disappointments and hopes " (1979), " Updating of tradition: realism of 20 century in confrontation with a modernism " (1984), "Vladimir Nabokov" (1991), etc.
  • ANASTIGMAT (from grech. an - a negative particle and an astigmatism), the most perfect lens in which are corrected an astigmatism, curvature of an image field, a coma, orbicular and chromatic aberrations. Apply primarily in photographic and cine cameras.
  • ANASTOMOSIS (from grech. anastomosis - an aperture, an output) (anastomosis), 1) for animal and the person the spurious branch (channel) bridging vessels, nerves, lead-out ducts, hollow organs. A synthetic anastomosis impose an operating way. 2) For higher plants connection of conducting bundles in leaves, clusters of stalks, etc. structures. 3) For mushrooms connection or knitting of hyphas of a mycelium reported among themselves.
  • ANAT, in zapadnosemitskoj mythologies the goddess of a hunt and war. Cult Anat giksosskogo domination has penetrated into the season{term} in Other. Egypt where she was honored as daughter Ra.
  • ANATASE, mineral of subclass of simple oxides, one of polymorphic updatings TiO2, impurity{additives} Fe, Zn, Nb. Chartreuse, grey up to black crystals. Hardness ok. 6; firmness ok. 3,9 g / sm3. At calefaction up to 915 °S passes in rutile. A secondary accessory mineral in gneises, granites, etc.
  • ANATEKSIS (from grech. anatexis - fusion), process of the partial fusion of rocks and their metamorphosis{transformation} into a magma.
  • ANATOXIN (from grech. ana--back and a toxin), the bacterial toxins neutralized by special machining, but keeping antigenic properties (see. Antigens). Apply to an immunization against a diphtheria, a tetanus, etc. infections.
  • ANATOLIAN AGENCY (Anadolu Ajansi), news agency in Turkey. It is based in 1920, Ankara. The joint-stock company subsidized by government.
  • ANATOLIAN TABLELAND, in Turkey, interior Maloaziatskogo of a mountains; it is limited to mountains Taurus mountains (in the south) and Pontijskimi (in a north). Prevailing{dominating} altitudes of 800-1500 m. Solonchaks and brine lakes (the Ace, etc.). Steppes and semideserts.
  • ANATOLY (grech. Anatole, characters. - the orient, mountain goat. Anadolu), in an antiquity M.Azii's title; in Ottoman empire the title of a province in the west M.Azii with the centre in Kjutahje; since 20th of 20 century the title of the Asian part of Turkey.
  • ANATOMY (from grech. anatome - a dissection), science about a structure (predominary internal) an organism, section of structural botany. Distinguish an animal anatomy and a plant anatomy. Do-it-yourself are anthropotomy (with its{her} main{basic} sections - a normal anatomy and a pathological anatomy) and a comparative anatomy animal. Founders of an animal anatomy and the person in the antique season{term} - Aristotel, K.Galen, the modern anatomy - A.Vezaly and U.Garvej.
  • ANAU, residues ancient (5 thousand - 4 century up to n. e.) agricultural settlements for a seconds. Anau about Ashkhabad, given the title to crop of epoch eneolita. Residues of home units, painted vessels, metal instruments, etc.
  • ANATHEMA (grech. anathema), in christianity a church damnation, excommunication.
  • ANAPHYLAXIS (from grech. ana--against and phylaxis - protection), a kind{view} of an allergic response of immediate type (see. An allergy). Developments: general - an anaphylactic shock, a serum disease; aboriginal - an inflammation, a dropsy, sometimes a necrosis of a tissue.
  • ANAPHORA (grech. anaphora, characters. - rendition), a stylistic figure; repetition of initial parts (notes, words, syntactical or rhythmic constructions) adjacent cuttings of speech (words, lines, stanzas, phrases): " City the rank, city poor... " (A.S.Pushkin).
