Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ANDROVSKAJA Olga Nikolaevna (1898-1975), the Russian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1948). With 1924 in MHATe. Predominary comedy actress possessing major charm, shining scenic technique, crafty humour. Roles: Sjuzanna (" Mad day or Marriage Figaro " P.O.Bomarshe, 1927), lady Tizl (" School of a scandal " R.Sheridan), pani Konti (" Solo for hours with crocked eggs " O.Zagradnika). The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ANDROGENESIS (from grech. aner, a stem. Item andros - the man and... A genesis), " a men's parthenogenesis ", development eggs (after penetration into him{it} of a spermatozoon) only with a men's nucleus. It is supervised routinely in an event of death of a women nucleus before fertilization.
  • ANDROGENS, men's sexual hormones of vertebrates and the person; are produced primarily by seed plants, and also a bark of suprarenal glands and ovaries. Boost development and function of men's sexual organs, development of secondary sexual attributes. On a chemical nature steroids. The main{basic} representative - Testosteron-Depotum. Are applied in medicine and animal husbandry.
  • ANDROLOGY (from grech. aner, a stem. Item andros - the man and... logija), section of a urinology; studies diseases men's urinary and sexual organs.
  • ANDROMAHA, in the Grecian mythology of marital partner Hector. In "Illiada" Andromaha - implementation of an ideal of the devoted and liking wife.
  • ANDROMEDA, in botany - the same, that a butterbut.
  • ANDROMEDA, in the Grecian mythology the daughter of tsar of Ethiopia, surrendered by him{it} in a victim to a marine monster, opustoshavshemu country, and salvaged Perseem. According to the myth, after mors turned into mia maid (from here the title of mia maid).
  • ANDROMEDA (an armour. Andromeda), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere.
  • ANDROMEDAS the NEBULOSITY nearest to our Galaxy a huge spiral galaxy (belongs to Aboriginal group of galaxies). Mass ~ (3-5.1011 masses of the Sun, distance up to nebulosity of the Andromeda ~ 700 kpk. It is visible to the naked eye (as the fog speck) in mia maid of the Andromeda.
  • ANDRONIK (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, diocesan in Roman province Pannonija (nowadays in Hungary), the relative and souznik apostle Paul (the Message to Romans 16:7). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on May, 17 (30) and on July, 30 (on August, 12).
  • ANDRONIK I Komnin (ok. 1123-85), the byzantian emperor with 1183. Having achieved demagogy of support of masses, has trapped a holy table. Pursued{adopted} a policy a terror in relation to aristocracy. Will overthrow znatju Constantinople and it is executed.
  • ANDRONIK RODOSSKY (1 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, 11-th sholarh peripateticheskoj schools. Systematized and has emited main{basic} tracts Aristotelja (it{him} t. n. "esotericheskie" compositions).
  • ANDRONIKS (Andronikashvili) Irakly Luarsabovich (1908-90), the Russian writer, the literary critic, the master of the oral story, the national actor of the USSR (1982). The main{basic} probes are dedicated M.J.Lermontov. The lenin premium (1976), the State premium of the USSR (1967).
  • ANDRONIKS the MONASTERY (Andronikov Spasa Nerukotvornogo the men's monastery), is based ok. 1360 in Moscow, on the left-handed coast Jauzy. The architectural ensemble actuates belokamennyj 4-столпный Spassky a cathedral (1420-27) with fragments of frescos (1420th), plump under a guiding of Daniel Black and Andrey Rubleva, a refectory (1504) with church (1694), walls and towers (17 century). About 1947 Museum - reservation old russian art by him{it}. A.Rublyov. About 1987 Central museum of old russian crop and arts by him{it}. A.Rublyov.
  • ANDRONOV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1901-52), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1946). The writer of fundamental transactionses and the founder of scientific school under the theory of non-linear oscillations and its{her} appendices in radio physics, automatic regulation, dynamics{changes} of machines. One of writers of the classical book "Vibration theory" (1937).
  • ANDRONOV Nikolay Ivanovich (r. 1929), the Russian painter, the deserved artist of Russia (1978). The representative t. n. Inclement style in the Soviet art 50-60-Х. The writer of drama landscapes (" Night in Soligaliche "), analytical self-portraits, indicative tesselated panels (" the Person and a seal{printing} " in the new building of the newspaper of "Information" in Moscow, 1977, together with A.V.Vasnetsovym). The state premium of the USSR (1979).
  • ANDRONOVSKAJA CROP (in archeology), a bronze age (2 thousand up to n. e.) in Zap. Siberia, Kazakhstan and JUzh. Priuralje. The title on d. Andronovo about Achinsk. Burials and residues of settlements. An economy: cattle breeding and agriculture.
  • ANDROPOV, the title of Rybinsk Yaroslavl region in 1984-89.
  • ANDROPOV Jury Vladimirovich (1914-84), the secretary general of a Central Committee of the CPSU (1982-84), chairman VS the USSR (with 1983), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). With 1940 1-st secretary of Central Committee LKSM (Lenin Communist Soyuz of Youth) Karelia. Within Great Domestic war one of organizers of guerilla motion in Karelia. With 1947 2-nd secretary of Central Committee KP (б) Karelia. In 1951-52 in a Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1953-57 salting of the USSR in Hungary; promoted uptake of the Soviet troops to Hungary (1956). About 1957 head of a department of a Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1962-67 and since May 1982 secretary of a Central Committee of the CPSU. The member of the Political bureau of a Central Committee of the CPSU with 1973 (the candidate with 1967). In 1967-82 chairman of KGB of the USSR, the general (1976); supervised over implementation of repressive measures in relation to dissident and pravozashchitnomu to motion (arrests, denationalizations, etc.) . As the secretary general attempted administrative methods to stop crisis in a consignment and государстве.* * *АНДРОПОВ Jury Vladimirovich [on June, 2 (15) 1914, village Nagurskaja of Stavropol territory - on February, 9 1984, Moscow], Soviet state and the political figure, the secretary general of a Central Committee of the CPSU (1982-84). Started ways Was born in family of the railroad man, has early remained without the father. After the terminal of a seven-tap hole worked the mate of the projectionist at railway club at station Mozdok, the worker by telegraph, the mariner of a river fleet. In 1936 has ended the Rybinsk technical school of a water transport, studied in Petrozavodsk university. Has finished the Maximum party school at a Central Committee of the CPSU later. In 1936 began Komsomol pit of Andropov which top the post{station} of the first secretary of a Central Committee of Komsomol of Karelia (1940-44) has become. With 1939 member VKP (б). During war 1941-45 participat in guerilla motion in Karelia. From the ordinary party functionary up to the chairman of KGB To 1944 Andropov has transfered on party activity, was the second secretary of the Petrozavodsk city town committee of a consignment, then the second secretary of a Central Committee of Communist Party of Karelia. With 1951 - in the apparatus of a Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1954-57 was the ambassador of the USSR of Hungary. To 1956 Andropov insisted on uptake of the Soviet troops to Hungary, and then has played an active role in depressing{supression} revolt against a communist mode in Hungary. He managed to coax J.Kadara to head the Hungarian government generated{formed} by Moscow. After the Hungarian events Andropov managed a department of socialist countries of a Central Committee of the CPSU (1957-67), was the secretary of a Central Committee of the CPSU (1962-67). To 1964 Andropov participat in N.S.Hrushcheva's offset. With 1967 - the chairman of KGB. For 15 flying of his{its} guiding organs of a state security have essentially strengthened and have expanded the supervisory control above all orbs of life of the state and a society. One of main routes of activity of KGB was extirpation with dissident motion. At Andropov costs above pravozashchitnikami were conducted, different methods of depressing{supression} of a dissent were used, (for example compulsory medical treatment different forms of extrajudicial persuit practised insane hospitals). Under the initiative of Andropov dispatch dissident began. So, in 1974 has been deported abroad and then writer A.I.Solzhenitsyn is denaturalized. In 1980 academician A.D.Saharov has been deported in. Bitter where he was under stationary values the supervisory control of KGB. Andropov gave special attention to the supervisory control of activity of organs of a state security of countries of socialist camp. Secret operations on drive of the large currency sums to foreign communist parties and the public associations bolstering the USSR were conducted. At Andropov of KGB lent support to international terrorist organizations. Andropov was the adherent of the drastic steps in relation to countries of socialist camp which aspired{tried} a carry independent internal and foreign policy. In August 1968 he has exerted influence decision marking about uptake of a troops of countries of the Warsaw agreement to Czechoslovakia. At the end of 1979 Andropov has supported the proposal on encroachment of the Soviet troops to Afghanistan, and in 1980 insisted on realization of the military share against Poland. In 1974 he has become the Hero Socialist transactionses, and in 1976 him the rank of the general of army has been assigned. In the rank of the secretary general In November 1982 Andropov has been selected the secretary general of a Central Committee of the CPSU. In the first months of the board he has proclaimed a course, directed on socio economic transformations{conversions}. However all changes were reduced to administrative actions, strengthening of a labour discipline, exposure of corruption in a close surrounding of a ruling clique. The political and economic system remained firm. Moreover, the ideological supervisory control and reprisals against dissident have become tougher. In foreign policy the confrontation with the West has amplified. At the same time Andropov aspired{tried} to strengthening of the personal authority. Since June 1983 he aligns the position of the secretary general of a consignment with a post{station} of the chief of state - the chairman of presidium of a Supreme Soviet of the USSR. But on the maximum post{station} he remained hardly more year. The last months of the life Andropov have been compelled to steer country from hospital chamber of the Kremlin clinic. The literature: Medvedev R.A.Svjaz of times. Stavropol, 1992. Medvedev R.A.Gensek with Lubjanki. М., 1993. Volkogonov D.A.Sem of leaders. Passageway of leaders of the USSR: In 2 kn. М., 1995. Kn. 2. L.A.Molchanov
  • ANDROECIUM (from grech. aner, a stem. Item andros - the man and oikia - home unit), set{combination} of stamens of a flower.
