Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • BITTER SALT, see. Magnesium a sulphate
  • The ENGLISH HORN enlarged altovyj an oboe in a formation fa.
  • The ENGLISH TONGUE, tongue of Englishmen, Americans (the official language of the Great Britain and the USA), one of 2 official languages of Ireland, Canada and Malta, the official language of Australia, Is new. Zealand. The population of some states of Asia (India, Pakistan, etc.) and Africa, including and in the capacity of official languages uses him{it}. The German group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. Figure speaking ok. 450 million person (1990). Official and a working language of the United Nations. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • ANGLICAN CHURCH, the Protestant church which has arisen in 16 century; in the Great Britain - state. In the dogmatist of anglican church rules{situations;positions} protestantizma about salvage by personal belief and catholicism about rescuing force of church combine{blend}. On a cult and organizational principles it is close roman catholic. The church hierarchy is headed by king.
  • ENGLISHMEN (the self-title - an English), people, the main{basic} population of the Great Britain. An aggregate number 48,5 million person (1992), including in the Great Britain 44,7 million person, Canada 1 million person, Australia 940 thousand person, the USA 650 thousand person, the republic of South Africa 230 thousand person, India 200 thousand person, Is new. Zealand 188 thousand person. Tongue English. Believers - basically anglikane.
  • ENGLAND (England, pozdnelat. Anglia), an administrative - political part of the Great Britain, its{her} historical nucleus. 131 thousand км2 (54 % the area of the state). 46,2 million person (1991). Main city - the London. It administrative separate into 39 counties and 6 metropolitenskih counties and B.London. The title from drevnegermanskogo nation anglov. Sometimes the title "England" is used for notation of the Great Britain as a whole.
  • ANGLO-AVSTRALIJTSY, people, the main{basic} population of Australia (over 13,1 million person). An aggregate number 13,4 million person (1992). Speak on australian version of the English tongue. Believers - basically protesters.
  • ANGLO-AMERICAN WAR 1812-14, began as a result of tendency of the Great Britain to firing economy and trade the USA and expansionist policy of fixed circles the USA, expecting to trap terrains of Canada. The American troops have gained victories on an eskar. Erie (September 1813), an eskar. SHamplejn (September 1814), etc. However the English landing has trapped and has burnt a large part of Washington (August 1814). In 1814 to Gent the agreement which has reduced a pre-war rule{situation;position} has been signed.
  • The ANGLO-AFGHANI WARS, wars of the Great Britain against Afghanistan (1838-42, 1878-80, 1919). 1-n has ended in a defeat of the Great Britain, 2-n - establishment of the English supervisory control above the Afghani foreign policy, after 3-rd Great Britain has recognized independence of Afghanistan.
  • ANGLO-AFRICANS, people in the republic of South Africa. Number of 1750 thousand person (1992). An aggregate number of 1950 thousand person. Speak on juzhnoafrikanskom a dialect of the English tongue. Believers - anglikane, methodists, presviteriane, a part - roman catholics.
  • ANGLO-BURMA WARS, wars of the Great Britain against Burma in 19 century. As a result of 1-st (1824-26) Burma has lost ranges Arakan and Tenasserim, after 2-nd (1852) - range of Pegu, in the total 3-rd (1885) all Burma has hitted under the English domination.
  • ANGLO-BURSKAJA WAR 1899-1902, war of the Great Britain against burskih republics Juzh. Africa - the Orange loose state and Transvaalja. As a result of war both republics have been transformed{have been turned into} (1902) in English колонии.* * *АНГЛО-БУРСКАЯ WAR 1899-1902, a final stage of extirpation proceeding about 100 flying for the statement{confirmation} of the British domination in Austral Africa. A direct halter to war the problem on the political status of the european immigrants who have moved to the republic of South Africa (Transvaal) in connection with discovering there of gold has become. Having received equal elective franchises, immigrants could conquer at elections to parliament (folksraad), that threatened afrikaneram with loss of a political authority. A beginning of war on September, 10 1899 minister for colonys Dzh. CHemberlen in the cable to president Transvaalja P. Kruger than 5 flying has required enfranchisement to all Europeans, living in republic not less. Ultimatum CHemberlena in the issue has pushed to the beginning of armed conflict. On October, 11 burskie a troops went borders{limits} Kapskoj of colony and Natalja. Within November - December bores possessed the initiative. They have precipitated cities Ledismit, Kimberley, Mafeking and have conducted some successful military operations. However their successes have appeared short-lived. Fracture After failures of the first period of war the British command started mass troop transportation on the South of Africa and has created huge overbalance in a number of troops and technique. At the end of February 1900 English troops have removed osadu with Ledismita and Kimberley, in April have trapped capital of Orange republic Bloemfontein, in May deblocked Mafeking, in June have taken capital Transvaalja - Pretoria. However war on it was not terminated. The guiding burskoj has transfered armies to other tactics of act of war - guerilla warfare which kept almost two years. Leaders of bores repeatedly attempted to achieve performance{statement} of the mandatory powers of Germany, France, the USA, Russia - for the arrest of war on conditions acceptable to republics. Governments of these countries declared condoling to bores but as each of them aspired{tried} to exploit difficulties of England, any collective interference has failed. Delegacies of bores have visited in the USA and Europe. Public opinion, as a rule, was on the party of this small people appearing against the strong and powerful Great Britain. Hundreds volunteers from Holland, Germany, France, Italy, the USA, Russia have gone to Austral Africa and combated on the party of bores. Political results the Colossal superiority of the English army and major loss over civilian population have forced burskoe a command to go on negotiations. On May, 31 1902 the peace treaty on which republics become the English colonys (Transvaal and colony of the Orange River) has been signed. Englishmen, in turn, have gone on a concession to bores in a "native" problem, having refused from the former promisings about political rights for not white population. Experience anglo-burskoj wars utilised by army circles of different countries. Here for the first time such achievements of military technique of 19 century, as smokeless powder, machine guns, explosive bullets of thoughts - thoughts have been applied. A wide circulation from now on have received loose build during attack, khaki "khaki" in regimentals of soldiers, field telegraph, a barbed wire. Practice of concentration camps for civilian population also rises in this war. In outcome anglo-burskoj wars all Austral Africa has appeared under an authority of England, and on May, 31 1910 building unified juzhnoafrikanskogo dominion - the Southern - African Soyuz (JUAS) were in structure of British Empire up to 961 has been officially professed. Literatura:Avgustus E. F. Memories of participant Anglo-burskoj of war 1899-1900. Warsaw, 1902. Gurko V.I. War of England with the southern - African republics, 1899-1901 // the Report sent on business.. To a troops of the southern - African republics.. Colonel Romejko-Gurko. SPb., 1901. Izetdinova S.V.Neskolko of months for bores: Memories of the sister of mercy. SPb., 1903. Sb. Materials on Anglo-burskoj to war in Austral Africa / the Baking plate red. Colonel Artamonov. SPb., 1900-1905. Vyp. 1-21. Davidson A.B.Sesil Rods and his{its} time. М., 1984. Nikitin I.A.Zahvat burskih republics Englands (1899-1902). М., 1970. Аmery L. S. The Times History of the War in South Africa. London, 1909. V. 6. Kandyba-Foxoroft E. Russia and the Anglo-Boor War 1899-1902. Pretoria, 1981. The Oxfоrd History of South Africa. Оxfоrd, 1971. V. 2, 1870-1966. R.Vyatkin
  • The ANGLO-DUTCH WARS of 17 century, are called by trade and economic and colonial contest of two states most developed in 17 century - England and the Dutch republic 1-n - 1652-54, 2-n - 1665-67, 3-n - 1672-74. Were led primarily on the pest. Promoted a weakening in positions of the Dutch republic and transition of trade and economic and colonial hegemony to England.
  • ANGLO-EGYPTIAN AGREEMENT 1936, for friendship and the union. A little having expanded independence of Egypt in internal and foreign affairs, has saved the main{basic} military items of the Great Britain in Egypt. Denonsirovan Egypt in 1951; the Great Britain has recognized his{its} cancellation in 1954.
  • ANGLO-IRAQ CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS. Agreement 1922 has legally issued mandated relation of Iraq to the Great Britain. Agreement 1930, providing cancellation of the mandate and recognizing the sovereignty of Iraq, has actually saved his{its} state of dependence from the Great Britain in a sphere of foreign policy and in military affairs. Agreement 1955 has substituted agreement 1930. the Great Britain saved the supervisory control above iraq army and air-force bases. Denonsirovano Iraq after Iraq revolution 1958.
  • The ANGLO-IRISH UNION 1801, liquidated independent{autonomous} irish parliament; to irish representatives some figure of places in parliament of the Great Britain was retracted.
  • ANGLO-IRISH AGREEMENT 1921, granted a large part of Ireland the status of dominion at conservation of the English domination above its{her} north-east part - Ulster (see Boreal Ireland).
  • ANGLO-CANADIANS, people in Canada (10,8 million person). An aggregate number 11,67 million person (1992). Speak on canadian version of the English tongue. Believers - basically protesters, a part - roman catholics.
  • The ANGLO-CHINESE WAR 1840-42 (t. n. First " opium war "), encroachment of the English armed forces into China (capture of some bayshore cities), laid foundation to his{its} metamorphosis{transformation} into semi-colonial territory. Has concluded Nanking agreement 1842.
  • ANGLO-MAJSURSKIE WARS, the English East indian company for capture of the indian principality Mysore. As a result of 1-st (1767-69) and 2-nd (1780-84) Mysore it was possible to save independence, after 3-rd (1790-92) from Mysore ottorgnuta a part of terrain, as a result of 4-th (1799) Mysore it is transformed{turned into} into the English vassal.
  • ANGLO-MARATHSKIE WARS, the English East indian company against the union marathskih principalities in India in 1775-82, 1803-05 and 1817-18. The considerable proportion of terrain marathov has been seized, some principalities become the English vassals.
  • ANGLO-NEW ZEALANDERS (new zealanders, pakeha), people, the main{basic} population Is new. Zealand (2,6 million person). An aggregate number 2,76 million person (1992). Tongue English. Believers - basically anglikane.
  • ANGLO-SAXON SEIZURE, seizure of the Celtic Britain by the German nations anglov, saxophones, poops and friezes in 5-6 centuries. To kon. 6 century there was a number{series} of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (Kent, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Vost. England, Northumbria, Mersija).
  • ANGLO-SAXONS, non-proprietary name of the German nations anglov, saxophones, poops and the friezes which have conquered in 5-6 centuries. Britain. In 7-10 centuries there was the Anglo-Saxon nationality{national character} absorbing and the Celtic elements. Later anglo-saxons, having mixed up with Danes, Norwegians and (after Norman seizure of England 1066) natives of France, have laid foundation the English nationality{national character}.
  • ANGLO-SIKHSKIE WARS, the English East indian company against the state sikhov in Punjab in 1845-46 and 1848-49. The state sikhov has stopped existence, and Punjab is seized by Englishmen.
  • ANGLO-SOVETSKO-IRANSKY the AGREEMENT for the union, is signed 29.1.1942 after temporary uptake of the Soviet and English troops to Iran with the purpose to prevent fascist Germany to use his{its} terrain in war against the USSR and the Great Britain. Has supplied{ensured} cooperation of Iran to an antihitlerite coalition in 2-nd world war; after an end of the war a troops of allies have been introduced from Iran.
  • ANGLO-TRANSIORDANSKIE (JORDANIAN) CONTRACTS. Agreement 1928, formally granting an authority in Transjordan (the mandated territory of the Great Britain) to emir, established{set} the British supervisory control above its{her} foreign policy, the finance and armed forces. Agreement 1946 formally cancelled the British mandate for Transjordan which was declared by an independent kingdom, but saved beyond the Great Britain the right to keep a troops and to plot military bases on transiordanskoj terrains. Agreement 1948 saved relation of Jordan to the Great Britain, a little having expanded competence of the Jordanian authorities. It is cancelled in 1957.
  • ANGLO-FRANKO-IZRAILSKAJA AGGRESSION AGAINST EGYPT (1956), targot capture of Suez canal. On October, 29 the Israeli troops have intruded on terrain of Egypt; on October, 31 the English and French armed forces have begun bombing Egypt and on November, 5 have landed a troops in area of Port Said. A preventive measures on the part of the USSR, the USA and the United Nations have forced the Great Britain and France to introduce the troops from Egypt in December 1956, Israel - in March 1957.
  • ANGLO-FRANCO-CHINESE WAR 1856-60 (t. n. The second "opium" war), the Great Britain and France against China. In 1857-58 Englishmen and the Frenchmen have taken Guangzhou and forts Dagu on coast Bohajskogo a hall., in 1860 - Tianjin and Peking. The Great Britain and France had been imposed to China Tjantszinskie contracts 1858 and the Peking contracts 1860.
  • The ANGLO-FRANCO-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT, secret. It is made out by the way an exchange of memoranda and the verbal note in April - May 1915. Provided drive of Istanbul and the Black Sea channels of Russia under condition of its{her} sharing{participation} in war with Germany up to the victorious extremity. It is cancelled by the Decree on peace 1917.
  • ANGLO-FRENCH AGREEMENT 1904, on colonial questions (about "rights" of the Great Britain in Egypt, France in Morocco, etc.). Together with the Franco-Russian union 1891-93 and English-Russian agreement 1907 has formed basis{fundamentals} Antanty.
  • The ANGLO-JAPANESE UNION, is encased 30.1.1902; it is directed against Russia, and also pursued the objective strengthening of domination of allies in China and Korea. Resting on the Anglo-Japanese union, Japan has untied russko-Japanese war 1904-05. On the Washington conference 1921-22 Anglo-Japanese union is substituted by the agreement the USA, the Great Britain, France and Japan.
  • ANGLY, the German nation. Lived in the south p-ova Jutland. In 5-6 centuries the part anglov participat in Anglo-Saxon seizure of Britain; on their name England calls.
  • ENGOBE (frants. engobe), cover{coating} from the white or colour clay, superimposed on a stoneware (before furnacing) for elimination of surface imperfections and collimating to her of any colour.
  • ANGRBODA (dr .-исл. promising to a mountain), in the Scandinavian mythology velikansha, generated three htonicheskih monsters - wolf Fernira, snake Ermunganda and vladychitsu kingdoms dead Hel.
  • ANGREN, city (with 1946) in Uzbekistan, region Tashkenskaja, on r. Ahangaran. A depot. 132,6 thousand inhabitants (1991.) Center of production of brown coal. Factories: himiko-metallurgical, azotno-fertilizer; manufacture of industrial rubber goods. 2 state district power stations. Pedagogical institute. An Istoriko-study of local lore museum.
  • ANGRENSKOE the DEPOSIT coal, in Uzbekistan. It is developed with 1940. The area 70 км2. Uglenosny adjournments jury. Potent (40-150 м) a deposit of brown coal. Balance reserves up to depth of 860 m - 1,9 billion t. Carbons brown, marks Б2. Combustion heat of 13,9 MDZH/KG. Production 6,4 million t (1990).
  • ANGSTROM (the off-system unit of length, 1 is meant А), And = 10-10 m = 10-8 sm = 0,1 nm, A.J.Angstremom (1868) is entered, it is applied in optician, an atomic physics, solid-state physics, etc.
  • ANGSTROM (Ongstrem), the Swedish scientists, father, the son and внук:.. 1) Andres Jonas (1814-74), physics and the astronomer, one of osnovatelej spectral analysis... 2) Whip JUhan (1857-1910), a geophysics, has created a compensatory pyrheliometer and the pyrgeometer... 3) Anders Knutson (r. 1888), a geophysics, has created the pyranometer, probeed changes of a solar constant and solar activity.
  • ANGULEM (Angouleme), city in the west France, on r. Charente, an administrative centre of department Charente and main city of historical range Angumua. Ok. 100 thousand inhabitants. A machine industry, an impregnated-paper, polygraphic, faience industry; brewage. Pozdneromansky a cathedral Sen-Pierre (1-n a floor. 12 century) with 6 domes and a sculptural decor.
  • ANGUMUA (Angoumois), historical range in France. 6,1 thousand км2. The population 350 t. Hours. Main city - Angulem. In terrain Angumua - department Charente and in part Dordogne.
  • ANGUS, in irish mythology the powerful wizard - sid possessing ability invisibly to be tolerated by air and to do{make} invisible subjects which he occluded a flap of the storm coat.
  • ANDALIB Nurmuhamed-Garib (ok. 1712-80), the Turkmen poet. Romantic dastany (" Lejli and Medzhnun "), poems ("Nesimi" - about the Azerbaijan poet; legendary - historical "Oguzname"); the poetic story "Melik Mehrinigar".
  • ANDALUSITE, mineral of subclass of nesosilicates, Al2SiO5. Hardness 6,5-7,5; firmness of 3,1-3,2 g / sm3. Grey, yellow, etc. crystals and their units in metamorphic breeds. Raw material for high-alumina refractories and tonkokeramicheskih items.
  • ANDALUSIA (Andalucia), autonomous region in the south of Spain. 87,3 thousand км2. The population 7 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Seville. Actuates provinces: Almeria, Granada, Cadiz, Cordoba, Malaga, Seville, Huelva, Haen.
  • LOWLAND ANDALUSSKAJA, in the south of Spain, primarily in basin r. Guadalquivir. Thrickets of the Mediterranean bushes. Groves citrous, olivas, vineyards; crops grain. Large cities - Seville, Cordoba, Cadiz.
  • ANDALUSSKIE MOUNTAINS (Kordiljera-Betika), a range in the south of Spain. Length ok. 630 kms, an altitude up to 3478 m (Mulhacen). Deciduous forests and the Mediterranean bushes.
  • ANDAMANSKIE AND NICOBAR ISLANDS, allied terrain of India, on like islands. 8,3 thousand км2. The population of 279 thousand person (1991). Adm. ts. - Port Blair.
  • ANDAMAN ISLANDS, in Indian ok., between the Bengal a hall. And Andamanskim m., a part of terrain of India. St. 6 thousand км2. Are surrounded with coral reefs. An altitude up to 732 m. Tropical monsoon forests. On Andaman islands - Port Blair.
  • ANDAMAN SEA Indian ok., between a continental part of Asia, circuit Andamanskih and islands Nikobarskih and about. Sumatra. 605 thousand км2, depth up to 4507 m. Primary ports: Yangon, Georgetown.
  • ANDAMANTSY, an aboriginal population of islands Andamanskih (India). Number ok. 100 chel. Tongues will derivate isolated family. Andamantsy hold on basically of traditional convictions.
  • ANDANTE (ital. andante, characters. - going a walk), in music-.. 1) the moderate rate conforming to a hangover walk... 2) the Title of product{creation} or a part sonatnogo a cycle (2-nd is routine) in rate of an andante.
  • ANDANTINO (ital. andantino, will moderate. From andante), in music-.. 1) rate, more brisk, than an andante... 2) the Title of product{creation} or a part of a cycle in rate andantino.
  • ANDVARI (dr .-исл. guard), in the Scandinavian mythology a dwarf, a saver golden klada. It is known on songs of " the Higher Edda " for " Speech Regina " и to " Speech Fafnira ".
  • ANDGULADZE David Jasonovich (1895-1973), the Georgian singer (the drama tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1950). With 1929 at the Georgian theatre of opera and ballet. The professor of the Tbilisi conservatory (with 1958). The state premium of the USSR (1947).
  • UNDERGROUND (underground) (English underground characters. A underground), art directions in the modern art (in music, the literature, kino, fine arts, etc.). Failure{refusal} of the conventional values, norms{standards}, of social and art traditions, quite often shocking of the public are characteristic for a underground, rebelliousness a breakage with prevailing philosophy. The underground occurs{comes up} in 2-nd floor. 20 century, as a rule, in countries where art is subordinate philosophy.
  • ANDESITE, the effusive mean rock consisting in main{basic} from vkraplennikov plagioklaza, augite, etc. minerals and volcanic glass. Structure porphyritic or afirovaja. Firmness of 2280-2680 kg / m3. Together with basalt will derivate main mass of the given vent breeds in range of ancient and modern volcanism. An acid-proof material, a building stone.
  • ANDERS (Anders) William (r. 1933), an astronaut the USA, the master of sciences, the major of air force in demission. A maiden flight to moon with an output into a selenocentric orbit on "Apollo - 8" (December 1968).
  • ANDERSEN (Andersen) Hans Christian (1805-75), the danish writer. The world glory was brought to him with fairy tales in which romanticism and realism, imagination and humour, the satirical beginning with irony combine{blend}. Founded on folklore ("Ognivo"), proniknutye humanism, lyricism and humour (" Nonperishable stannic soldatik ", " the Disgusting duckling ", "Rusalochka", " Snow queen "), fairy tales condemn public disparity, egoism, self-interest, complacency of the strong of the world this (" the New dress of king "). Verses, plays, novels ("Improvisator", 1835; " Only the violinist ", 1837), the autobiography " the Fairy tale of my life " (1846).
  • ANDERSEN - NEKSE Martin (an ice-film. fam. Andersen, psevd. Nekse) (1869-1954), the danish writer. Novels: "Pelle-conqueror" (1906-10), " Ditte - the child human " (1917-21), the uncompleted trilogy " Morten Red " (1945-48), stories, publicism about danish working-class movement. A cycle of stories of "Memory" (1932-39).
  • ANDERSON (Andersson) Dan (1888-1920), the Swedish writer. Stories, autobiographical dilogija " to Troy homelesses " (1918) and " David Ramma's Patrimony " (1919), verses on workers.
  • ANDERSON (Anderson) Charles Dejvid (1905-91), American physics. Has discovered in ultrarays positrons (1932) and muons (1936). The Nobel Prize (1936).
  • ANDERSON Marian (1902-93), afroamerikanskaja the singer (contralto). In 1925-65 acted in concerts, in 1955 debuted as the opera singer on the scene "Underground railway - opera". Went on tour in many countries (in the USSR in 1934-35).
  • ANDERSON Filip (r. 1923), American physics. Transactionses on a quantum theory of a solid. The Nobel Prize (1977, together with Dzh. Van Flekom and N.Mottom).
  • ANDERSON SHervud (1876-1941), the American writer. Collections of psychologic short stories " Uajnsburg, Ohio " (1919), " the Celebration eggs " (1921), " Horses and people " (1923) about spiritually poor zaholustje where things suppress the person. Novels, autobiographical products{creations}.
  • ANDERSH (Andersch) Alfred (1914-80), the german writer (with 1958 in Switzerland). Has tested{experienced} influence of existentialism. Social - critical novels " Zanzibar, or the Last cause " (1957), "Efraim" (1967), "Vinterspelt" (1974).
  • ANDZHAN Anton Iosifovich (1892-1974), the Russian artist, the master of an art make-up. In 1925-27 at studio " State kino ", then on "Lenfilm", with 1945 on "Mosfilm". Has created grimy historical characters in many movies. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • ANDZHAPARIDZE Belief (Veriko) Ivlianovna (1897-1987), the Georgian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1950), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). With 1938 at the Georgian theatre him{it}. Mardzhanishvili. Acted in tragedijnyh and drama roles: Ofelija (U.Shakespeare "Hamlet", 1925), Dzhavara ("Expulsion{Relegation}" Vazha Pshavela, 1945), Maria Stjuart ("Maria Stjuart" of F.Schiller, 1955). With 1923 acted in film. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1952).
  • ANDZHAPARIDZE Zurab Ivanovich (r. 1928), the Georgian singer (the lyrico-dramatic tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1966). In 1952-59 and with 1970 at the Georgian theatre of opera and ballet (in 1979-82 director), in 1959-70 at Major theatre.
  • ANDZHEEVSKY (Andrzejewski) Hedgehogs (1909-83), the Polish writer. Roman " Ash and diamond " (1948) has reflected a sharpness of class struggle in post-war Poland. Roman " Goes, skips on mountains " (1963) - a parody to the modern western society; the novel "Minced eatables" (1981) about destinies of the modern creative intelligency. Stories, stories.
  • ANDZHELIKO (Angelico) (naturally Fra Giovanni yes Fjezole, Fra Giovanni da Fiesole) (nickname Beato Andzheliko) (ok. 1400-55), the italian painter. The representative of Early Revitalization. Religious - contemplative art Andzheliko proniknuto light naive lyricism, inking fabulousness (frescos of a monastery the Dignity - Marko in Florence, 1438-45).
  • ANDZHETI, in egyptian mythology of epoch of the Ancient kingdom the godhood - promoter Busirisa, was figured by the way the person with two feathers on a head, a crosier and a vine.
  • ANDIEV It is banished Petrovich (r. 1952), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1973). The champion of Olympic Games (1976, 1980), the world (1973, 1975-78), Europe (1974-75, 1982) and the USSR (1973-78) on free-style wrestling.
  • ANDIZHAN, city in Uzbekistan, the centre of the Andizhan region. A railway junction. 298,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Machine-building (the electrotechnical, irrigational equipment), mild (hlopkoochistitelnaja, cotton, boot, knitted, sewing), a flavoring industry; a hydrolysis plant. 4 high schools. 2 theatres. It is known from 9 century under title Andukan, with 1876 in Russian empire.
  • The ANDIZHAN RANGE, in Uzbekistan, in eastern part of Fergana valley. 4,2 thousand км2. The population of 1839 thousand person (1992). Adm. ts. - Andizhan.
  • The ANDIZHAN REVOLT, anticolonial motion of peasants in the Fergana region in May 1898 (2 thousand participants). Aboriginal to know and clergy under the slogan gazavata attempted to use the Andizhan revolt for restoration Kokandskogo hanstva. It is suppressed{quenched} by imperial government.
  • ANDIJSKY the BACKBONE, in B.Kavkaza's north-east part, on a left bank r. Andijskoe Kojsu. Length ok. 60 kms. An altitude up to 2736 m.
  • ANDIJSKY TONGUE, see. The Dagestan tongues.
  • ANDIJTSY (the self-title - andal), people in the Russian Federation, in Dagestan. Number ok. 30 thousand person (1992). Tongue andijsky. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ANDO Seeki (ok. 1700 - ok. 1760), the Japanese thinker, the atheist. Criticized social orders of Japan, figured a society without a private property and operation.
  • ANDO (Ando) Tadao (r .1931), the Japanese architect. Owner-occupied dwellings from concrete, with a high railings and the aulas, entered in dense urban site development; in the block constructions achieves special an openness of the internal space, a special mode{image} drawing up illumination{lighting} of interiors (dwelling Kosiko in Osaka, 1981).
  • ANDOKID, the ancient greek potter and vazopisets 2-nd floor. 6 century up to n. e. Transition is connected to name Andokida from chernofigurnoj to krasnofigurnoj technique vazopisi (an amphora " Feasting Gerakl ").
  • ANDOKIDA the MASTER (worked 530-515/10 up to n. e.), vazopisets, working for potter Andokida, one of first has become to work in krasnofigurnom style (Gerakl on Olympus, ok. 530 up to n. e.).
  • ANDOMSKAJA the HIGH GROUND, in northwest of East European plain in the Vologda region and Karelia. An altitude up to 293 m. A hilly - morainal relief.
  • ANDORRA (katalan., isp. Andorra, frants. Andorre), the Principality Andorra (katalan. Principat d'Andorra, isp. Principado de'Andorra, frants. Principaute d'Andorre), the state on a southwest of Europe, in Vost. Pyrenees, in a valley r. Valira (bass. r. Ebro). 468 км2. The population of 61,9 thousand person (1993), including 11 thousand andortsev. The official language - katalansky. Believers - roman catholics. Administrative territorial division: 7 communities. Capital - Andorra - la-Velja. Chiefs of state - the president of France and diocesan Urhelsky. The body of legislation - the General council. For the first time the title Andorra is mentioned in 805 in documents Urhelskogo bishoprics (Spain). With 1278 Andorra was under a joint management of France and diocesan of spanish. Seo-de-Urhel. In 1993 the first constitution of the Andorra which has proclaimed Andorra by a sovereign state is adopted. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - service of foreign tourists (over 10 million person annually). The international financial centre. The enterprises flavoring, a light industry. Pascual animal husbandry, primarily a sheep raising. The French and spanish currency.
  • ANDORRA - LA-VELJA (Andorra la Vella), capital of Andorra. 20,4 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture of tobacco items, different specialties. It is based in nach. 9 century. Church over. Armengolja (11-12 centuries), a residence of government " Dwelling of valleys " (16 century).
  • ANDO-TSEZSKIE PEOPLES (ando-didojskie peoples), group of peoples in the Russian Federation, in the west of Dagestan - andijtsy, ahvahtsy, bagulaly, botlihtsy, godoberintsy, karatiny, tindaly, chamalaly, tsezy (didojtsy), bezhtiny, gunzebtsy, ginuhtsy, hvarshiny. Tongues of the Dagestan branch. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ANDO-EQUATORIAL TONGUES, macrofamily of tongue families and isolated tongues of Indians JUzh. America (on grading American linguist Dzh. Grinberg). Включает:.. 1) andskie tongues, including family kechua-ajmara, austral group (jagan, alakaluf, chon, araukanskie tongues), tongues saparo, leko, simaku;.. 2) hibaro (hivaro)-кандоши, esmeralda, kofskie, jaruro tongues, etc.;.. 3) tukanskuju family (tukano, katukina, etc.) and puinave;.. 4) equatorial family (aravakskie tongues, group tupi-guarani, timote, kariri, samuko, saliva, etc.).
  • ANDRASHI (Andrassy) Djula the Higher (1823-90), columns, the participant of Revolution 1848-49 in Hungary, in 1867-71 chairman of Council of Ministers of Hungary, in 1871-79 Minister for Foreign Affairs of Austria-Hungary.
  • ANDRE (Andre) Charles (r .1935), the American sculptor, in a sculpture - the creator t. n. minimalisticheskogo directions. Builds the compositions, flock of times retrying one elementary geometric pattern.
  • ANDRE (Andree) Salomon August (1854-97), the Swedish engineer, the explorer of Arctic regions. In 1897 on an air balloon "Orel" with 2 guides has departed from Spitsbergen to an arctic pole; all participants of expedition have perished. Residues of expedition are retrieved in 1930 on about. White.
  • ANDREA DEL SARTO (Andrea del Sarto) (1486-1530), the italian painter. The representative of the Florentine school of High Revitalization. Monumental, majestic altarnye patterns (" the Madonna with garpijami ", 1517), fresco cycles in the Florentine monasteries.
  • ANDREAPOL, city (with 1967) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, on r. Zap. Dvina. A depot. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). Porcelain factory.
  • ANDREW (Andree) Iogann Valentine (1586-1654), the german occult thinker and the writer. Close to rozenkrejtseram. Religious passion plays and Utopias " Fama fraternitatis " (1614), " Strength of the Christ, or the Description of republic Hristianopol " (1619), etc.
  • ANDREWS Alexander Ignatjevich (1887-1959), the Russian historian, arheograf, the doctor of historical sciences, the professor. Transactionses on diplomatics, histories of Russian North, to a source study of Siberia, historical geography, a history of Russian science.
  • ANDREWS Alexander Fedorovich (r. 1939), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on physics of low temperatures. Has constructed the theory of dynamic transient state of superconductors, quantum crystals, has predicted the phenomena of quantum diffusion, etc. The Lenin premium (1986).
  • ANDREWS Andrey Andreevich (1895-1971), the political figure. In 1924-25 secretary of a Central Committee of a consignment. With 1930 chairman of Central Committee VKP (б), narkom RKI the USSR and vice-president SNK the USSR. With 1931 narkom lines of communication. With 1935 secretary of Central Committee VKP (б); simultaneously in 1943-46 narkom agriculture of the USSR, in 1939-52 chairman of a handheld computer at Central Committee VKP (б). The member of a Central Committee of a consignment in 1920-21, 1922-61; the member of the Political bureau of Central Committee VKP (б) in 1932-52.
  • ANDREWS Boris Fedorovich (1915-82), the Russian film actor, the national actor of the USSR (1962). His{its} heroes are vested a spiritual latitude, force, good nature ("Tractor operators", " Major life ", " Two fighters ", " the Legend on ground Siberian ", " the Kuban cossacks "). Psychologic more the composite modes{images} in films "Cruelty", " Optimistic tragedy ", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1948, 1950).
  • ANDREWS Vadim Leonidovich (1902-76), the Russian writer. Son L.N.Andreeva. After 1917 has remained together with the father in Finland. Then cable cores in Switzerland. Collections of verses: " Leaden hour " (1924), " the Malaise of life " (1928), " the Second respiration " (1950); a poem " Revolt of asters " (1932). Autobiographical stories "Childhood" (1963), " the History of one traveling " (1966), " Recurring in life " (1969), " Through twenty flying " (1974); the novel " the Feral{Natural} field " (1965), etc.
  • ANDREWS Vasily Vasiljevich (1861-1918), the Russian musician, the initiator on a balalaika. The organizer and the chief of the first orchestra of Russian national instruments (1888, with 1896 - the Great russian orchestra).
  • ANDREWS Victor Semenovich (1905-88), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1978). Worked in Moscow: an office building on street. Bitter (Tver; 1949), embassies of Czechoslovakia (1952-54) and China (1956-59); grading and site development of residential districts Medvedkovo, a Sviblovo (chief). The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • ANDREWS Vladimir Alekseevich (r. 1935), the Russian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1985). With 1952 at Theatre him{it}. Ermolovoj (in 1970-85 main producer, with 1990 artistic administrator). In 1985-88 main producer of Small theatre. The professor of the Russian academy of a theatrical art (up to 1991 GITIS; with 1978).
  • ANDREWS Daniel Leonidovich (1906-59), the Russian poet, mistik-duhovidets. Son L.N.Andreeva. In early poetry - alarming expectation of the catastrophes approaching to Russia. Within the political conclusion (1947-57) has written poems (" Russian gods " have come in " poetic band ", 1989), his{its} embodying mystical contemplations of " the worlds of a clarification " и " the worlds of revenge ", and the tract " the Rose - tree of the world " (it is published 1991) - experience of metahistorical knowledge and the plan of salvage of mankind common effortses of world religions - petals of a unified Rose - tree. A poetic drama " Iron passion play " (it is published 1990).
  • ANDREWS Eugeny Nikolaevich (r. 1926), the parachuter - verifier, the Hero of Soviet Union (1962). Tested{experienced} parachute systems, pressure garment assemblies, etc. a means. In 1962 unique in the world has executed jump from an altitude of 25,5 kms.
  • ANDREWS Ivan Ivanovich (1880-1919), the Russian chemist - technologist. First has developed (1915) and has realized{sold} (1917) in a factory scale a way of obtaining of a nitric acid catalytic oxidation of ammonia.
  • ANDREWS Lion Nikolaevich (r. 1931), the Russian immunologist of plants, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). The main{basic} probes on physiology of relations of plants and phytopathogenic organisms.
  • ANDREWS Leonid Grigorjevich (r. 1922), the Russian literary critic. The professor of the Moscow State University (with 1969). The main{basic} activities are dedicated the French and Belgian literatures of 20 century. Books: " the French literature of 1917-1956 " (1959), " Marseilles Proust " (1968), "Surrealism" (1972), " the Modern literature of France. 60th " (1977), etc.
  • ANDREWS Leonid Nikolaevich (1871-1919), the Russian writer. Early stories had democratic and realistic character (" Bargamot and Garaska ", 1898). Condoling with revolutionaries (" the Story about seven hung up ", 1908), figured revolution as natural clamp ("Sabbas", 1906); crisis of religious consciousness - in stories " Vasily Fivejskogo's Life " (1904); a folly and horror of war - in the story " Red laughter " (1905). Alongside with the drama of everyday life " Days of our life " (1908) - filosofsko-allegorical tragedies ("Human life", 1907; "Anatema", 1908).
  • ANDREWS Michael Stepanovich (1873-1948), the Russian ethnographer and the linguist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1929), academician AN of Uzbekistan (1943). Transactionses on a household activities, a folk art, traditional convictions of Tadjiks; on the east - Iranian tongues.
  • ANDREWS Nikolay Andreevich (1873-1932), the Russian sculptor, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1931). N.V.Gogolju's (1904-09) monuments, A.I.Gertsenu and N.P.Ogaryov (1918-22), to A.N.Ostrovsky (1924-29) - all in Moscow. A series sculptural (ok. 100) and actuarial portraits Lenina on the basis of etudes from a nature.
  • ANDREWS Nikolay Nikolaevich (1880-1970), Russian physics, the founder of domestic scientific school after soundman, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1970). Transactionses on an acoustic propagation, etc. problems physical and technical soundmen.
  • ANDREWS Paul Zaharovich (1874-1950), the Russian singer (bass - baritone), the national actor of the USSR (1939). In 1909-48 in Leningrad (Mariinsk) theatre of opera and ballet. The professor of the Leningrad conservatory (with 1926).
  • ANDREWS Jury Andreevich (r. 1930), the Russian literary critic, the publicist, the Doctor of Philology (1973). The main{basic} orb of interests - a history and the theory of the Soviet literature, the modern literary process. Books: " the Russian Soviet historical novel: 20-30-С years " (1962), " Revolution and the literature. Map of October and a civil war in the Russian Soviet literature and a becoming of socialist realism (20-30-С) " (1969), " our life, our literature " (1974), " Motion of realism " (1978), " Magic sight. Specificity of the literature in the modern deflecting{refractions} " (1983), " the Soviet literature: Its{Her} history, the theory, a state of the art and world value " (1988), etc.
  • ANDREEVA (an ice-film. fam. JUrkovskaja) Maria Fedorovna (1868-1953), the Russian actress. On the scene with 1886, in 1898-1905 in Moskovsk art theatre. To the game refinement, the thin lyricism are peculiar: Rautendelejn (" the Sunk alloying basket " G.Gauptmana, 1898), Natasha ("At the bottom of" M.Gorkogo, 1902), etc. Common-law wife M.Gorkogo. Participat together with M.Gorkim and A.A.Blokom in building Major drama theatre (Petrograd, 1919), up to 1926 actress of this theatre. The publisher bolshevistskoj newspapers " New life " (1905). The commissioner of theatres and shows of Petrograd (1918-21). In 1931-48 director of the Moscow House of scientists.
  • ANDREW - BARGE HAULER Vasily Nikolaevich (1843-88), the Russian actor. On the scene with 1868. One of organizers of " the First company of Russian actors " (1883). The master of art reading.
  • ANDREEVICH-KUN George (1904-64), the Serbian painter and the schedule{chart}. The initiator of a social - critical direction in the Serbian art of 30th. The participant of a civil war in Spain 1936-39, people's liberation extirpation in Yugoslavia 1941-45. Cycles of gravures and drawings (" Bloody gold ", 1934; "Guerrillas", 1941-45); portraits, modes{images} of people from people.
  • ANDREEVSKY Ivan Efimovich (1831-91), the Russian lawyer, the professor (with 1864) and the rector (1883-87) St.-Petersburg universities. In 1890-91 managing editor of " the Encyclopaedic dictionary " Brockhaus and Efron. Transactionses on a history of state law, including on a history of ancient Novgorod.
  • ANDREEVSKY the MONASTERY (Preobrazhenskiy), men's, in Moscow, on the right to coast r. Moscow, for Vorobjevyh mountains. It is based in 1648 F.M.Rtishchevym. Scientific brotherhood of outlet boxes (Epiphanius Slavinetsky, etc.) and a school. It is abolished in 18 century. A monument of 17-18 architecture of centuries.
  • ANDREEVSKY Sergey Arkadjevich (1847-1918), the Russian attorney. With 1869 judicial figure. In 1878 has refused to act the charger on V.I.Zasulich, it is retired. Lyrical verses, etudes on Russian writers.
  • ANDREEVSKY the FLAG, an ensign of the ships{spacecrafts} of the Russian VTR, white (with 1865) with a diagonal light-blue cross (t. n. Andrey Pervozvannogo's cross); it is established in 1699 Peter I.
  • ANDREESKU (Andreescu) Jon (1850-82), the Romanian painter. Portraits of peasants and national landscapes in spirit barbizonskoj schools differ lyricism, thinness of colour.
  • ANDREW Alexandria (mind{wit}. ok. 250), a name of each of two Christian martyrs damaged in Alexandria in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 6 (19).
  • ANDREW BOGOLYUBSKY (ok. 1111-74), prince vladimiro-Suzdal (with 1157), son Jury Dolgorukogo. Has made capital of. Vladimir. It is killed by boyars in the residence of seconds. Боголюбово.* * *АНДРЕЙ Jurjevich BOGOLYUBSKY (about{near} 1111 - on June, 29 1174), prince vladimiro-Suzdal and grand duke Kiev (with 1157). The higher son Jury Dolgorukogo and daughters polovetskogo khan Aepy. It is married by a first marriage to the daughter of the first master of Moscow of Stefan Ivanovicha Kuchki, and the second on the captive brought from a marching of 1164 years on Volzhsko-Kamskuju Bulgariju. Children, apparently, had no. The beginning of reigning In 1149 Andrey has received from the father in derzhanie Vyshgorod, but in year Pinsk and Peresopnitsu has been transferbed{translated} in zapadnorusskie grounds where kept cities of Mountain goats. In 1151 he with the consent of the father has returned to native Suzdal ground where the destiny (Vladimir - na-Kljazme), probably, had. In 1155 has been again transferbed{translated} in Vyshgorod, whence contrary to paternal bullock ran in Vladimir - Zalessky, having taken away with itself an icon of the Deipara written, under the legend, the apostle Luke the evangelist (a mode{an image} of the Vladimirskiy Birth-Giver of God) .Posle Jury Dolgorukogo's morses in 1157 Andrey were inherited with the Kiev grand-ducal holy table, but to Kiev, despite of custom, to live has not gone. Then he has been selected prince Rostov, Suzdal and vladimirskiy. Resting on the "milostnikov" (servants), in 1162 Andrey has expelled from limits of the rostovo-Suzdal ground not only the relatives, but also a paternal team. Simultaneously he has transferred capital from Suzdal in Vladimir, and the residence - in Bogoljubovo-na-Nerli (on which has received the nickname). Attitudes{relations} with church About 1160 Andrey has made first in a history of Russia attempt to divide{separate} Russian church on two mitropoliii. He has addressed with the request to konstantinopolskomu to the patriarch to found in Vladimir the second metropole independent from Kiev, but this request has been disallowed. In 1168 Andrey sends the Suzdal abbot of Theodore on a major cathedral to Kiev with the purpose to achieve offsets of metropolitan Konstantin. Not najdja support for Russian diocesans, Theodore was directed to Constantinople, hoping to coax the patriarch to nominate as metropolitan of, however has achieved only postavlenija the Rostov diocesan. In 1169 Andrey Bogoljubskogo had conflict to unaccomodating and ambitious Theodore which has concluded that, that prince has given diocesan on court of metropolitan to Kiev where Theodore has been executed under the charge in heresy. Crop at Andrey Bogolyubsky Within his{its} board in Vladimir and suburbs broad construction has deployed: in 1164 Golden Gate (similarly to Kiev, konstantinopolskim and Jerusalem), city - clasp Bogoljubovo, and also a number{series} of temples have been constructed, including. Well-known the Dormition fast (1158-61), the Cover - na-Nerli (1165), Christmas of the Deipara in Bogolyubov (1158-65). In opinion of lines of explorers, Andrey Bogolyubsky aspired{tried} to be released of the byzantian influence in Russia. He, in particular{personally}, invited for construction of the vladimirskiy temples of Western-European architects. The tendency to the greater cultural independence is tracked and in introduction by him{it} in Russia the new holidays which were not adopted in Byzantium. Under the initiative of prince holidays Spasa (on August, 1) have been established and Holy Protections of the all-holy Deipara (on October, 1) .V night with 29 for June, 30 1174 Andrey have been killed in Bogolyubov by group of conspirators of the nearest surrounding. Originally was pogreben in the Vladimirskiy temple of assumption of the Birth-Giver of God of the Deipara; later remnants were repeatedly tolerated. In Andrey Bogoljubskogo's 1934 burial it has been inspected and identified by archeologists and anthropologists; on a skull retrieved in entombment, to the sculptor and the anthropologist in M. M. Gerasimov managed to reconstruct a unique sculptural portrait of prince. Литература:Погодин M. Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky // the Log-book of the Ministry for national enlightenment. 1849. Hours 14. Voronin N. N. Andrey Bogolyubsky and Onions Hrizoverg: From a history of the russko-byzantian attitudes{relations} of XII century // Byzantian vremennik. М., 1962. T. 21. The story about ubienii Andrey Bogoljubskogo / Podgot. The text, per. And komment. Kolesov V.V. // Monuments of the literature of Ancient Russia: XII eyelids. M.: Hudozh. Lit., 1980. Seconds 324-337. Kostomarov N.I.Knjaz Andrey Bogolyubsky // Kostomarov N.I.Russkaja a history in biographies of its{her} mainest figures. M.: the Book, 1990. Kn. 1. Seconds 71-96. Danilevsky I.N. " Though samovlastets byti... " // Knowledge - force, 1993. № 6. I.N.Danilevsky
  • ANDREW IVANOVICH (1490-1537), staritsky specific prince, the junior son of Ivan III. In 1537 has raised rebelion against Elena Glinskoj. Has died in the conclusion. ANDREW the CHAPLAIN, the French writer of 12 century. Proniknutyj neoplatonicheskimi motives the tract " About love " (1184-86), influenced lyrics of troubadours, poets " sladostnogo new style " (see " Dolche style nuovo "), Dante and F.Petrarki.
  • ANDREW KRITSKY (ok. 660-740), the Christian ecclesiast, archbishop about. Crete. The writer of numerous church hymns - canticles, omily and repentance " the Great canon " (ok. 250 troparej), annually readable in the Orthodox church during quadragesima. Memory{remembrance} on July, 4.
  • ANDREW OLGERDOVICH (1325-99), Russian prince, the son of grand duke Lithuanian Olgerda. Reigned in Pskov, Polotsk. Participant Kulikovskoj of battle and marchings against Livonskogo orders. Struggled for the Lithuanian holy table. Ministered to grand duke Vitovtu. Has perished in fight with tartars.
  • ANDREW FIRST CALLED, on a church legend apostle, one of first (from here a prorank) and the nearest christ's pupils. Russian annals call as his{its} first ecclesiast of christianity in Pridneprovje and Priilmenje. Was considered as the promoter of country in Russia and Scotland. Under the legend, raspjat in Greece on a crossbuck - t. n. Andrey Pervozvannogo's cross which has become is familiar Andrey Pervozvannogo's orders, and also seated on marine Andreevskom a flag.
  • ANDREW Sirakuzsky (mind{wit}. ok. 886), the Christian martyr, killed arabs - moslems in Africa. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 23 (on October, 6).
  • ANDREW Efessky (mind{wit}. 730 or 735), the presbyter, the martyr damaged in aniconic persecution of emperor of the Lion III Isavra. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 21 (on October, 4).
  • ANDREJKO (Andreiko) Andris (1942-76), the Latvian sportsman, the international grandmaster (1966). The world champion (1968-72), the USSR (8 times in 1961-76) on salta.
  • ANDREJS (Andreis) Josip (1909-82), the Yugoslavian musicologist. The professor of Academy of music, the director of Institute of musicology in Zagreb, the managing editor of 1-st issuing Yugoslavian " the Musical encyclopedia ". Books on a history of the musical crop, an aesthetics, about composers of Yugoslavia.
  • ANDREJCHENKO Natalia Eduardovna (r. 1956), the Russian film actress. With nach. 1990th in the USA. Has created psychologic the composite characters in films: "Sibiriada" (1979), " the Field novel " (1983), "Forgive" (1986), " Lady Makbet Mtsenskogo of district " (1989), etc. Mary Poppins, good-bye " Participat in a television musical comedy ". Role Nadi in "Serso" V.I.Slavkina (the Small scene of Theatre on Taganke, 1985) has played.
  • ANDREOTTI (Andreotti) Dzhulio (r. 1919), the prime minister of Italy in 1972-73, 1976-79 and 1989-92, multiply was part of the cabinet. In 1968-72 chairman of a fraction of the Christian Democrat consignment in chamber of deputies. In 1995 it is impeached under the charge in connection with a mafia.
  • ANDRES (Andres) the Stefan (1906-70), the german writer (in 1937-50 and with 1961 in Italy). The social - critical and anti-fascist directivity combines{blends} with a religious - ethical problematics: the story " we - a Utopia " (1943), the trilogy "Flood" (1949-59), the novel " the Person in the fish belly " (1963).
  • ANDREJUSHKIN Pahomy Ivanovich (1865-87), the member of the Terrorist fraction of " National will ". The participant of attempt 1.3.1887 on Alexander III. It is hung up.
  • ANDREJANOVA Elena Ivanovna (1819-57), the Russian actress of ballet. The representative of a romantic direction. The first performer of consignment ZHizeli ("ZHizel" A.Adana, 1842) in Russia.
  • ANDRIANOV Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1920), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945), the general - major of aircraft (1971). In Great Domestic war in an attack aviation; 177 sorties, 37 air breakages, has knocked down 6 airplanes.
  • ANDRIANOV Vladimir Pavlovich (1906-85), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1982). With 1939 at the Kamchatka regional drama theatre.
  • ANDRIANOV Kuzma Andrianovich (1904-78), the Russian chemist, one of osnovatelej chemistry of organosilicone polymers, academician AN the USSR (1964), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). For the first time has executed{has come true} synthesis poliorganosiloksanov. Has developed methods of obtaining of heat-resistant organosilicone polymers and materials on their basis{fundamentals}. The lenin premium (1963), the State premium of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1950, 1953).
  • ANDRIANOV Nikolay Efimovich (r. 1952), the Russian sportsman (sporting gymnastics), the deserved master of sport (1972). The champion of Olympic Games (1972, 1976, 1980), the world (1974, 1978-79), the repeated champion of Europe and the USSR (in 1971-75) in многоборье.* * *АНДРИАНОВ Nikolay Efimovich (r. On November, 14 1952, Vladimir), the Russian sportsman (sporting gymnastics); the deserved master of sport (1972). The absolute champion of Olympic Games (1976), the Olympic champion in free exercises (1972, 1976), in exercises on rings (1976), a vault (1976, 1980), command superiority{championship} (1980). The absolute world champion (1978), Europe (1975), the USSR (1972-74). The world champion (1974, 1978) in exercises on rings, the repeated champion of Europe and the USSR (1971-75) in separate kinds{views} of multiathlon. The owner of the Cup of the world (1975-77) .Trener has substituted ottsaRos without the father, mother worked at factory - five children basically "were "educated" with street. In 11 flying has acted{arrived} in sporting school to the trial trainer and teacher N.G.Tolmachyov, managed to convince the obstinate pupil, that the gymnastics - his{its} calling. The first successes came through seven flying laborious transactionses. In 1969 Nikolay has conquered on the All-Union Games of schoolboys. In 1971 debuted on an european championship in Madrid and has scored two golden medals - in a vault and in exercises on a horse, in multiathlon has taken the third place, having conceded to adjudicated leaders of world and domestic gymnastics of V.Klimenko and M.Voroninu. Journalists wrote Olympic tests, that " the vladimirskiy gymnast works with Voroninskoj purity and Japanese complexity ". For the first time in a history of gymnastics Andrianov has executed a threefold somersault in dismount from a girder, has twice increased difficulty of exercises on beams, a horse and in free exercises. Participat in three Olympic Games. In Munich (1972) has conquered exercises on rings, has become the silver prize-winner in command superiority{championship} and bronze - in jump. In Montreal (1976) has scored the most prestigious absolute superiority{championship}, and also free exercises, a vault, exercises on rings. In Moscow (1980) has become the champion in command superiority{championship} and in a vault, the silver prize-winner in personal multiathlon. In total has conquered 7 golden, 5 silver and 3 bronze Olympic awards. In 1976 it is awarded with order Lenina. Family of champions Wife Nikolay - known gimnastka from Voronezh Love the Slops (r. 1953) - twofold{double} Olympic chempionka (1968, 1972) and chempionka the world (1970) in command superiority{championship}, absolute chempionka the USSR (1969, 1970). Nikolay and Love have ended faculty of physical training of the Vladimirskiy pedagogical institute. In 1989-90 Andrianov the higher trainer of a modular men's command of the USSR; the president of Federation of sporting gymnastics of the USSR (1990-91), Russia with 1992. Literatura:Golubev V.L.Nikolay Andrianov. М., 1978. V.I.Linder
  • ANDRIESH (Andries) Andrey Mihajlovich (r. 1933), Moldavian physics, the academician (1984) and the president (with 1989) AN Moldova. Transactionses in range of physics of vitreous semiconductors and optoelectronics.
  • ANDRIKANIS Eugeny Nikolaevich (1909-93), the Russian cameraman and the film director, the national actor of Russia (1982). Has removed films: "Mashenka" (1942), "Otello" (1956), " Boating for three starving " (1958), etc.; has delivered " Boreal story " (1960), " Are executed on a dawn " (1965), " the Lenin way " (1976; the Lenin premium 1978), etc.
  • ANDRISSEN (Andriessen) Hendrik (1892-1981), the Netherlands composer, the organist, the teacher, the musicologist. Opera " Филомела " (1949), cult vokalno-symphonic compositions, orchestral products{creations}, etc.
  • ANDRICH Iwo (1892-1975), the Serbian writer. At the centre of novels " Most on Drin ", " Travnitskaja the chronicle " (both 1945), stories (" the Damned yard ", 1954), the stories reconstructing a panorama of public life of Bosnia during five centuries, - philosophical understanding of human destinies in a context of a history. The Nobel Prize (1961).
  • ANDRIJASHEV Anatoly Petrovich (r. 1910), the Russian ichthyologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1966). Transactionses on a fish fauna of boreal seas of the USSR and Antarctic Region. The state premium of the USSR (1971).



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