  • ANAHEIM (Anaheim), city in the west the USA, pieces. California. 266 thousand inhabitants (1990). Airspace-rocket, radio electronic, chemical, plodokonservnaja an industry. Center of tourism (in Anaheim - Park " Disneyland ").
  • ANAHIT (Anait), in the Armenian mythology goddess - mother, the goddess of fertility and love.
  • The ANCHORITE (grech. anachoretes), pustynnik, a hermit.
  • ANAHROMAT, a lens in which chromatic aberrations are not removed; gives the sharp plotting only in homogeneous light.
  • ANACHRONISM (from grech. ana--back, against and chronos - time), 1) an error against chronology, reference of any event, the phenomena to other time. 2) the Going entering into the plotting of any epoch extrinsic to her of fig. 3) the Vestige of olden time.
  • MEPHITIC GANGRENE, see. A gas gangrene.
  • ANAEROBES (anaerobic organisms), are capable to live in absence of atmospheric oxygen; some kinds{views} of bacteria, yeast, Protozoa, worms. Energia for vital activity receive, oxidizing organic, less often inorganic matters without sharing{participation} loose oxygen or using power of light (napr., purple bacteria). Obligate, or stringent, anaerobes develop only in absence of oxygen (napr., klostridii), optional, or conditional, anaerobes - and in his{its} presence (napr., a coliform bacillus, ciliary infusoriums). Are eurysynusic in soil, water, in ground deposits. Compare. Aerobes.
  • ENGAGEMENT (frants. engagement - the obligation, hire) (ustar.), the invitation of the actor on known time for sharing{participation} in performances or concerts.
  • HANGAR (frants. hangar), a structure for a storage, engineering service and repair of airplanes and helicopters.
  • HANGAR, the river on southwest Vost. Siberia, dextral, most abounding in water in-leak{influx} of Yenisei. 1779 kms, the area of basin of 1040 thousand км2. Escapes from an eskar. Baikal; from a headstream on a large part of stretch it is transformed{turned into} into the cascade of water reservoirs. Average discharge of water in a mouth 5100 m3 / with. Main inflow: Irkut, White, Oka, Taseeva - at the left, Ylym - on the right. It is navigable from a headstream (with rests for hydroelectric dams). On Angara - Irkutsk, Brotherly, Ust-Ilimskaja, is under construction (1994) Boguchanskaja a river plant; Irkutsk, Angarsk, Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, etc.
  • HANGAR UPPER, see the Upper Angara.
  • The ANGARY (frants. angarie, from grech.), in the international law - capture by the belligerent states of merchant ships of neutral{inert} countries located in their ports for use in the military purposes. The Hague conventions 1907 have recognized the angary as gross violation of neutrality.
  • ANGARO-PITSKY IRON-PRODUCING AREA in the Russian Federation, in the south of Krasnoyarsk kr. It is open{discovered} in 1946. Deposits primary - sedimental metamorfizovannyh hematite ores: Nizhneangarskoe, Ishimbinskoe, Udorongovskoe. Known reserves trudnoobogatimyh hematite ores 855 million t with content Fe of 40 %.
  • ANGARSK, city (with 1951) in the Russian Federation, Irkutsk region, landing stage on r. Angara. A depot. 268,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). An industry: oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, machine-building, wood-working, a building materials. An institute of technology.
  • ANGAS (the self-title - kerang), people in Nigeria. Number of 250 thousand person (1992). Tongue angas. Believers - moslems - sunnity, the part holds on to traditional convictions.
  • ANGASSKIE TONGUES, see. CHadskie tongues.
  • ANGELINA Praskovja Nikitichna (1912/13-1959), the organizer of the first women tractor brigade in the USSR in 1933, doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1947, 1958). The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • ANGELOPULOS (Angelopоulos) Teo (r. 1936), the Grecian film director. On education the lawyer. At kino started in the capacity of criticism. As the producer in a metaphorical key develops themes substantial and legendary past Greeces. The main premium of the Venetian film festival for experimental film ("Alexander the Great", 1988); the Silver prize of the Venetian festival (" the Landscape in a fog{mist} ", 1988); the Major premium of jury of the Cannes festival (" View Ulissa ", 1995).