  • ANDRUSOV Nikolay Ivanovich (1861-1924), the Russian geologist, one of founders of paleoecology, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; the academician Petersburg AN with 1914). With 1919 abroad. Transactionses on a stratigraphy and paleontologies neogena the Ponto-Caspian basin. For the first time has placed{installed} "infection rate" of depths of Black m. a hydrogen sulfide.
  • ANDRUSOVSKOE ARMISTICE, has finished russko-Polish war 1654-67 (30.1.1667, d. Andrusovo in area of Smolensk). Speech Pospolita has returned to Russia Smolensk and Chernigov grounds, has recognized recombination with Russia Left-bank Ukraine.
  • ANDRUSHEVKA, city (with 1975) on Ukraine, Zhitomir region. A depot. 12,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Sugar combine, a cheese-making factory, etc.
  • ANDHAKA (sanskr. Blind), in induizme the demonic godhood, one of asur, tysjachegolovyj and blind son Shivy.
  • ANDHRA-PRADESH, staff in India, in a central part p-ova Hindustan. 277 thousand км2. The population 66,4 million person (1991). Adm. ts.-Hyderabad.
  • The ANDES (Andes) (Andijskie Cordilleras JUzh. America), an austral part of a range of Cordilleras, occupying boreal and western surburb of mainland Juzh. America. One of the most lengthy (9 thousand in km.) And the highest on the Earth (6960 m, Aконкагуа). Will consist from parallel hrebtov - Vost., Center., Zap. And Coastal Cordilleras between which are encased internal a tableland or a hollow. Earthquakes are often; many active volcanoes. Andes lay in several climatic belts and differ (especially at the centre) sharp contrasts in humidifying eastern and western downslopes. Most the considerable glaciation in Patagonian Andes (over 20 thousand км2). Across Andes passes an interocean watershed, in them Amazon and its{her} inflow rise, the eskar lays high-mountainous. Titikaka. Owing to climatic distinctions{differences} and high altitudes rather diverse soil - plant cover and fauna. Andes are affluent ores, primarily non-ferrous metals, in submontane sags - petroleum and gas.
  • ANEURISM (from grech. aneurysma - expansion).. 1) an aneurism of heart - the protrusion of a restricted plot istonchennoj walls of heart, is routine after an infarct... 2) the Aneurism of a vessel - restricted aboriginal expansion of a lumen of an artery owing to a stretching and extrusions of its{her} wall (at an atherosclerosis, a lues, damage).
  • JOKE (from grech. anekdotos - unpublished).. 1) the short story about a historical face, incident... 2) the Genre of urban folklore, burning comic a story - miniature with a unexpected tailpiece, a peculiar comic parable.
  • ANAEMIA (from grech. an--a negative prefix and haima - blood) (anaemia), group of the diseases defined by reduction of quantity of erythrocytes and (or) a haemoglobin in blood that results in a hypoxia. The causes: hemorrhages (acute and chronic posthemorrhagic an anaemia), heightened kroverazrushenie (a hemolytic anaemia) or a disturbed hemopoiesis (at defect in an organism gland - iron deficiency anemias pregnant, a chlorosis, etc.; some vitamins - a pernicious anaemia, etc.; at a toxic defeat of bone marrow, etc.). Some an anaemia fall into to hereditary diseases (napr., serpovidnokletochnaja an anaemia). Developments of an anaemia: asthenia, a vertigo, a short wind, palpitation, paleness of integuments, etc.
  • ANEMO... (from grech. anemos - a wind), the part of the composite words conforming on value to the word "wind" (napr., an anemometer).
  • ANEMOMETER (from anemo... And... Meter), a gauge meter of wind speed and gas streams (sometimes and wind directions - anemorumbometr) on a number of revolutions of a rotated whirly.
  • ANEMONE, the same, that a weather shake.
  • ANEMOPHILY (from anemo... And... filija), an allogamy of plants with the help of a wind, napr. For cereals, a birch.
  • ANEMOCHORIA (from anemo... And grech. choreo - I advance), distribution{propagation} of fruits and seeds of plants a wind.
  • ANERGIJA (from grech. an--a negative prefix and ergon - activity, action), in medicine - absence of body resistance to pathogenic environmental effects.
  • ANEROID (from a--a negative prefix and grech. neros - water), a barometer in which the atmospheric pressure is measured on value of a strain of an elastic metal box from which air is pumped off; at pressure variation the box is squeezeed or extends, and the bound with her a scape moves{migrates} on a scale, indicating pressure.
  • ANESTHESIOLOGY (from an anaesthesis and... logija), the range of clinical medicine investigator problems of an anaesthetization, steering of the vital functions of an organism in time, and also before and after a surgical operation.
  • ANESTHETICS, the medicinal substances used for a synthetic anaesthesis; oppress different kinds{views} of sensitivity, first of all pain.
  • ANAESTHESIS (grech. anaisthesia), an anesthesia owing to a defeat of sensory nerves. The synthetic anaesthesis for an anaesthetization at surgical operations is reached by influence of anaesthetizing substance on a brain (a general anaesthesia - narcosis), on nerve terminations and trunks in a place operations (local anaesthesia) or on a spinal cord (a spinal anaesthesis).
  • ANETO (Pico de Aneto), the highest top Pireneev (3404 м) in Spain.
  • ANEUPLOIDY (from grech. an--a negative prefix, eu - quite, ploos - aliquot and eidos - a kind{view}), a hereditary variation at which cells of an organism contain chromosome number, not aliquot to the main{basic} panel: he is reduced on 1 (monosomy), less often 2 (nullisomija) or enlarged on 1 or some chromosomes. An aneuploidy - the cause of some chromosome diseases of the person.
  • ANGERS (Angers), city in the west France, on r. Maine, an administrative centre of department Maine and Loire and main city of historical range of Anjou. 141 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, textile, a food-processing industry. A museum of trellises, etc. The Romansko-Gothic cathedral (12-13 centuries), the clasp (13 century).
  • ANZHERO-SUDZHENSK, city (with 1931) in the Russian Federation, the Kemerovo region. Depot (Anzherskaja). 106,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). A coal mining. Factories: machine-building, tractor units, himiko-pharmaceutical, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is based in 1897.
  • ANJOU (Anjou), historical range in France. 7,6 thousand км2. The population of 700 thousand person. Maine and Loire and in part Endr and Loire, Majen, Sarta actuates departments. Main city - Angers.
  • ANJOU ISLANDS, central, largest islands in group of Novosibirsk islands. Actuate islands: Boiler, Faddeevsky, New Siberia, Belkovsky and Bunge the Earth. A gross area ok. 29 thousand км2. Are called named P.F.Anzhu.
  • ANJOU Peter Fedorovich (1796-1869), the Russian polar explorer, admiral. In 1821-23 probeed boreal coasts of Siberia; has constituted a map of Novosibirsk islands.
  • ANZHUJSKAJA the DYNASTY, a royal dynasty in England in 1154-1399 (see. Plantagenety), JUzh. Italy in 1268-1442, Sicily in 1268-82 (nominally in 1266-1302), Hungary in 1308-87, Poland in 1370-82 and 1384-85. Led an origin from the French graphs of Anjou (Anjou).
  • ANZANI (Anzani) Alexander (1877-1956), the French designer. By origin the Italian. Participat in bicycle and a car racing. One of first designed and issued aircraft engines air-cooled.
  • ANZOB, a saddle-point through Gissarsky hr., in Tadjikistan. The altitude of 3372 m. Through Anzob passes highway Tashkent - Dushanbe.
  • ANZUD (Anzu, the Storage, Imdugud), in shumerskoj mythologies htonicheskoe the godhood, huge lvinogolovyj an eagle, olitsetvorenie thunder-storms.
  • ANZJUS (English Australia, New Zealand, United States - ANZUS), the political-military unit in structure of Australia, Is new. Zealand and the USA; the agreement for the union is signed in September 1951 and has come into force in April 1952.
  • ANI, drevnearmjansky city in 5-16 centuries, on r. Arpachaj (nowadays in Turkey). The economic, political and cultural centre Other. Armenia. In 10-11 centuries capital Anijskogo of a kingdom. Archeological excavations kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries, residues of monuments of the Armenian architecture.
  • ANI, see. Kulsans.
  • ANIVA, city (with 1946) in the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin region, on coast a hall. Aniva. A depot. 9,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). The alimentary enterprises.
  • ANIVA, bay Ohotskogo in m., for an austral coast about. Sakhalin. Length of 90 kms. Width of 104 kms. Depth up to 93 m. Cities - Aniva and Korsakov.
  • ANISOGAMY (from grech. anisos - unequal and gamos - spoilage), see. A heterogamy.
  • ANISOCORIA (from grech. anisos - unequal and kore - a pupil), the unequal dimensions of pupils owing to an organic defeat of nervous system, diseases of eyes, etc.
  • ANISOTROPY (from grech. anisos - unequal and tropos - a direction), relation of properties of medium to a direction. The anisotropy is characteristic, napr., for mechanic, optical, magnetic, electrical, etc. properties of crystals.
  • ANIJSKOE the KINGDOM, the state in 960th - 1045, integrated a large part of Armenia (capital - Ani). Dynasty Bagratidov corrected. Rise of science, the literature, art. It is conquered by Byzantium.
  • ANIKITA Melitinsky (mind{wit}. 298), one of thirty three Christian martyrs - soldiers damaged in the Melitin in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
  • ANIKST Alexander Abramovich (1910-88), the Russian literary critic, the doctor of art criticism (1963), the honorary doctor of literature Birmingemskogo of university (1974). Activities in range of the theory and a history of the Western-European literature, theatre and an aesthetics, about U.Shakespeare, I.V.Gete.
  • ANIKUSHIN Michael Konstantinovich (r. 1917), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1963), the full member AH the USSR (1962), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1977). A monument to A.S.Pushkin (1957), a memorial to " Heroic defence attorneys of Leningrad " (1975) - in Saint Petersburg. The lenin premium (1958).
  • ANIKSHCHJAJ, city (up to 1917 official title Onikshty) in Lithuania, for confluence Anikshta and SHvjantoji. A depot. 13,1 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture of felted boots, a building materials, etc. The Memorial museum of poet A.Baranauskasa and writer A.Venuolisa. It is known from 15 century.
  • ANILINE, C6H5NH2, a colourless liquid, tкип 184,4 °C. It is applied in manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, blasting explosives, polymers, rubber accelerators.
  • ANIMALISTICHESKY the GENRE (from an armour. animal - animal), the plotting animal in painting, a sculpture and the schedule{chart}. Animalistichesky the genre combines the natural-science and art beginnings. The artists working in animalisticheskom a genre, call as animal painters.
  • ANIMALKULISTY (from an armour. animalculum - a little wild beast), the biologists of 17-18 centuries inaccurately considering{counting}, that in a spermatozoon predobrazovan the formed organism and development of a germ is reduced only to his{its} increase in the dimensions. Compare. Ovisty.
  • ANIMALNYJ (from an armour. animal - animal), in biology-.. 1) animal, relating to animal... 2) Animalnyj a pole - range eggs animal in which before fertilization there is a nucleus.
  • The ANIMATOR (from an armour. anima - life, a shower, animator - producing life), the moviemaker working in multiplication kino.
  • ANIMATED KINO (animation) (English animation from an armour. animatus - alive, animated), the same, that multiplication kino.
  • ANIMISM (from an armour. anima, animus - a shower, spirit), belief in existence a shower and spirits, a mandatory element of any religion.
  • ANIMIKIT, a mineral, a version of silver native, stibiated.
  • ANION (from grech. anion, characters. - going up), negatively charged ion; at an electrolysis of the solutions keeping ions, anion goes to a positive electrode - to the anode. See also Cation.
  • ANION EXCHANGERS, one of kinds{views} of ion exchangers.
  • ANION-EXCHANGE RESINS, one of kinds{views} of ion-exchange resins.
  • ANISE, autumnal grades of an apple tree: an anise streaky, an anise scarlet (arcaded Russian grades), an anise purple, etc. Fruits of an average, sweet-sour, with "anisic" aroma. Productivity of 250-500 kg from a tree.
  • ANISIMOV Ivan Ivanovich (1899-1966), the Russian literary critic, corresponding member AN the USSR (1960). Transactionses under the classical and modern foreign literature. The state premium of the USSR (1978, posthumously).
  • ANISIMOV Sergey Ivanovich (r. 1934), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on physics of continuums, theories of a condensate condition of substance, a physical kinetics. The state premium of the USSR (1986).
  • ANISIMOVTSY, religious sect of abstainers in 1920th in Petrograd. The title by name Anisima Smirnova, declared the Christ and undertaking attempts of recoveries.
  • ANICHKOV Dmitry Sergeevich (1733-88), the Russian educator, the philosopher - deist. The professor of the Moscow university (with 1771). His{its} thesis on an origin of religion is convicted for atheism, all its{her} copies incinerated.
  • ANICHKOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1885-1964), the Russian pathologist, academician AN the USSR (1939) and AMN (1944), president AMN (1946-53), the general - lieutenant of a medical service (1943). Has developed the cholesteric theory of a pathogeny of an atherosclerosis. Transactionses on a pathology of reticuloendothelial system; autoinfections. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • ANICHKOV Sergey Viktorovich (1892-1981), the Russian pharmacologist, academician AMN (1950), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1967). Transactionses on pharmacology of nervous and cardiovascular systems. Has created a number{series} of medicinal preparations (including Dibazolum). The lenin premium (1976), the State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ANK MARTSY (an armour. Ancus Martius), one of seven legendary tsars Other. Rome, grandson Numy Pompilija. The tradition attributes to him care of cults of gods and binds his{its} name to construction of the bridge through Tiber and backfill of port Ostija.
  • ANKARA (Ankara; the Angora), capital of Turkey, on Anatolian a tableland, an administrative centre ilja Ankara earlier called. 2,6 million inhabitants (1990). A machine industry. Flavoring, woollen, tanning, a woodworking industry. Universities. It is based in 7 century up to n. e. About 1920 residence of Great national assembly of Turkey and governments.
  • ANKARSKAJA (ANGORA) BATTLE, 28 (or 20) .7.1402 in which Timur's troops have routed turkish army of anthurus Bajazida I, that has reduced in temporary disintegration of Turkey.
  • ANCHOR (a nem. Anker, characters. - an anchor).. 1) a component part of hours (a pumping fork), ensuring a balanced running of a clock mechanism... 2) the Component part for binding parts of structures and machines. In structures an anchor mortgage in a masonry (walls, the bases, vaults). The term "anchor" is applied also in sense "intermediate piece" (an anchor plate, gusset stay).
  • The QUESTIONNAIRE (frants. enquete, characters. - investigation), the questionnaire for obtaining any cramps about a volume who fills in it{him}, or for obtaining answers to the problems constituted under the fixed program.
  • QUESTIONING, mean of concrete social probe, drawing up, distribution{propagation}, study of questionnaires. It is applied in social sciences, at population censuses, study of public opinion.
  • ANKIL, in Roman mythology a board which in reign Numy Pompilija has falled from the root, having become a guarantee of security and prosperities of the Roman state. Ankil and more eleven similar boards, made under order Numy, sacrificers - salii kept.