  • ANGELUS SILEZIUS (Angelus Silesius - " the Bulletin from Silesia ", an ice-film. Name Iogann SHefler, Scheffler), the german poet - mistik, the writer " Heruvimskogo the wanderer " (1657) - books of the thoughtful poetic aphorisms summing ideas of german mysticism from Ekharta up to Beme.
  • ANGELS (from grech. angelos - the bulletin), in judaic, Christian, Muslim mythologies bodiless entities, intermediarys between the god and people.
  • ANGELS, a dynasty of the byzantian emperors in 1185-1204, founder Isaak II; in 1204-1318 dynasty of governors of the state Epirskogo.
  • ANGEMITONNYJ ZVUKORJAD (angemitonika, bespolutonovyj zvukorjad), see. Pentatonika.
  • ANHYDRIDES, the chemical combinations, derivative inorganic and the organic acids, generatrix at their dehydration. Napr., SO3 - an anhydride the chamois, (CH3CO) 2O - an anhydride acetic acids.
  • ANHYDRITE, 1) a mineral of a class of sulphates, Ca [SO4]. Tv. 3,5-3,8; firmness of 2,9-3 g / sm3. Hydrating, passes in gypsum. A sedimental, hydrothermal mineral. A binder, fertilizer, raw material for obtaining sulfuric acid. An ornamental stone. 2) the Sedimentary rock, will consist basically of a mineral of an anhydrite. Apply as fertilizer, cement, etc.
  • ANGY (Aggy, Agny) Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • ANGILEJKO Feodor, the Byelorussian xylographer. Worked in 1700-03 at M.J.Voshchanki's printing house in Mogilyov (books " Irmolaj sirech Osmoglasnik John Damascene ", 1700; "Horologion", 1703).
  • QUINSY (an armour. angina, characters. - an asthma), the acute contagion defined by an inflammation primarily of palatine tonsils. Causal organisms predominary strepto-and staphylococcuses. A pharyngalgia at a swallowing, a fervescence. Are possible{probable} aboriginal (abscess) and general (a defeat of joints, hearts, kidneys, etc.) complications.
  • ANGIO... (from grech. angeion - a vessel), the part of the composite words meaning: relating vessels, vascular system (the person, animal, plants), napr. A vasomotor spasm.
  • ANGIOGRAPHY (from angio... And... grafija), a method of a X-ray inspection blood and lymph vessels after introduction in them of radiopaque substance.
  • ANGIOLOGY (from angio... And... logija), sections of anatomy and the clinical medicine, investigator blood both lymph vessels and their diseases.
  • ANGIOMA (from angio... And... An ohm), a benign tumour from blood (hemangioma) or lymphatic (lymphangioma) of vessels.
  • VASOMOTOR SPASM (from angio... And a spasm), the spasm of arterioles aggravating a blood supply of an organ (tissue), napr. At a stenocardia.
  • ANGIOTENSIN (Hypertensinum, an angiotensin), a hormone (peptid) which is generatrix in blood animal and the person. In structure the renin - angiotenzionnoj of system adjusts{regulates} arterial pressure and a water-salt exchange of an organism, boosts a secretion of Aldosteronum, Prostaglandinums, etc. hormones.
  • ANGIRAS, vedijsky a wise man - rishi, one of mythical writers "Rigvedy".
  • ANGIRASY, vedijskie godhoods - the bulletins singing songs; promoters of poets. Children Angirasa.
  • ANGKOR, a grandiose complex of temples, palaces, water reservoirs and channels bliz. Siemreap (Cambodia), sooruzhen in 9-13 centuries. Ruins of capitals Jashodharapura were saved (it is based in kon. 9 century) and Angkor-Thom (kon. 12 century - 1432, square in the plan, the area over 9 км2, central temple Bajon), stone pedestals of wooden palaces, "temples - mountains" by the way stepwise pyramids, including the largest Angkor-cottons (ok. 1113-50), with affluent sculptural registration.
  • ANGLEZ (frants. anglaise; danse anglaise - the English dance), non-proprietary name of the national English dances distributed in other countries of Europe in 17-19 centuries.
  • ANGLESITE, mineral of a class of sulphates, Pb [SO4]. Colourless, svetlookrashennye crystals, acinose masses. Hardness 3-3,5; firmness ok. 6,4 g / sm3. Basically hypergenic, hydrothermal. Ore of lead.
  • The ENGLISH REVOLUTION of 17 century, the first revolution of an european scale. An ideological banner of revolutionary opposition absoljutizmu has become puritanizm (see. Puritans), and its{her} organizational registration - parliament. During 1-st (1642-46) and 2-nd (1648) civil wars between adherents of Long parliament and royalists the parliamentary army built by O.Cromwell has plotted decisive defeat of royal army of Charles I Stjuarta at Nejzbi (1645) and Preston (1648). King has been executed (1649); the republic is professed. A prevailing rule{situation;position} in her have taken independenty which have routed motions levellerov and diggers, have suppressed liberation extirpation of irish and Scottish peoples. In 1653 military dictatorship - Cromwell protectorate is established{installed}. In 1660 restoral Stjuartov is carried out, agreed to recognize the main{basic} seizures of revolution (including the actual statement{confirmation} of a private property on ground). A coup d'etat 1688-89 (t. n. Nice{Famous} revolution) has consolidated access of bourgeoisie to state власти.* * *АНГЛИЙСКАЯ REVOLUTION of 17 century, social-political tumble 1640-60-Х in the Great Britain, accompanied with civil wars, an overthrow of the monarchy, establishment of republic and the protectorate. Premises and the beginning of revolution At the end of 16 - the beginning of 17 century in England descends a snowballing of an economy, first of all in agrarian range. Tjudorovskie reforms have reduced in concentration of ground in arms{hand} of " money people " - village noblemen - dzhentri and masters of manufactories. A fencing communal ugody with the purpose of cultivation ovets both trade in a wool and meat gave them profit and at the same time deprived with a source of existence of the poorest peasants which supplemented numbers{series} of unemployed. In village the large capitalist lease of ground was distributed, there was the considerable interlayer of farmers. Interests of these new layers of a society came in the contravention with the feudal law and subordination of land possessions in the capacity of knightly derzhanija to king. In an industry there are essential changes in forms of organization and divisions of labour, the manufactory develops. The commercial production is still closely related with an agriculture, due to this there is a close union of bourgeoisie with new nobility - dzhentri. These numerous village hosts who simultaneously were both businessmen, and industrialists, will derivate main opposition force to a ruling mode. Their grievance strengthens at kings of dynasty Stjuartov - Jacob I (1603-25) and Charles I (1625-49) which board is noted by crisis English absoljutizma. The English monarchy leaning{basing} on aristocracy, feudal nobility and anglican church, for refill of treasury distributes monopolies to extension{issue} of the goods that the industrial development and trade inhibits{brakes} and displeases. For extirpation with dissatisfied the corona introduces extraordinary courts of Sidereal chamber and the High commission. The opposition of a monarchy expresses first of all in the protest against its{her} ideological support - anglican church. In 16 century among new classes the spiritual movement puritanizma (from English pure - clear), aspiring{trying} to refinement of church from expensive solemnities and ordinances, from an authority of diocesans, from the spiritual courts starts. A major role the English transfer{translation} of the Bible clandestinely imported from Geneva has played. Alongside with a calvinist presbyterian church there is a flock of nonconformist sects and the motions integrated by non-proprietary name "independenty" (independent) .V 1628 parliamentary opposition has stated the requests in "Petition of right". In the answer Charles I has dispersed parliament and during 11 flying of regulations privately-owned with the help of the favorites - column Strafforda, the viceroy of Ireland, and archbishop U.Loda. He without the consent of parliament established{set} new taxes, fines and requisitions. In 1639 Scotland dissatisfied with approach to its{her} rights and the religious