  • ANKYLOSIS (from grech. ankylos - crooked), the ainesia of a joint stipulated by an adnation primarily of articulate surfaces after inflammatory process or a trauma. Treatment operating.
  • ANKILOSTOMIDY (ankilostomatidy), a set of worms of a class of nematodes. Ok. 70 kinds{views}, predominary in tropics and subtropics. Parasitize in an intestines of the person and mammals. Invoke{produce} a dochmiasis, bunostomoz, etc. diseases.
  • DOCHMIASIS, invazionnaja disease of dogs, white foxes and the foxes, called by nematodes - ankilostomidami, parasitizing in small intestines. Symptoms: a vomiting, a diarrhoea.
  • The ENCLAVE (enclave) (frants. enclave, from an armour. inclavo - I lock on a key), terrain or a part of terrain of one state, other state surrounded from different directions with terrain (napr., Lesotho). If the enclave has an access to the sea, it{him} call poluanklavom.
  • ANCONA (Ancona), city and a port in Center. Italy, on the Adriatic m., an administrative centre prov. Ancona and ranges Mark. 103,5 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, oil refining, mild, a food-processing industry; manufacture of musical instruments, majolicas, glassware. A balneal health resort. A triumphal arc of Trajan (nach. 2 century), a Romanesque cathedral (11-13 centuries). Marine base.
  • ANCHORAGE (Anchorage), city and a port in the USA, pieces. Alaska. 226 thousand inhabitants (1990). The large trading - transport centre. An international airport. Wood, alimentary (a thorough revision of a fish), a printing industry. University. A museum of Indians of Arctic regions and eskimos; monument Dzh. To Cook.
  • ANKUDINOV Timotheus Demjanovich (1617-53), podjachy. In 1643 ran from Russia. Gave itself for son Vasily Shujskogo - Ivan. Claiming for a holy table, achieved support of Speech Pospolitoj, Turkey, Roman a dad, italian, etc. the states. In 1653 it is given by duke Golshtinskim. It is executed.
  • ANLUND (Ahnlund) Nils (1889-1957), the Swedish historian. Transactionses on a history of Sweden of 17 century.
  • ANNA (1 century up to n. e.), sacred, holy, the wife of Jehoiakim, mother of the Holy Virgin Theotokos whom she has given rise after a 20-years sterility. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 25 (on August, 7), on September, 9 and on December, 9 (22), in Roman catholic on July, 26.
  • ANNA AUSTRIAN (Anne d'Austriche) (1601-66), the French queen, the wife (with 1615) Lui XIII. In 1643-51 regentsha at minor Lui XIV.
  • ANNA Adrianopolskaja (3 century), the Christian martyress. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on October, 22 (on November, 4).
  • ANNA BOLEJN, see Bolejn Anna.
  • ANNA IVANOVNA (Anna Ioannovna) (1693-1740), the Russian empress with 1730, niece Peter I, gertsoginja Kurljandskaja with 1710. It is erected on a holy table by the Supreme Privy Council. The actual governor at her E.I.Biron.* * *АННА IVANOVNA (Anna Ioannovna) [on January, 28 (on February, 7) 1693, Moscow - on October, 17 (28) 1740, Petersburg], the Russian empress (with 1730) was. The daughter of tsar of Ivan V Alekseevicha and P.F.Saltykovoj. After mors of the father in 1696 together with mother and sisters a vein in situated near Moscow torrent Izmajlovo where has received domestic education. In 1708 under Peter's I order the family has moved to Petersburg, and in 1710 Anna has been given in marriage for duke Kurljandskogo Fridriha Wilhelm who has died in January 1711 on ways from Petersburg to Kurland where pullet{young man} have departed soon after wedding. Anna wanted was to return back, but under Peter's I insisting has been compelled to live in Mitave. In a hostile way met kurljandskim nobility, she already has soon hitted under influence of Russian resident P.M.Bestuzhev which has become its{her} favorite. Being in the extremely humble material circumstances, not liked natural mother Anna had to revert permanently to the Russian yard and the relatives in Petersburg with the degraded requests for the help. In 1726 as a result of A.D.Menshikov claiming on kurljandsky a holy table intrigues, spoilage of Anna with the graph Moritz Saksonskim was upset. After Bestuzhev recall with 1727 its{her} favorite E.I.Biron from whom under some data Anna had the son officially considered born wife Birona has become. In 1730 in conditions of dynastic crisis after Peter's mors II she has been engaged by members of the Supreme Privy Council on the Russian holy table and has signed offered to her verhovnikami the "Condition", limiting autocracy. However after the arrival to Moscow, Anna having broken off "Condition", it has been professed by the autocratic empress. Its{her} support were adherents of autocratic board and guards. Character, a mode of life Anna Ivanovna had a difficult character, it was whimsical, differed rancour and vindictiveness. The Petersburg yard of times of Anna Ivanovny represented a mix staromoskovskih orders with elements of the new european crop, introduced in Russia Peter innovations. Not having abilities and tendency to state activity, the empress spent time in idle court entertainments among fools, liliputians, beatas, fortunetellers, old women - prizhivalok. She liked to act in a role of the matchmaker, adored a hunt, exterminating each year on some honeycomb tired out for it{her} animal. Special popularity wedding of prince M.Golitsyn - Kvasnika with kalmychkoj has received arranged to her in February 1740 shutovskaja A.Buzheninovoj in specially built Ice dwelling. At the same time at a yard the italian opera and ballet were popular. On an order of Anna Ivanovny the theatre on 1000 places has been constructed, and in 1737 the ballet school is open{discovered} first in Russia. The internal policy Internal and foreign policy of Russia of times of Anna Ivanovny has been as a whole directed on prolongation of a line of Peter I. After dissolution in 1730 Supreme Privy Councils the value of the Senate recovered{restored}, and in 1731 the Cabinet council, actually run is built by country. Not trusting a former political top and guards, the empress has created new Guards shelves - Izmajlovsky and Horse, completed by aliens and one-palaces of the South of Russia. A number{series} of the major requests of nobility, telescoped has simultaneously been satisfied during events 1730. In 1731 the Peter Decree about primogeniture (1714) regarding the order of succession of the real estates has been cancelled, established SHljahetsky a body for children of noblemen, in 1732 the salaries to Russian officers twice enlarged, in 1736 25-years life cycle after which noblemen could retire is established{installed}, it is authorized to abandon one of sons for steering of a manor. Policy on an enslavement of all grades of the population has simultaneously been prolonged: the decree 1736 all workers of industrial enterprises are declared by the property of their masters. Reign of Anna Ivanovny is noted by rise of the Russian industry, first of all metallurgical, left on the first place in the world on a pig iron production. From second half 1730th gradual drive of the state enterprises to private{individual} arms{hand} that has been made fast by the Berg-rules (1739) boosting private{individual} business began. Bironovshchina Reign of Anna Ivanovny was included also in historiography and as time "bironovshchiny", that is routinely treated as domination of aliens and a hardening of police reprisals. In a reality taken high positions at its{her} yard Biron, B.K.Minih, A.I.Osterman, brothers Levenvolde, etc. participat in extirpation for political influence on the empress alongside with Russian grandees, not organizing unified " a german consignment ". The figure convicted in these years Secret office on the average did not differ almost from analogous parameters of precedent and consequent time, and among them practically there is no affair, the bound antigerman moods. Processes against princes Dolgorukih, prince D.M.Golitsyn, and also A.P.Volynskogo's business are most known. Anna it was pointed out devot, superstitious, showed care of strengthening of orthodoxy. At her new theological seminaries have been open{discovered}, the execution for blasphemy (1738) .V is established{installed} The foreign policy the Actual chief of Russian foreign policy at Anna Ivanovne was A.I.Osterman, in 1726 achieving signings the treaty of alliance with Austria which has defined{determined} a nature of foreign policy of country for some decades. In 1733-1735 allies in unison participat in war for " the Polish patrimony " which outcome was Stanislav Leshchinskogo's expulsion{relegation} and election on a Polish holy table of August III. During russko-turkish war 1735-1739 Russian army doubly (1736, 1738) was included in Crimea and broke it{him}, turkish strengths Ochakov and Hotin have been seized. However inept actions commanding army Miniha, reduced to major human loss, have forced Russia to sign the Belgrad world unprofitable for it{her} on which she should return to Turkey all conquered grounds. Shortly before mors Anna Ivanovna has proclaimed the successor of a holy table of the grandnephew of minor Ivan Antonovicha, and the cantor at nem Birona. It is buried Anna Ivanovna in Petropavlovsk a cathedral of Petersburg. Литература:Анисимов E.V.Rossija without Peter. SPb., 1993. A.B.Kamensky
  • ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA (1718-46), pravitelnitsa Russia in 1740-41 at the minor son - emperor Ivan VI Antonoviche, the grand daughter of Ivan V. With 1739 is married to prince Anton Ulrihom Braunshvejgskim. Svergnuta in November 1741; has died in the reference.
  • ANNA PERENNA (an armour. Anna Perenna), in Roman mythology the goddess of new year, festival in its{her} honour fell Idy March (on March, 15).
  • ANNA PETROVNA (1708-28), daughter Peter I. With 1725 wife of duke Golshtejn-Gottorpskogo, mother Peter III, actual foundress Golshtejn-Gottorpskoj of a line of dynasty Romanovyh (1761-1917).
  • ANNA Selevkijskaja (Persian) (mind{wit}. ok. 345), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of tsar Shapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 20 (on December, 3), in Roman catholic on November, 20.
  • ANNA STJUART (Anne Stuart) (1665-1714), the English queen with 1702, last from dynasty Stjuartov.
  • ANNA JAROSLAVNA (ok. 1024 - not earlier than 1075), daughter Jaroslava Wise, the wife (1049-1060) French kings Genriha I. Pravitelnitsa France in the infancy of the son - Phillip I.
  • ANNABA (Bonds), city and port on north-east of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Annaba. 305,5 thousand inhabitants (1987). A traffic centre. An international airport. A metallurgical, metal-working, chemical, textile industry. University. A mosque Sit bu Meruan (1033).
  • ANNABERG-BUHHOLTS (Annaberg-Buchholz), city in a southeast of Germany, ground Saxony. 26 thousand inhabitants (1988). A machine industry, a light industry. Gothic church Annenkirhe (1499-1525).
  • ANNAKULIEVA Annagul (r. 1924), the Turkmen singer (soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1965). With 1941 at Turkmen theatre of opera and ballet.
  • ANNALISTY, the first Roman historians, stated basically Roman events pogodno. Are most known: Quints Faby Piktor (3 century up to n. e.), the Kathon the Higher (2 century up to n. e.). Compositions annalistov have reached us in fragments and in mentions of consequent Roman writers.
  • ANNALS (an armour. annales, from annus - year), drevnerimskie, and also medieval annals. In a broad sense - record most the considerable events on years.
  • To ANNAS.. 1) the title given by the Chinese emperors of terrain of modern the Sowing. And in part Center. Vietnam, were under their domination in 7-10 centuries. It was used in the european and Chinese literature as the title of all country (from here the obsolete title of the population of country - annamity) later... 2) the Administrative title Center. Vietnam (CHungbo) in 1884-1945 at the French colonial rule.
  • ANNAMSKIE MOUNTAINS, in Vietnam and Laos; see. CHyongshon.
  • ANNAN (Annan) Kofi Atta (r. 1938), the secretary general of the United Nations (1997), the representative of Ghana. Since 1960th took different positions in the United Nations. In 1990 chapter of humanitarian mission of the United Nations in Iraq during the irako-Kuwaiti war. The representative of the secretary general of the United Nations to former Yugoslavia. With 1995 deputy of the secretary general of the United Nations on peace-making operations.
  • ANNAS - ARBOR (Ann Arbor), city in a north the USA, pieces. Michigan. 110 thousand inhabitants (1990). Educational and a centre of science. 2 universities, institute of science and technology (space and nuclear probes). Manufacture of a computer.
  • ANNATES (medieval an armour. annata, from an armour. annus - year), in Zap. To Europe with it is grey. 13 century the lumpsum tax for the benefit of papal treasury from the faces receiving the vacant church benefice. To nach. 19 century in a large part of the states have ceased to be levied.
  • ANNEKE (Anneke) Fridrih (1818-72), one of organizers (1848) Cologne working unions in Germany, the Prussian ammunition officer. Participant Badensko-Pfaltsskogo of revolt 1849; the colonel of army of northerners in the Civil war in the USA 1861-65.
  • ANNEXATION (from an armour. annexio - apposition), a kind{view} of aggression, violent apposition (capture) of all or parts of terrain of other state or people, and also violent deduction of a nationality{national character} in borders{limits} of the another's state.
  • ANNELIDY, the same, that annelids.
  • ANNENKOV Ivan Aleksandrovich (1802-78), the decembrist, the lieutenant. The member of Boreal society. It is sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1835-56 on a settlement in Zap. Siberia.
  • ANNENKOV (Kokin) Nikolay Aleksandrovich (r. 1899), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1960), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1990). With 1924 at Small theatre. With 1961 professor of the Theatrical school him{it}. Schepkin. The state premium of the USSR (1947, 1948, 1949).
  • ANNENKOV Pavel Vasiljevich (1813-87), the Russian literary critic, the memoirist. The representative of aesthetic criticism. Has preformed the first scientific edition of compositions of A.S.Pushkin (1855-57) and has published materials for the biography of the poet (1855).
  • ANNENKOV July Lazarevich (an ice-film. fam. Soliterman) (r. 1919), the Russian writer. Romanizirovannye F.Zholio-Kjuri's (1954) biographies, Pablo Nerudy (1962). Front experience is embodied in novels " the Flag of a torpedo boat " (1958), " SHturmanok charts " (1972), etc. Plays for the musical theatre: " the Sevastopol waltz " (1961), " the Austral cross " (1971), etc.
  • ANNENKOV Jury Pavlovich (1889-1974), the Russian schedule{chart} and the painter. Distinguishing portraits of writers, artists, political figures, case histories ("Twelve" A.A.Bloka, it is issued in 1918). The writer of memories. With 1924 abroad.
  • ANNENKOV Praskovja Egorovna (Gebl Polina) (1800-76), the wife of decembrist I.A.Annenkov; being the bride, has followed for nymas in Transbaikalia in 1828. The writer of "Notes".
  • ANNENSKY Innokenty Fedorovich (1855-1909), the Russian poet. Brother N.F.Annensky. In lyrical verses (collections " Cypress larets ", 1910; " Post-mortem verses ", 1923) - tragedijnaja intensity, the thin psychologism. Critiques (" the Book of reflectances ", t. 1-2, 1906-09). Transfers{translations}, including tragedies Evripida.
  • ANNENSKY Nikolay Fedorovich (1843 - 1912), the Russian economist, narodnichesky the publicist. Brother I.F.Annensky. The employee of the log-book "Business", " Domestic a note ", " Russian oof ". The chief zemskoj statistics in a number{series} of provinces. One of leaders of a consignment " the National right ", " Soyuz of discharging ". The founder of a consignment of national socialists.
  • ANNECY (Ansi) (Annecy), city on the orient France, in the Alpes, an administrative centre of department the Upper Savoy. St. 50 thousand inhabitants. A machine industry, textile, a paper industry. A climatic health resort.
  • ANNIHILATION of a pair{vapour;couple} (from pozdnelat. annihilatio - destruction, petering), one of kinds{views} of metamorphosises{transformations} of the fundamental particles, descending at crash particles with an antiparticle. At an annihilation the particle and an antiparticle peter, turning to other particles, figure and which grade conservations by laws are limited. Napr., at small powers of crash during an annihilation of a pair{vapour;couple} electron - positron there are photons, and pairs{vapours;couples} a nucleone - antinucleon - basically pi mesons. Process, revertive an annihilation, - pairs{vapours;couples} a birth.
  • ANNINO (ANNENFELD), the title of. SHamhor in Azerbaijan 1928-37.
  • ANNINSKY Lion Aleksandrovich (r. 1934), the Russian critic, the essayist, the literary critic. Considers literary works, kino, theatre, a photo, etc. as expression of a spiritual condition of a society. Books are dedicated the Soviet multinational literature ("Nut kernel", 1965, " Betrothed with idea ", 1971 - about N.A.Ostrovsky, " the Thirtieth - the seventieth ", 1977, "Contact pieces", 1982, " Elbows and side panels ", 1986), histories of the Russian literature (" Leskovskoe a necklace ", 1982, " Three heretics ", 1988), to theatre (" the Ticket in paradise ", 1988), to screenings of classics (" L.N.Tolstoj and a cinematograph ", 1980), to a domestic cinematograph of 1960th (" Six-gang foremen and we ", 1990).
  • ANNONA (sugar apple), a stem of trees and bushes of a set annonovyh. Ok. 110 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics of America, Africa. Many American kinds{views} cultivate for the sake of edible fruits.
  • The SUMMARY (from an armour. annotatio - the remark), the brief characteristics of the content of products{creations} of a seal{printing} or the manuscript.
  • ANNUITIES (from medieval an armour. annuitas - annual payment), a kind{view} of the state loans distributed in 17-19 centuries on which the creditor received the income (rent), plugging settlement of the amount due and paying interest on it{him}. Were disjointed on urgent and life.
  • CANCELLATION (annulment) (from an armour. annullo - I erase), cancellation, the declaration invalid any certificate{act}, the agreement, rights or authorities.
  • ANNUNTSIO Gabriel d ', see. D'Annuntsio.
  • ANOA (a nanous water buffalo), a cloven-hoofed animal of a set polorogih. Length of a body ok. 1,7 m. Horns short, direct. Dwells{lives} in woods about. Sulawesi. In past object of a hunt (meat, a skin). It is rare, in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • The ANODE (from grech. anodos - a upward stroke, climbing), an electrode of a wireless or the electrotechnical device or the device (napr., a galvanic cell, an electron tube, an electrolytic bath), defined that, that the electron motion (in an external circuit) is directed on him{it} (to the cathode).
  • ANODIZATION (electrolytic oxidation), electrolytic deposition of an oxide layer on a surface of metals, alloys and semiconductors. The film protects an item from corrosion, has electrical-insulating properties, forms the good grounding for paint coatings, is used in the decorative purposes.
  • ANODNO-HYDRAULIC MACHINING of metals, founded on dissolution (electrolysis) and ablation of a material by a torrent of an electrolyte. It is applied to machining component parts of the composite profile (title block, a scapula of turbines, etc.), engravings, etc.
  • COMBINATION ED/EC MACHINING of metals, founded on simultaneous use of anodic dissolution and mechanical removal of decomposition product. It is applied to cutting, sharpening of cutters, grind, etc.
  • ANOMALIES MAGNETIC, deviations{rejections} of values of a magnetic field of the Earth from his{its} normal values. Distinguish magnetic disturbances continental (the area of 10-100 thousand км2, napr. East - Siberian), regional (1-10 thousand км2) and local (last often are connected to burial of iron oxides, napr. Krivorozhskaja, Kursk).
  • ANOMALY (grech. anomalia), deviance, from general regularity, irregularity.
  • ABNORMAL DISPERSION, see. A wave dispersion.
  • The ABNORMAL CHILDREN, children having the considerable deviations{rejections} in physical and mental development: violations{disturbance} of intelligence (an oligophrenia, delay of mental development), speeches, a locomotorium, evaluators - visual (blind, become blind, cecutient), acoustical (dead, become deaf, hard of hearing). Children concern to the abnormal children with the composite defects (slepogluhonemye, cecutient, mentally retarded, etc.) also . The called "primary" violations{disturbance} invoke{produce} a number{series} of "secondary" deviations{rejections} in development of the abnormal children; napr., violations{disturbance} of a locomotorium hinder with predmetno-practical activities that invokes{produces} backlog{lag} in development of intellection, etc. The Majority of the abnormal children are educated and train in system special preschool and educational institutions in which problems of correction and indemnification{compensation} of defect and social adaptation are decided. Problems of development, education{learning} and education of the abnormal children compound{make} a subject of defectology. The term used earlier " defective children " in the modern science is not applied. Abroad the abnormal children are actuated in grades " children with deviations{rejections} ", " exclusive children ", etc.
  • ANOMIJA (from frants. anomie - absence of the law, organization), the sociological and social - psychologic concept meaning a moral - psychologic condition of personal and public consciousness which is defined by decomposition of system of the values, the stipulated crisis of a society, the contravention between the professed purposes and impossibility of their realization for the majority. Expresses in estrangement of the person from a society, apathy, disappointment in life, criminality. The concept anomii is entered by E.Djurkgejmom, the theory anomii is developed by R.K.Mertonom.
  • The ANONYM (from grech. anonymos - anonymous).. 1) the writer of the letter or the composition, hidden{concealed} the name... 2) the Composition without notation of a name of the writer.
  • ANORAK (eskim)., a wind-proof jacket with an almuce.
  • ANOREKSIGENNYE the MEANS (from grech. an--a negative prefix and orexis - appetite), the medicinal substances suppressing appetite. In combination to a diet (reduction of caloricity of nutrition) apply at a ropiness.
  • ANORTHITE, mineral of group of field spars, Ca [Al2Si2O8]. Colour grey, pink. Hardness 6-6,5; firmness ok. 2,8 g / sm3. Primarily magmatic an origin.
  • ANORTOZIT (labradorite, oligoklazit, plagioclasite), non-proprietary name of depth rocks of group of the gabbroes consisting in main{basic} from plagioklaza. Routinely light, holocrystalline. Firmness of 2700-3000 kg / m3. Building and a covering material.
  • ANOSMIJA (from grech. an--a negative prefix and osme - an odor), in medicine - absence of sense of smell; arises more often at anatomic changes in a nasal cavity (inflammatory processes, polyps, etc.), less often at defeats of an olfactory nerve.
  • ANOSOV Dmitry Viktorovich (r. 1936), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on differential equations, geometries and topologies. The state premium of the USSR (1976).
  • ANOSOV Pavel Petrovich (1799-1851), the Russian metallurgist. It is known activities on high-quality{high-performance} a cast steel. Has created a new method of its{her} obtaining, having aggregated carbonizing and a melting of metal. Has uncovered the secret of manufacturing of a damascene lost in Middle Ages. The writer of the book " About damascene " (1841). For the first time has applied a microscope to probe of a structure of steel (1831).
  • ANOFELESY, the same, that anopheles mosquitoes.
  • ANOFRIEV Oleg Andreevich (r .1930), the Russian actor, the singer, the national actor of the Russian Federation. In 1954-59 at Central nursery theatre, in 1962-73 in Moskovsk the academic theatre him{it}. Mossoveta. It was taken out in films: " At kind o'clock! " (1957), "Colleagues" (1963), " the Calmness is cancelled " (1983), " the Person from parkway of Nasturtiums " (1989), " I Shall want - I shall grow fond " (1990), etc. The Writer and the initiator of songs to many films. Insonified characters of many cartoon films (" the Bremen musicians ", 1969, " As a young lion and a turtle chanted songs ", 1970, etc.).
  • ANOPHTHALMUS (from grech. an--a negative prefix and ophthalmos - an eye), inborn absence or loss of one or both eyes.
  • ANOKHIN Peter Kuzmich (1898-1974), the Russian physiologist, academician AN the USSR (1966) and AMN (1945). Fundamental transactionses on neurophysiology - to mechanisms of a conditioned reflex and an internal inhibition, an ontogenesis of nervous system, etc. Studied activity of an integrated organism on the basis of designed him{it} theories of systems of functions (since 1935) which has introduced the investment in development of systems approach in biology and cyberneticses. The lenin premium (1972).
  • ANOKHIN Sergey Nikolaevich (1910-86), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1959), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1953), the deserved master of sport (1950). Tests of some trial fighters, take-off the Instant - 19 from the catapult, a water elm on a flutter before destruction. The state premium of the USSR (1953).
  • ANREP Glebas Vasilyevich (1889-1955), the Russian physiologist. In 1920 has emigrated to the Great Britain. With 1931 up to the extremity of life headed stand of physiology at Cairo university (Egypt). Transactionses in range of the maximum nervous activity, physiology of digestion and a blood circulation. The member of the London royal society (1928).
  • ANRIO (Hanriot) Francois (1761-94), the figure of Great French revolution, jakobinets, one of chiefs of the revolt 1793 which have reduced in establishment jakobinskoj dictatorships. It is executed termidoriantsami.
  • ANSA (ANSA - Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata), italian news agency, Rome. It is based in 1945 masters of italian newspaper and occasional publishing houses.
  • BAND (frants. ensemble - set{combination}, the orderly whole).. 1) in theatrics harmonic combination of all components of performance, subject to unified premeditation... 2) the Group of initiators prominent as unified art collective... 3) the Piece of music for several initiators (a duet, a trio, etc.)... 4) In the architecture and town-planning - harmonic unity of the regional{spatial} composition including the buildings, engineering structures (bridges, embankments, etc.) and green plantings. The composition of an architectural ensemble often actuates products{creations} of different kinds{views} of fine arts (see. Synthesis of arts).
  • The BAND of NATIONAL DANCE under I.A.Moiseyev guiding, the largest choreographic collective, is built in 1937 in Moscow; with 1965 academic. Executes dances of nations of the world.
  • The BAND of NATIONAL DANCE of GEORGIA, choreographic collective, is built in 1945 in Tbilisi N.S.Ramishvili and I.I.Suhishvili; with 1971 academic With 1985 artistic administrator Ramishvili and T.I.Suhishvili.
  • BAND SONGS AND DANCINGS doubly Krasnoznamennyj him{it}. A.V.Aleksandrova, the largest army art collective, is built in 1928 in Moscow; with 1978 academic. The organizer and the artistic administrator - A.V.Aleksandrov, in 1946-86 artistic administrator - B.A.Aleksandrov, with 1987 - I.G.Agafonnikov.
  • ANSARI Abu Ismail (1006-88), the persian prose writer and the poet - sufy (see. Sufizm). Compositions in the persian tongue, written by rhymed prose. Has transferred{translated} (from Arabian tongue) and has supplemented compositions Sulami (mind{wit}. 1021) " Categories{Discharges} sufiev ", influenced on "zhitijnuju" sufijskuju the literature.
  • ANSGAR (801-865), the Christian missionary, " apostle of the North ", the outlet box - benedictine, diocesan; preached in Germany, Denmark, Sweden. Memory{remembrance} in the Latin church on February, 3.
  • ANSEL (Ancel) Mark (1902-90), the French lawyer, the member of Institute of France, the expert in range of a criminal law, criminology, comparative jurisprudence. The president of International association of jurisprudences (1965-68); foreign member AN the USSR (1982).
  • ANSELM (Anselm) Kenterberijsky (1033-1109), the theologian and the philosopher, the representative of early scholasticism avgustinovskogo directions, the church figure, combated for independence of church against kings of England. Has advanced t. n. The ontological proof of life of the god, deducing life of the God from the concept of the God. Saw in belief a premise of rational knowledge: " I believe to perceive ".
  • ANSELMI (Anselmi) Dzhuzeppe (1876-1929), the italian singer (tenor), the representative of art belkanto. Repeatedly (with 1904) went on tour in Russia.
  • ANSERME (Ansermet) Ernest (1883-1969), the Swiss conductor. The music director " S.Dyagilev Russian ballet " (1915-23), the organizer (1918) and the chief of an orchestra of Romanesque Switzerland. The writer of the musical compositions and books about music.
  • ANSIMOV George Pavlovich (r. 1922), the Russian producer of opera and an operetta, the national actor of the USSR (1986). In 1955-64 and with 1980 producer of Major theatre, in 1964-75 main producer of the Moscow theatre of light opera.
  • ANSOATEGI (Anzoategui), staff on north-east of Venezuela. 43,3 thousand км2. The population of 924 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - Barcelona.
  • ANSYR, a measure of mass (weight) in Russia 16-17 centuries. Originally 1 ansyr = to 128 valve cores (Bukhara ansyr), with it is grey. 17 century 1 ansyr = to 96 valve cores = 1 major grivenke = to 1 pound.
  • ANSEJSKIE CONTRACTS, are encased to 1854-58 USA, the Great Britain, Russia, France, Netherlands with Japan within Ansej (the official name of years of reign of emperor Komej). Have put an end more than two-centuries isolation of Japan from an external world. Have placed{installed} free trade of foreign merchants in some ports and cities of Japan. Are revised in 1894-99. The PARASTAS, non-proprietary name of airplanes, designed in 1922-42 under a guiding of aircraft designer A.N.Tupolev. In 1940-70-Х A.N.Tupolev airplanes called That.
  • ENTABLATURE (frants. entablement), the top of a structure routinely superjacent on columns, a component of an architectural order; chlenitsja on an architrave, a frieze, a corbel.
  • ANTAGONISM (from grech. antagonisma - spores, extirpation), the contravention defined by acute extirpation of hostile forces, tendencies.
  • ANTAGONISTS, in anatomy and physiology - the muscles which are operational simultaneously (or in turn) in two opposite directions (napr., muscles - flexors and extensors of extremities); tooths standing up to{countering;resisting} one another top and bottom maxillas.
  • ANTADZE Isaak (Dodo) Konstantinovich (1900-78), the producer, the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1971). Headed the largest theatres of Georgia, including. The Georgian theatre him{it}. Mardzhanishvili and Russian theatre him{it}. Griboedova.
  • ANTAKYA (Antakya), city in the south of Turkey, an administrative centre ilja Hataj. 124 thousand inhabitants (1990). An alimentary and textile industry. Antakya (ancient Antioch) is based in 300 up to n. e.; capital of the state Selevkidov. A monument ellinisticheskoj architectures.
  • ANTALL (Antall) Jozhef (1932-93), the prime minister of Hungary with 1990. The chairman of a consignment the Hungarian democratic forum with 1989.
  • ANTALYA (Antalya), city and a port in the south of Turkey, an administrative centre ilja Antalya. 378 thousand inhabitants (1990). Metallurgy, the textile enterprises, a ship repair.
  • ANTANANARIVO (Antananarivo) (Tananarive), capital of Madagascar, administrativnj the centre prov. Antananarivo. 802 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Flavoring, kozhevenno-boot, chemical, woodworking enterprises. University. It is based in 1-st floor. 17 century. Up to kon. 19 century a residence of kings of Madagascar. In 1890-1960-Х an administrative centre of the French possession Madagascar. Since June 1960 capital independent Republic Malagasijskoj, since December 1975 - Democratic Republic Madagascar.
  • ANTANTA (frants. Entente, characters. - the consent) (" the Triple consent "), the union of the Great Britain, France and Russia; it was issued in 1904-07 and has aggregated during 1-st world war against the German coalition more than 20 states (among them the USA, Japan, Italy).
  • ANTANTA BALKAN, the union of Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia; it is encased in Athenes in 1934 with the purpose of conservation of the correlation of forces which have usually after 1-st world war on the Balkans. 2-n world war has put an end to existence Balkan antanty.
  • ANTANTA SMALL, in 1920-38 unit of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia; a main link in system of political-military alliances bolstered by France in Europe in 1920-30-Х.
  • ANTANTA MEDITERRANEAN, a political group in structure of the Great Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy, usual in 1887; it has been directed against Russia and France. Has lost the value after intensifying in kon. 19 century of opposition of the Great Britain and Germany.
  • ANTARA, national news agency of Indonesia. It is based in 1937, Jakarta.
  • ANTARA IBN SHADDAD (525-615), the Arabian poet. Verses on battles in which participat Antara ibn SHaddad, love lyrics. The hero of the national novel which is going back to of 12 century, - " Life and exploits Antary ".
  • ANTARIKSHA (sanskr. An airspace), in old indian submissions about universe - an orb between heaven and earth, gap-filling amaurosises of clouds and clouds.
  • ANTARCTICA, mainland at the centre of Antarctic Region. 13975 thousand км2 (including 1582 thousand км2 - ice shelfs and islands, prichlenennye to Antarctica icehouses). The resident population misses. Mean altitudes of 2040 m, the greatest - 5140 m (mass Vinson in mountains Elsuort). Eastern and large part Zap. Antarctica - dokembrijskaja the Antarctic ramp, belt more serotinal{later} wrinkled structures. Terrain Zap. Antarctica take kaledonskaja a slab and andijsky a wrinkled belt (Antarctic p-ov and accumbent areas to it{him}). St. 99 % of terrain it is ice-covered (an average power of 1720 m, the greatest - over 4300 m; volume 24 million км3); ice-free epines meet by the way oases (see. Antarctic oases), hills, nunatakov. In Vost. To Antarctica a cold pole of the Earth (-89,2 °S at station " Orient "); mean temperatures of winter months from-60 up to-70 °S, summer from-30 up to-50 °S; on a shore in the winter from-8 up to-35 °S, in the summer 0-5 °S. Strong winds are often very much. From plants there are floral, polypodiaceae (on Antarctic p-ove), lichens, mushrooms, bacteria, algae (in oases). On a shore seals, penguins dwell{live}. Mineral wealths: mineral coal, iron oxide, mica, copper, lead, zinc, black lead, etc. Antarctica is open{discovered} in January F.F.Bellinsgauzena's by 1820 Russian expedition - M.P.Lazareva. In nach. 20 century have visited Antarctica R.Skott, E.Sheklton, R.Amundsen, D.Mouson, etc. In R.Amundsena's 1911 expedition and to 1912 R.Skotta have reached{achieved} the South Pole. In connection with the International geophysical year (1957-58) and in the consequent season{term} polar scientific stations of different countries of the world are built; 48 stations in 1991.* * *АНТАРКТИДАИстория issledovanijaNachalnyj a stage - discovering of islands around of Antarctica and searches of mainland (16 century - the beginning of 19 century) Long before discovering mainland different suppositions about existence of hypothetical Austral ground on which searches the expeditions which are finding out large islands around of Antarctica departed were plotted. French expedition Buve de Lozje in 1739 has discovered an island called Buve in an austral part of Atlantic ocean. In 1772 French seafarer I.Z.Kergelen has found large archipelago in an austral part of Indian ocean, consisting of one large islands (Kerguelen) and 300 small-sized. In 1768-71 Dzh. Cook has headed expedition which was directed on searches of austral mainland. Having inspected New Zealand, expedition has discovered between its{her} Boreal and Austral islands (afterwards called Cook as name) and has placed{installed} a channel, that New Zealand represents not a projection of austral mainland as considered{counted} earlier, and archipelago from two islands. In 1772-75 Cook on the second expedition dedicated searches of austral mainland, first of seafarers has crossed the Austral polar circle, however he has not found mainland and has declared, that it{him} generally to find it is impossible because of the ice making ground unavailable. During this float in the south of Atlantic ocean he approached to an island over. George, the projection of a continental dry matter and consequently having called as their Earth of the Sandwich (named the first lord of Admiralty) has discovered Austral Sandwich islands, inaccurately supposing, what is it. The group of islands for a northwest shore of Antarctic peninsula (Austral SHetlendskie islands) was discovered in 1819 Englishman by U.Smith. The second stage - discovering of Antarctica and the first scientific probes (19 century) Discovering of Antarctica as mainland is carried out on January, 28 F.F.Bellinsgauzena's by 1820 Russian expedition, which on two courts (the "Orient", under command Bellinsgauzena, and "Nonpredatory" - M.P.Lazareva) has passed along a pacific shore, having discovered Peter I islands, Shishkov, Mordvinova, the Earth Alexander I and having updated coordinates some before the found islands. Bellinsgauzen six times were crossed with the Austral polar circle, having proved a capability of float in antarctic waters. In 1820-21 American and English trade courts came nearer to Antarctic peninsula. In 1831-33 around of Antarctica the English seafarer Dzh has committed float. Bisko on courts " Tulas " и "Lajvli". French oceanographer Z.Djumon-Djurvil in 1837-40 supervised over expedition to austral latitudes by polaris during which have been found Adelie coast, island ZHuanvil and the Earth Lui Phillip. At 1838-42 o'clock. Uilks headed complex{integrated} expedition to an austral part of Pacific ocean during which the part of a shore of Eastern Antarctica - Wilkes land has been open{discovered}. Dzh. Ross, departed{sending} in Antarctica in 1840-43 on courts " Эребус " and "Terror", has discovered the pest and a huge ice barrier an altitude ok. 50 m, delayed the west to the orient on distance of 600 kms called after his{its} name, Victoria land, burning mountains Erebus and the Terror. Floats to Antarctica after the long-lived rest were reinstated at the end of 19 centuries in connection with planting requirements of a whale - fishery. For coasts of ice mainland expeditions have visited: Scottish, unblocking Oscar's ground II (on vessel "Balena", 1893), Norwegian, finding out Larsen coast (court " Язон " и "Antarctic Region", 1893-94), and Belgian (under A.Zherlasha's guiding), zimovavshaja in 1897-99 in Antarctic Region on drifting vessel "Belzhika". In 1898-99 To. Borhgrevink has conducted the first wintering on mainland on headland Ader during which he led regular weather observations, then inspected Ross sea, has mounted on a like barrier and on sledge it was advanced up to a record latitude - 78 ° 50. The third stage - study of a shore and internal ranges of mainland (the first half of 20 century) The first traveling in our century to Antarctica was committed by R.Skott who in 1901-04 on vessel "Diskoveri" has approached to coasts of continent, probeed fringe of sea Rossa, has discovered p-ov Edward VII, icehouse Rossa on which western edge{boundarouse} has reached up to 82 ° 17 ju. sh. During this, one of the most successful for the time, expedition, gather an extensive material on geology of Antarctica, its{her} flora, a fauna and mineral wealths. In 1902 E.Drigalsky has discovered and inspected the terrain called as Wilhelm II land. On the basis of a gathered material he has developed the theory of moving ice. The Scottish seafarer and doctor U.Bruce in 1892-93 and 1902-04 led oceanologic probes at-sea Uedella, has discovered Coats land. He has developed the design transantarkticheskogo transition which plumped later half-eyelid. The French expedition under Z.Sharko's command in 1903-05, carried out{spent;conducted;performed} probes for a western shore of Antarctic peninsula, otryla the Earth the Bast. English traveller E.Sheklton in 1907-09 has headed expedition on sledge to the South Pole, on ways unblocking one of the largest icehouses on a planet - icehouse Birdmora. Because of defect of provisions and death of horsemen animal (and the pony) SHeklton has turned back dogs, not dojdja up to a pole of 178 kms. First the Norwegian polar traveller and explorer R.Amundsen who in January 1911 has landed on ice barrier Rossa has reached{achieved} the South Pole and on December, 14 1911 with four guides has reached{achieved} the South Pole, having discovered on ways of a mountain of Queen of Modes. For a month after (on January, 18 1912) the pole was reached{achieved} by the group headed by R.Skottom. On a return path in 18 kms from a base camp Scott and his{its} guides have perished. Their bodies, and also record and diaries have been retrieved after eight months. Two antarctic expeditions: in 1911-14 and 1929-31 the australian geologist and traveller D.Mouson who inspecting a part of a shore of mainland and has plotted on a map from above 200 geographycal objects (in t has executed{has come true}. The hours Queen Mary land, Princess Elizabeth land and MacRobertson land) .Pervyj flight of an airplane above Antarctica were committed in 1928 American polar explorer, by admiral and pilot R.Berd. In November 1929 he on an airplane has reached{achieved} the South Pole. In 1928-47 under his{its} guiding it has been carried out four large expeditions to Antarctic Region (on the largest, fourth expedition, participated from above 4 thousand person), seismological, geologic and other probes are conducted, the availability in Antarctica large deposits of mineral coal is confirmed. Byrd has flown by above continent about 180 thousand in km. First transantarktichesky flight has committed in 1935 American mining geologist and pilot L.Elsuort unblocking a number{series} of geographycal objects on mainland, including the mountains called as him{it} in honour of the father. In 1933-37 L.Kristensen, following coast-wise on a vessel "Thorshavn", has discovered the Shore of Prince Garalda, Shore Leopolda and Astrid. D. Rimilla in 1934-37 for the first time has crossed Antarctic peninsula. In 40-50-С in Antarctica scientific bases and stations for realization of regular probes of offshore areas start to form. The fourth stage - international regular probes (second half of 20 century) In the season{term} of preparation to the International geophysical year on a shore, a glacial board and islands have been based about 60 bases and stations, inherings to 11 states (including Soviet - an observatory Nonpredatory, stations the Oasis, Pioneer, the Orient - 1, Komsomol and the Orient, American - Amudsen-Scott on the South Pole, Byrd, Halett, Uilks and MacMurdo). From the extremity of 50th in the seas which are washing against continent, oceanologic activities are conducted, regular geophysical investigations at fixed continental stations are executed{designed}; expeditions inside of continent are undertaken also. The Soviet scientists have executed{have come true} a sanno-tractor marching to Geomagnetic pole (1957), the Pole of relative inaccessibility (1958), the South Pole (1959). The American explorers have passed on go-anywhere vehicles from station Litl America to station Byrd and further to station Sentinel (1957), in 1958 - 59 from station Elsuort through mass Djufeka to station Byrd; The English and New Zealand scientists on tractors in 1957-58 have crossed Antarctica through the South Pole from starving Uedella to Ross sea. In hinterlands of Antarctica australian, Belgian and French scientists worked also. In 1959 the international treaty about Antarctica, contributing development of cooperation in probe of ice continent is encased. Literatura:Treshnikov A. F. A history of discovering and probe of Antarctica. М., 1963. Ladlem the Captain Scott. Л., 1972. Maljavko G.I., Franchuk V.P., Kulichenko V.G.Geologi. Geographers. Kiev, 1985. E.G.Mirlin



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