liverty, started war against England. For raising of money on management of war Charles I has been compelled to call all over again Short (on April, 13 - on May, 5 1640), and then Long parliament. Last it was discovered on November, 3 1640 and at once has put forward a number{series} of decisive requests to king. This time is considered the beginning of the English revolution. The program of burzhuazno-nobiliary opposition was contained in " Petitions about roots and branches ", requiring of destruction episkopata (December 1640), and " Great remonstratsii " (December 1641). In performance{fulfillment} its{her} parliament has abolished courts of Sidereal chamber and the High commission in July 1641, has cancelled the arbitrary taxes. In May 1641 the court above graph Straffordom starts. Under pressure broad broad masses Charles I has signed the death sentence to the favorite who has been executed on May, 12 1641. In October revolt in Ireland against domination of Englishmen starts. In January 1642 Charles I attempts to arrest five leaders of parliamentary opposition, but people covers them in the London City. In the beginning 1642 king leaves north-up and starts to collect a troops. The parliament accepts " Nineteen proposals " to king where demands an accretion of power of parliament, but king denies them and on August, 22 1642 declares war to parliament; the civil war starts. The first civil war On the party of parliament inhabitants of more developed eastern counties have acted basically. Firstly they suffered defeats from impacts royal konnitsy. Parliamentary generals escaped decisive actions; the parliament, the majority in which compounded{made} presviteriane, aspired{tried} to the compromise with Charles I. In 1643 he has concluded Solemn League and Kovenant with Scotland, in England the presbyterian church device is introduced. At the same time Cromwell starts to create regular parliamentary army. On June, 2 1644 she puts to a royalist troops a serious defeat at Marston-mess. On January, 11 1645 parliament signs the certificate{act} about a formation of an army of the New sample which actual Cromwell becomes the chapter. On June, 11 1645 royalists are finally battered at Nejzbi. Charles I ran north-up and was handed in a film to Scots. On February, 26 1646 parliament emits the revolutionary certificate{act} about cancellation of royal trusteeship above a land property of citizens; it is unilaterally cancelled feudal knightly derzhanie grounds from king. At the same time medieval responsibilities of peasants in relation to lords are not cancelled. Hereinafter it has reduced in mass expropriation of peasantry. For new proprietors revolution in essence has been concluded. Parliamentary leaders have redeemed king for Scots and carried on from nymas negotiations, achieving establishment of the constitutional monarchy. Motion levellerov and establishment of republic by the Nucleus of the left-handed forces becomes army in which in 1646-47 there is a consignment of political equalisers (levellerov), backed{promoted;supported} small-sized urban proprietors. The ideological basis{fundamentals} of their motion were doctrines of the natural death, people's sovereignty, the public agreement, the right on decrowning of the tyrant. Leaders levellerov John Lilbern, William Uolvin, Richard Overton demand building the democratic laws warranting the rights of people and each separate citizen, democratic freedom, cancellation of a monarchy and a House of Lords, the responsibility of parliament and officials before people, inviolability of a private property. Under their pressure in 1647 the democratic stage of revolution starts: the initiative passes to national bottoms. In shelves agitators which propagandize requests of the consignment are elected. The order of parliament on dissolution of army invokes{produces} the sharp protest. It causes generals, first of all Cromwell and Ferfaksa, to go on a breakage with the presbyterian majority of parliament and to be aggregated with army. Under Cromwell order the order of cavalrymen seizes{catches} king. Officers - independenty draft constitutions - " Chapters of proposals " in which the monarchy and a House of Lords are saved, but the authority of them is monitored elected time in two years parliament; rights of conscience, petitions, collections are introduced; monopolies and limitations in trade are abolished. Levellery offer the draft constitution - " the National agreement ". Main points of it{him} is the overall elective franchise; cancellation of the Crown and a House of Lords; unicameral annually elected parliament; cancellation of monopolies, patents, excises, privileges; incentive forms of the taxation. This constitution together with " Chapters of proposals " was discussed in October - November 1647 in Petni on enlarged session of Advice{Council} of army. On a nem the request for the first time is distributed to invoke Charles I to the answer for the evil caused to country. The compromise to reach{achieve} it was not possible, and Cromwell has dismissed Advice{Council} of army. Levellery attempted to make the protest on all-Army review in Uere, but Cromwell has personally suppressed rebelion. It has strengthened presviteriansko-royalist camp. In November Charles I ran on about. Uajt also has concluded an alliance with Scots. Royalist rebelions in miscellaneous places of England are hoisted. In the spring 1648 the Second civil war starts. Cromwell with "zheleznobokimi" suppresses royalists all over again in Wales, then at Preston. By September 1648 act of war basically are concluded. But the presbyterian parliament starts new negotiations with king, achieving the compromise. It results in rendezvous{approach} of an officer top with levellerami. Under pressure last the army again seizes{catches} king; in December 1648 troops take the London; the order under a command of the colonel of Pride carries out{conducts} cleaning parliament from the presbyterian majority; in a nem there is less than 100 person. In the beginning 1649 House of Commons declares people a source of an authority, and - a supreme organ of country. In January 1649 pass meetings of the Supreme Court of the justice built parliamentary independentami and the maximum officers. Charles accuse of attempt of establishment of tyranny, in destruction of rights and freedoms of people, in bloodshed and high treason. It{him} adjudge to the execution. On January, 30 to 1649 Charles I publicly clip a head on the area before a palace. In England the republic is established{set}. The republic and the protectorate At a new mode for an authority have risen a top of officers and the new noblemen who have been not interested in prolongation of democratic reforms. Their self-interest has been subjected to criticism levellerami. They established deterioration of a rule{situation;position} of people as a result of war and an economic crisis. In April motion " true levellerov ", or "diggers" (diggers) who have started to plough up autocratically public waste grounds in county Surrey, and later and in other places is hoisted. They demanded property and political equality, socialization of ground, a universal labour and destruction of operation. The leader of motion the broken dealer has become Dzherard Uinstenli; He has stated the views in the Utopian tract " the Law of freedom " (1652). Primitive - communist colony of diggers have finally routed in the spring 1650. Political levellery have resolutely kept separate from motion of diggers and in a new wording " the National agreement " in May 1649 have underlined a principle of inviolability of a private property. At the same time, finally having disabused in a capability of nonpredatory reforms, they in May 1649 hoist armed revolt. The army under Cromwell command and Ferfaksa has severely suppressed revolt. By the autumn 1649 last residues levellerskogo motions have been routed. The defeat of democratic forces of revolution has repelled from it{her} broad layers of people. Before "cowtail" of Long parliament there was now a problem to liquidate the locuses of royalist threat with the purpose to consolidate the authority. With this purpose in August 1649 - May 1650 Cromwell with ruthless cruelty conquers Ireland that results in its{her} plunder and enrichment of new proprietors and in the issue promotes restoral of a monarchy. This aggressive share has corrupted Army, having converted her{it} from revolutionary in annexationist and extortionate. The royalist threat went now from Scotland where on February, 5 1649 son Charles I has been professed by king Charles II. Cromwell with the army was directed there and in September 1650 has divided Scots at Denbare, and in September of following year has plotted him{it} a crushing defeat at Worcester. The Scottish army has been deleted completely, king ran and was soon forwarded on continent. Due to Cromwell Anglijskuju's victories the republic was officially recognized by Spain, Sweden, France, Italy and transatlantic colonys. Inside country the rule{situation;position} remained heavy. England was broken with poor harvests, fall of manufacture, reduction of trade, unemployment. New masters of ground derogated from of the right of peasants. Country required reform of the right and in acceptance of the constitution. In people the grievance grew. In these conditions Cromwell in 1653 accelerates "cowtail" of Long parliament and establishes the new government body, so-called Small, or Berbonsky parliament. His{its} members were appointed as aboriginal congregations " devout people ". They at once attempted to conduct democratic reforms: to codify the legislation, to cancel severe executions, a tithe, system of payoffs, the rent to landlords, etc. It has called sharp grievance of a ruling clique. Under pressure officers the parliament has been compelled samoraspustitsja in December 1653. In December 1653 Cromwell has been professed by lord a tread of England, Scotland and Ireland, and in country the new constitution " the Instrument of steering " is adopted. It agrees to her the maximum life authority Cromwell received; the parliament from 400 person was elected for the period of three years; the voting qualification was high: 200 pounds sterling. The tread commanded armed forces, knew foreign policy, the veto, etc. had the right. The Protectorate was in essence military dictatorship. The parliament convoked in September 1654, attempted to trim an authority of a tread and to revise " the Instrument of steering ". In a result in January 1655 Cromwell has dismissed it{him} and has entered a police mode of majors - generals in country. He has divided{separated} England into 11 districts and in the chapter of each has delivered the privately-owned governor with broad police authorities. Censorship has been again entered. This mode has appeared the extremely unpopular and ruinous. Acknowledgement{confirmation} in 1656 secund cancellations feudal derzhany and continuing a fencing enhanced{strengthened} national grievance. The army did not receive the salaries and loudly murmured. In September 1656 new parliament offers Cromwell " the Lowly petition and Advice{Council} " - the constitution which returned England to the pre-revolutionary form of government: king, lords and communities, and Cromwell appealed for{asked} to accept a corona. Under pressure officers he has refused a corona, but in remaining the constitution has accepted. Restoral Stjuartov on September, 3 1658 Cromwell has died, and the authority has transfered to his{its} son Richardu. The grievance of people was exhibited with new force, and in May 1659 Richard abandons the post{station}. To an authority "cowtail" of Long parliament returns - the Second republic is established{set}. Broad masses have new hopes; will grow a torrent of petitions, pamphlets, designs of constitutions. However "cowtail" appears unfit to introduce country from economic and social crisis, and after lines of coup d'etats in February 1660 in Westminster again are going ejected by Pride presviteriane. A considerable role in it the army of general Monka accommodated in Scotland which has come in the London has played. The long parliament has cancelled all certificates{acts} of "cowtail" adopted since autumn 1648. elections to the Convent have been appointed. At this time Charles II in Holland has emited Bredskuju the declaration where promised amnesty for all actions in a civil war, right of conscience and the statement{confirmation} of land sales. The convent convoked in April, in May 1660 has proclaimed Charles II king. On May, 26 Charles II has solemnly driven in the London. In England the mode of the absolute monarchy was again placed{installed}. Literatura:Savin A. N. Lectures on a history of the English revolution. М., 1937. Dmitrevsky N. Item the Legislation of the English revolution 1640-1660. М.; Л., 1946. The English bourgeois revolution of 17 century. М., 1954. T. 1-2. Barg M.A.Velikaja the English revolution in portraits of its{her} figures. М., 1991. Gizo F.Istorija of the English revolution: Per. With fr. Body heights - na-Donu, 1996. Hours 1-2. Whitelock B. Memorials of the English Affairs from the Beginning of the Reign of Charles I. Oxford, 1853. V. 1-4. The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1628-1660. Oxford, 1889. Ludlow Ed. The Memoirs, 1625-1672. Oxford, 1894. V. 1-2. Hill Chr. The World Turned Upside Down; Radical Ideas during the English Revolution. London, 1972. Hill Chr. The English Bible and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution. London; New York a. o., 1993. T.A.Pavlova



  • fast relevant articles, work control

No comments: