Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ANTARCTIC, the austral polar range of a terrestrial globe including Antarctica and accumbent epines to her Atlantic, Indian and Quiet ok. With Weddell seas, Rossa, Amundsena, Bellinsgauzena, etc., and also islands superjacent in subantarctic waters: JUzh. George, JUzh. Sandvichevy, JUzh. Orknejskie, JUzh. SHetlendskie, etc. The Border{Limit} of Antarctic Region passes within the limits of 48-60 °ju. sh. The area ok. 52,5 million км2. Antarctic Region - the most inclement range of the Earth with low air temperatures, strong winds, snow storms and fogs{mists}. The mainland and neighboring islands have a liner glaciation. In subantarctic areas mean temperatures of the warmest month 10 °S, the most cool from 0 up to-10 °S. On islands - the tundra vegetation, is a lot of birds. In structure of sea fauna - whales, Pinnipedia. In 1959 the International treaty about Antarctic Region which determines the modern legal status of Antarctic Region, use of Antarctic Region only in the nonpredatory purposes and freedom of scientific probes is encased.
  • ANTARCTIC RAMP, ancient, primarily dokembrijskaja, a ramp occupying a large part of Antarctica. Eastern part of the Antarctic ramp will consist from verhnearhejskogo the base (gneises, crystalline slates, migmatites, granites with intrusions of a gabbro - anortozitov, charnokitov and nefelinovyh sienitov) and a sedimental volva (osadochno-vulkanogennye formations of the upper Proterozoic - the lower Paleozoic, terrigene adjournments with sillami trappov mean - the upper Paleozoic). Surburbs of the Antarctic ramp (a western part) - drevnekaledonskaja a slab with a volva of terrigene and carboniferous adjournments gondvanskogo type (mean - the upper Paleozoic).
  • ANTARCTIC OASES, the ice-free epines of Antarctica having character of polar deserts. Are sectioned on sample, or prishelfovye, coastal and mountain. The area from several tens up to hundreds км2 (oasis Bangera 952 км2). In antarctic oases the majority of polar scientific stations is located.
  • ANTARCTIC ANTICYCLONE, stationary value range of a heightened atmospheric pressure above Antarctica.
  • ANTARCTIC PENINSULA (up to 1961 on the Soviet and English maps the title Earth Grejama, on American - p-ov Palmer, on Chilean - Earth O'Higginsa, on Argentina - the Earth the Dignity - Martina), terrain of Antarctica, elongated approximately on 1200 kms northward in direction JUzh. America. The glacial plateau reaches an altitude of 1500-2000 m; bliz a shore, places, ice-free hills. On Antarctic p-ve antarctic scientific stations are located some.
  • ANTARCTIC BELT, austral natural belt of the Earth. Actuates Antarctica and accumbent islands.
  • ANTATSIDNYE the MEANS (from anti... And an armour. acidus - sour), the medicinal substances neutralizing muriatic acid of a gastric juice (napr., at a peptic ulcer of a stomach and a duodenum).
  • ANTWERP (Anver) (flam. Antwerpen, frants. Anvers), city in Belgium, an administrative centre prov. Antwerp. One of the largest ports of the world (annual freight turnover ok. 90 million т) on r. Schelde, bliz Boreal m. of 468 thousand inhabitants (1991, with suburbs 920 million inhabitants). A large trading - financial and main industrial centre of country. A machine industry, nonferrous machine industry, chemical, oil refining, etc. an industry; the world centre of a bezeling of diamonds and trade in brilliants. Museums of fine arts, artistic - historical. Rubens dwelling. Games of VII Olympic (1920). To 2-nd floor. 16 century first on value in Europe the centre of trade and the credit. Pozdnegotichesky a cathedral (14 - nach. 17 centuries), the clasp of Walls (it rearranged{reconstructed} in 16 century).
  • ANTEJ, in the Grecian mythology a giant, the master of Libya, the son of god Posejdona and the goddess of ground Gays. Was invincible, while adjoined to mother - ground. It is strangled Geraklom, separated it{him} from ground.
  • ANTEKLIZA, extensive (hundreds in km in a diameter) cavicorn anticline raising of layers of earth crust within the limits of ramps.
  • ANTELAMI (Antelami) Benedetto (ok. 1150 - ok. 1230), the italian sculptor and the architect. The representative of a Romanesque style. Construction (with 1196) and sculptural decoras of a baptistery in Parma.
  • "ANTENNAS - 2" (Antenne-2), a state TV schedule of France. It is based in 1963, Paris. Financing at the expense of an abonent pay, advertising and public subsidies. Broadcasting implements round the clock. Art, political drives and news.
  • The ANTENNA (from an armour. antenna - a spar tree, rej), in a wireless - the device intended (it is routine in combination to a radio transmitter or a radio receiver) for radiance or (и) method of radiowaves. One of basic performances of the antenna - the directional diagram (BOTTOMS) defining character of a spatial distribution of power of an electromagnetic field, radiated (received) by the antenna. Distinguish antennas non-directional (shirokonapravlennye) and directed (napr., antennas with pencil-beam the BOTTOMS, called as a ray). With the help of antennas it is possible to accept very weak radio signals, to execute directed drive and signal detection, to locate sources of radiowaves, etc. Versions of antennas: dipole (wire), fissured, horn, reflecting, lens, antenna arrays, etc.
  • ANTENNAS (horns, tendrils), multijointed mobile head appendages for arthropods (excluding arachnids). For the majority - sense bodys.
  • ANTHERID (from grech. antheros - blossoming), a men's organ of a sexual reproduction for mushrooms, algae, mosses and pteridophytes. In an antherid spermatozoons develop.
  • ANTEFIX (an armour. antefixum), an architectonic dressing from marble or terra-cotta (by the way palmettes or a board with a relief) on edges{boundarice} of a roof covering along the longitudinal party of an antique temple.
  • ANTI, in egyptian mythology the god - promoter 12-th noma, the godhood of desert and karavannyh ways.
  • ANTI... (grech. anti--against), a prefix meaning contrast, a directivity against something (napr., anti-fascist).
  • ANTIANGINALNYE the MEANS, the medicinal substances used for treatment of a stenocardia (angina pectoris - from here the title).
  • ANTIB (Antibes), a climatic health resort in France (within the limits of the Sky coast), to the orient from the Canna. St. 60 thousand inhabitants. A flower growing, art ceramics. P.Pikasso's museum. It is based in 4 century up to n. e. As the Grecian colony the Antipolicy.
  • ANTIBIOTICS (from anti... And grech. bios - life), the organic substances formed by microorganisms and having ability to slay microbes (or to handicap with their growth). The antibacterial substances extracted{drawn} from vegetative and zooblasts call as antibiotics also. Antibiotics are used as medicinal preparations for depressing{supression} bacteria, microfunguses, some viruses and the Protozoa knocking the person, animal and plants. Antitumoral antibiotics (rubomitsin, etc.) are received{obtained} also. The first efficient antibiotic (penicillin) is open{discovered} by A.Fleming in 1929. have widely come in medical practice since 40th of 20 century. As a result of the long-lived application of antibiotics probably occurrence{appearance} resistant against nymas of forms of the pathogenic microorganism. Antibiotics apply also in an agriculture, alimentary and a microbiological industry, in biochemical probes. In an industry receive microbialogic and chemical synthesis.
  • ANTIMATTER, the matter constructed from antiparticles. Nucleus of atoms of an antimatter will consist of antiprotons and antineutrons, and nuclear environments are constructed from positrons. Clumps of an antimatter in the Universe are not found yet. On particle accelerators nucleus of antideuterium and antihelium are received{obtained}.
  • ANTIVITAMINS, the substances handicapping use of vitamins by a living cell owing to their destruction, binding in inactive forms, replacements by connections, close to vitamins on chemical constitution, but having counter biological effect.
  • ANTIGENS (from anti... And... A gene), substances which are accepted by an organism as stranger and invoke{produce} the specific immune answer. Are capable to interact with cells of immune system and anti-bodies. Hit of antigens in an organism can call formation of immunity, originating of a condition of unresponsiveness or an allergy. Properties of antigens proteins, polysaccharides, etc. macromolecules have. The term "antigens" use and in relation to the whole organs (at a transplantation), vegetative and to zooblasts, bacteria, viruses, etc., keeping antigens. Definition of a specific or formation fitting of antigens is used in diagnosis of contagions, at a blood transfusion, replantings of organs and tissues, identification of biological materials in the forensic medicine, etc. Antigens are applied at building vaccines and wheys.
  • The ANTIHERO expressly reduced, degeroizirovannyj the character primarily the Western-European and American literature 2-nd floor. 20 century, the "mass" person, "each", becoming almost non-differential application point of irrational and absurd forces of the modern civilization (see " the New novel ", " Nonsense a drama "). In broad and more conditional sense - phylum of the literary hero, denuded genuine heroic features, but occupying a central place in product{creation} and prominent in a fixed measure a "confidential" face of the writer ("Ectogenic{Stranger}" A.Kamju, pullet{young man} Odoevtsev in the novel " Pushkinsky the dwelling " A.G.Bitova).
  • ANTIHITLERITE COALITION, confederation and peoples, usual during 2-nd world war against the aggressive unit of Germany, Italy, Japan and their satellites. The antihitlerite coalition actuated the USSR, the USA, the Great Britain, France and China, and also Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc. the countries participating in act of war or rendering the help to allies. To the extremity of war in structure of an antihitlerite coalition entered{included} more than 50 states. The battle ally of an antihitlerite coalition was Resistance movement.
  • ANTIRUN from Karisty on Euboea (2-n a floor. 3 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, the writer of the tract about torevtike and the maker of biographies of artists and sculptors, the pupil of philosopher Menedema. Worked for pergamskogo tsar Attala I above sculptural groups of the defeated cecidiums in Pergamum and " Gifts Attala " in Athenes. Probably, the writer of a statue of the Dying gall; has created statue Evmena II.
  • ANTIRUN, in the Grecian mythology the daughter of tsar of Thebes Edipa. Has betraid to burial a body of brother Polinika, having infringed the interdiction of the uncle - tsar Kreonta; for it it has been encased in a dungeon where has committed suicide.
  • ANTIGONIDY, a dynasty of tsars Macedoniuses in 306-168 up to n. e. It is based by Antirun I Uniocular - the commander Alexander the Great.
  • ANTIGORIT, see in an item. Serpentine asbestos.
  • ANTIGUA (Antigua - Guatemala) (Antigua Guatemala), city in Guatemala, an administrative centre of department Sakatepekes. Ok. 30 thousand inhabitants. A city - museum. University. It is based in 1542. In 16-18 centuries capital of Guatemala. An architectonic monument of 17-18 centuries.
  • ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA (Antigua and Barbuda), the state in West Indies, on islands of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, in M.Antilskih's group of islands. 442,6 км2. The population of 66,0 thousand person (1993), basically antiguantsy. The official language - English. Believers - protesters. Administrative territorial division: 6 communities and 2 areas. A urban population of 32 % (1990). Capital - Saint Johns. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state - queen of the Great Britain, introduced the general - governor. The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament. A surface hilly, up to 402 m an altitude. A climate tropical, trade-wind. Monthly mean temperatures from 15 up to 33 °S. A rainfall ok. 1300 mm annually. In an antiquity of an island inhabited by Indians. In 1493 are open{discovered} by Columbus; originally spanish, with 1632 British colony. In 1834 the servitude is cancelled. With 1967 " the associate state with the Great Britain ". Since November 1981 independent state. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - service of foreign tourists (ok. 45 % of a runway), cultivation of a cane, a cotton. Export: a Saccharum - raw material, a treacle - melasses, raw cotton. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: the USA, the Great Britain, Germany. Monetary unit - vostochnokaribsky dollar.
  • ANTIDARVINISM (from anti... And a darvinism), set{combination} of the different concepts negating or auditing darvinian the doctrine about a natural selection. Are those, napr., different forms of Neo-Lamarckism, an autogenesis, ektogenez, ortogenez and some other.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS, different on chemical constitution and the mechanism of action a psychotropic means which improve mood, take out an alert and pressure{voltage;stress}, increase mental activity; are applied to treatment of mental depressions.
  • OCTANE PROMOTERS, the substances added in small amounts (less than 1 %) to engine fuels for an octane number boost and by that reduction of a knocking in internal-combustion engines. The major octane promoter - lead tetraethyl.
  • ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE, in biology - the same, that Vasopressinum.
  • ANTIDOTES (from grech. antidoton, characters. - yielded against) (antidote), the pharmaceuticals intended for detoxication of poisons which have hitted in an organism.
  • ANTIKAJNEN (Antikainen) Tojvo (1898-1941), one of organizers (1918) Communist Parties of Finland. In 1934 it is sentenced by the Finnish court to transportation for life, it is free in 1940 with assistance of the Soviet government. Has perished in Great Domestic war.
  • The ANTIGUE DEALER (an armour. antiquarius - the fan{amateur}, the expert on antiquities), the dealer arcaded valuable subjects: patterns, books, etc.; the expert, the collector of such subjects.
  • ANTIQUES, trade in arcaded valuable subjects: patterns, books, etc., and also set{combination} of such subjects.
  • The ANTIQUARIAN BOOK, the conditional term meaning the issuings of the season{term} from the beginning of book printing up to 1850.
  • ANTICLINE (from anti... And grech. klino - I cant), a pleat of layers of rocks, versed buldge up. In a nucleus antiklinalja there are more ancient rocks, and side panels are combined by more pullets{more young men}.
  • ANTICLINORIUM, large (many tens and hundreds kilometres an expansion) and a compound bending of wrinkled stratas of the rocks, having as a whole the anticline form.
  • ANTICOAGULANTS (from anti... And an armour. coagulans - triggering turning), in medicine - the medicinal substances reducing coagulability of blood.
  • ANTICODON, in biology - a plot acceptor RNA, consisting of three nucleotides. Specificly contacts Codonum (the three of nucleotides) template-RNA, that ensures correct arrangement of each amino asid in polypeptide circuits at a biosynthesis of protein (translation).
  • ANTIKOMINTERNOVSKY the PACT, the agreement encased 25.11.1936 in Berlin between Germany and Japan and issuing (flying the flag{under the guise} extirpation against Komintern) the unit of these states with the purposes of seizure of world supremacy. In November 1937 to " Antikominternovskomu to the pact " Italy, later a number{series} of other states has joined; in 1939-40 it is transformed{turned into} into the open military union (see. The Berlin pact).
  • ANTIBONES (Anticosti), an island in a hall. St.. Lawrence (Canada). 7,9 thousand км2. The population ok. 1 thousand person. An altitude up to 192 m. Coniferous forests, bogs. Main city - Pores - Menje.
  • ANTILYMPHOCYTIC WHEY, whey of blood animal, immunized lymphocytes of animal other kind{view} or the person (donor). Contains anti-bodies against donor lymphocytes. Suppresses functions of an adenoid tissue and reaction of immunity.
  • INVERSE LOGARITHM (from anti... And the log) some figure and, figure N, which log is peer and, i.e. log N = a.
  • ANTELOPES, group of cloven-hoofed animals of a set polorogih. Horns for the majority of kinds{views} only for samtsov. Dwell{live} primarily in Africa (a gnu, kongoni, the horse antelopes, oriksy, etc.) and Asia (nilgau, chetyrehrogaja an antelope, a Middle Asian gazelle, a saiga, a chamois). Many antelopes - object of a hunt (meat, a leather). Number of some kinds{views} is reduced, some are under guarding{preservation}. A number{series} of kinds{views} was saved basically in national parks.
  • The ANTILLES ISLANDS (isp. Antillas), archipelago in West Indies: Major Antilles islands (Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico) and Small Antilles islands (Virginskie, Upwind, the Leeward, Trinidad, Tobago and Barbados). Ok. 220 thousand км2. The population ok. 30 million hours. An altitude up to 3175 m. Active volcanoes. Deciduous and evergreen tropical forests. On the Antilles islands of the state: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Haiti, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican republic, Cuba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Sent-Keats and Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and also possessions the USA, the Great Britain, France, Netherlands, a part of terrain of Venezuela.
  • The ANTILLES FLOW, warm current Atlantic ok. To north-east from B.Antilskih of islands, northwest prolongation the Sowing. Trade current.
  • ANTIMETABOLITES, natural or synthetic substances, close on chemical structure to normal metabolic products (metabolites) and handicapping their turning into an organism. Are used as medicinal preparations (napr., at disbolism), in the capacity of pesticides, etc.
  • ANTIWORLD, hypothetical space object (such as an aster or a galaxy), consisting of an antimatter.
  • ANTIMONIDES, chemical combinations of antimony with metals. Some antimonides (AlSb, GaSb, InSb) - semiconductive materials.
  • ANTIMONITE (gray antimony), mineral of a class of sulphides, Sb2S3. Impurity{additives} Bi, As, Ag, Au. Lead-coloured needles. Hardness 2-2,5; firmness of 4,5-4,6 g / sm3. An origin the cold hydrothermal. The main{basic} ore of antimony.
  • ANTIMETAGENS (from anti... And cloudies), the chemical and physical factors depressing frequency of originating of hereditary variations of an organism - mutations, napr. Sulfhydryl connections.
  • The ANTINEUTRINO, the antiparticle of a neutrino distinguished from him{it} is familiar a leptonic charge and a helicity.
  • ANTINEUTRON, the antiparticle of a neutron distinguished from him{it} by marks of a baryon charge and a magnetic moment.
  • ANTINOY (? - 130), the Grecian young man, the favourite of Roman emperor Adriana idolized after mors.
  • The ANTINOMY (grech. antinomia - the contravention in the law), the contravention between two judgments, equally logically demonstrable. Distinguish the antinomy being logic reflectance of contraventions of the real, and antinomichnye judgments - the paradoxes stipulated by a historical level of development of knowledge.
  • ANTIOZONANTS, kind{view} of stabilizers of polymers.
  • ANTIOXIDANTS (antioxidants), the natural or synthetic substances retarding or preventing{precluding} oxidation of organic compounds. Antioxidants apply, napr., for stabilization of combustibles, polymers, an avoidance of damage of foodstuffs.
  • ANTIOCHUS III Great (242-187 up to n. e.), tsar of the state Selevkidov with 223. In 212-205 has subordinated parthians and Bactria, in 203 has won from Egypt Palestine. Having sufferred a defeat from Rome in the Syrian war 192-188, has lost maloazijskie terrains.
  • ANTIOCHUS from Askalona (ok. 130 - ok. 68 up to AD), the ancient greek philosopher - platonik, has returned platonovskuju Academy from scepticism to dogmatism of Ancient academy (call-up " To follow ancient! "), having perceived many elements of the doctrine stoikov.
  • ANTIOCHUS Palestinian, Savvait (mind{wit}. ok. 635), the Christian outlet box laurels sacred Sabbases in Palestine, the writer of composition "Pandekty" - the reduced exposition of the doctrine of the Scriptus and fathers of Church. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on Saturday cheese.
  • ANTIOCHUS Syrian (mind{wit}. Up to 440), the Christian outlet box - pustynnozhitel, the ascetic, podvizavshijsja in Syria on a knap. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 23 (on March, 8).
  • ANTI-POPE, the Pope who was not adjudicated by a latin church. In the separate seasons{terms} of a Middle Ages on an apostolic see there were simultaneously some dads (proteges of different churches and society circles); afterwards church one of them recognized a dad only, remaining were declared by anti-popes. In the list of dads constituted by a latin church - over 30 anti-popes (in 3-15 centuries).
  • ANTI-TRADE WINDS, western transmission of air in the upper troposphere of tropical latitudes above trade winds. A lower limit of anti-trade winds - on the average at the altitude 4 kms; she is increased from subtropics to equator and from winter by a summer.
  • ANTIPATARII, order of marine Coelenterata of a class of coral polyps. Small-sized (from 0,5 up to 3 mm) the polyps which are generatrix attached treelike colonys. Ok. 150 kinds{views}, predominary in tropical seas on depth of 10-1000 m. The skeleton of a black coral goes on dressings.
  • ANTIPATHY (grech. antipatheia), feeling of hostility, neraspolozhenija to somebody or something; compare. Sympathy.
  • ANTIPATR (397-319 up to n. e.), the macedonian commander at Phillip II and Alexander the Great.
  • ANTIPIN Peter Fedorovich (1890-1960), the Russian metallurgist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on metallurgy of aluminium and electrochemistry of melts.
  • FIRE RETARDANTS (from anti... And grech. pyr - fire), substances (an ammonium phosphate, a bore, connection of antimony, solid chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc.), depressing combustibility of wood, tissues, plastics materials, etc. organic materials. Are applied, napr., by the way solutions with which soak a material.
  • ANTIPYROGENS, substances (water, solutions of a sodium silikate, antioxidants, etc.), handicapping a spontaneous combustion of carbons, ores, etc.
  • ANTIPOV Jury Aleksandrovich (r. 1915), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1959), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1957). Tests of the piston and reactive fighters the Instant, A\c, Su, the Yak.
  • ANTIPODES of the ISLAND (Antipodes Islands), group of rocky desert islands in Quiet ok. 61 км2. The title is stipulated by site{position}, almost counter to a Greenwich (49°41 ' ju. sh., 178°43 ' century d.).
  • ANTIPODES (from anti... And grech. pus, a stem. Item podos - a leg), inhabitants of diametrically opposite points on a surface of a terrestrial globe. Figuratively - people with counter views, tastes or character traits.
  • ANTIPODES OPTICAL, the same, that enantiomery (see in an item. Enantiomerija). To optical antipodes attribute also enantiomorfnye forms of some crystals, napr. Crystal (see. Enantiomorphism).
  • ANTIPROTON, the antiparticle of a proton distinguished from him{it} by marks of an electric charge, baryon charge and magnetic moment.
  • ANTIRADS, kind{view} of stabilizers of polymers.
  • The ANTINOVEL, see " the New novel ".
  • ANTIRRINUM (snapdragon), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a figwort family. St. 40 kinds{views}, in Boreal hemisphere. In crop 1 kind{view} as an ornamental plant; object of genetic probes.
  • ANTISEISMIC CONSTRUCTION, erection of buildings and structures with allowance for possible{probable} influence on them of seismic (inertial) forces. Implements in the areas subject to earthquakes by force of 7-9 balls. Earthquake resistance of structures is ensured with the special design measures rising{elevating;improving;raising} toughness and solidity of load-carrying structures (napr., use for multistory buildings of framework structures from steel and steel concrete, with monolithic reinforced-concrete walls), etc. The Large value in antiseismic construction has high quality of building timbers and activities.
  • ANTI-SEMITISM, the form of national and religious prejudices and the intolerance, hostile attitude{relation} to Jews (the term of "anti-Semitism" has appeared in 1870-80-Х). In a course of history of anti-Semitism accepted different forms - from false charges and any stem of discrimination before mass deportations, bloody massacres and genocide. The marginal form has acquired in policy of the German fascism. See also the Holocaust.
  • ANTISEPTIC (from anti... And grech. septikos - purulent), a method of the warning of infection of wounds and treatments of contaminated wounds by influence on pathogenic microbes chemical (antiseptic agents) or bioassay techniques. It is offered Dzh. A Lister in 1867.
  • ANTISEPTIC AGENTS.. 1) the substances having antimicrobic action and used primarily for disinfection, lubrication of a leather and mucous membrane, an irrigation of wounds and cavities (napr., a boric acid, tetraethyl-diamino-triphenyl-carbohydride sulphate)... 2) the Chemicals used for protection{preservation} from destruction by microorganisms of wood, plastics materials, textile, leathers, foodstuffs, etc. (napr., phenols and their derivative, a creosote, a benzoic acid, etc.). With this means soak or cover a protected material or introduce them into his{its} structure.
  • " ANTI-SOVIET TROTSKISTSKOJ MILITARY ORGANIZATION " BUSINESS (" Business military "), cooked in 2-nd floor. 1930th business under the charge of some large commanders in organization of " a military - fascist plot ", preparation of overthrow of the Soviet authority by armed revolt and a defeat of the USSR in the future war, espionage and harmful activity, building of terrorist groups for preparation of terroristic acts against chiefs of a consignment and government. On business have been involved{attracted} 8 person - M.N.Tukhachevsky, A.I.Kork, I.E.Jakir, I.P.Uborevich, V.K.Putna, R.P.Ejdeman, V.M.Primakov, B.M.Feldman. Business is considered on June, 11 1937 in Moscow by the Special bar of the Supreme Court of the USSR derivated for it in the closed session of the court. All indictees are sentenced to shooting. The sentence is carried into execution. The military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR in 1957 sentence concerning all convicted has cancelled and put manufacture has stopped behind absence in their actions of an actus reus.
  • ANTISTATIC SUBSTANCES, the substances depressing static{quiescent} electrifying of chemical fibers, plastics materials, gums, etc., napr., surfactants, powders of metals, carbon black. Action is based primarily on increase of an electrical conductance of the material stipulating a charge leakage. Antistatic substances introduce into structure of materials at their thorough revision or put by the way solutions or emulsions on a surface of items.
  • ANTISFEN from Athenes (ok. 450 - ok. 360 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, the founder of school kinikov, pupil Gorgija and Sokrata. Led an ascetical mode of life and preached failure{refusal} of any requirements (autarchy).
  • ANTI-TAURUS (Anti-Taurus), the title 2 hrebtov (Tahtaly, an altitude up to 3054 m, and Binboga) in a central part of Taurus mountains, in Turkey. Length ok. 200 kms. Laurilignosas and bushes; in a north - dry steppes.
  • CONTRAST (from grech. antithesis - an opposition), a stylistic figure, comparison or opposition of contrast concepts, rules{situations;positions}, modes{images} (" I tsar, - I the slave, - I a worm, - I the god! ", G.Derzhavin).
  • The ANTITHESIS (grech. antithesis - an opposition), in logic - the judgment, contrasted to the thesis; in G.Gegelja's philosophy - a stage{step} of a triad, the moment of denial in dialectic development.
  • ANTI-BODIES, globular proteins (immunoglobulins) of a blood plasma of the person and warm-blooded animal, having specificly to contact ability antigens. Interacting with microorganisms, hinder with their reproduction or neutralize toxicants secreted with them. At some morbid conditions in an organism there are anti-bodies to natural antigens that damages different organs. Reactions of anti-bodies with an antigen apply to diagnosis of different diseases, identification of microorganisms and some substances.
  • ANTITOXINS (from anti... And toxins), the specific proteins (anti-bodies) decontaminating toxins of microorganisms (napr., tetanic, diphtheritic), plants (ricin, abrine) and animal (a poison the snake, karakurta).
  • ANTITRINITARII (from anti... And an armour. trinitas - a Trinity), adherents of flows, sects in the christianity, not accepting one of the main{basic} tenets of christianity - a tenet of the Trinity.
  • ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE of SOVIET WOMEN (AKSZH), public organization in 1941-56, represented women of the USSR in International democratic federation of women. It is renamed into Committee of Soviet women; about 1992 Russian union of women.
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETISM, magnitouporjadochennoe the condition of a crystalline matter in which magnetic moments of all or parts of atoms (ions) in adjacent cross-links of a crystal lattice are oriented so (as a rule, is antiparallel), that the magnetization of substance is as a whole peer to zero. Under action of an external magnetic field antiferromagnets acquire a weak magnetization. Temperature rise up to Neelja results points in loss of a magnetization and transition in a paramagnetic condition (see. A paramagnetism).
  • ANTIFERROMAGNET, the substance having antiferromagnetic orderliness of magnetic moments of atoms at the temperature of is lower Neelja than point QN (see. Antiferromagnetism). To antiferromagnets belong solid oxygen (the a-updating existing at T <24 К), a chromium, a number{series} of rare-earth elements and ok. 1000 connections of metals (sample: NiF2, CoCl2, FeO, MnCO3, CuSO4).
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MAGNETIC TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE, the same, that Neelja a point.
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE, selective absorption by antiferromagnet of electromagnetic waves, which frequency (10-1000 GHz) it is close to natural frequencies of precession of vectors of a magnetization of sublattices magnetic.
  • ANTIFIL from Egypt (2-n a floor. 4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek artist, pupil Ktesidema. Worked at a yard of egyptian tsars of Ptolemies. Has written patterns: " Alexander the Great - the boy ", " Alexander, Phillip and Afina ", "Grilly" (connection of features of a human face with features animal), " the Boy fanning fire ", " Workshop of a yarn ", etc.
  • ANTIHUM SINGING (from grech. antiphonos - sounding in the answer), serial singing of two choruses. It is used in Christian church music.
  • ANTIFONT from Athenes (5 century up to n. e.), an ancient greek philosopher - sophist, under certificate Ksenofonta, - opponent Sokrata. In the main{basic} composition "True" of conditionality of social establishments and moral standards contrasted as something true human nature, his{its} natural tendencies and instincts.
  • ANTIFREEZING AGENTS (from anti... And English freeze - to solidify), water solutions of some substances (ethylen glycol, glycerine, inorganic salts, etc.), not solidifying at low temperatures. Apply in cooling systems of internal-combustion engines at ambient temperatures from-75 up to 0 °S.
  • ANTIFRICTIONAL MATERIALS (from anti... And an armour. frictio - abrasion), have a low friction coefficient and are applied to manufacturing the component parts working primarily in conditions of a sliding friction (bearings, barrels, liners, etc.). To antifrictional materials concern: alloys on basis{fundamentals} Sn or Pb (babbits), Cu (bronzes), Fe (gray iron), etc.; plastics materials (laminate, fluoroplastic - 4, etc.); sintered materials (bronzografit, iron graphite); some kinds{views} of wood and improved laminated woods; gums.
  • ANTIFRICTION GREASES, the flexible lubrications used for reduction of wearing and drop of a sliding friction in mechanisms. Eurysynusic antifriction greases - solid oils.
  • ANTI-CHRIST, the opponent of the Christ who will be on the eve " the extremity of the world " and will be defeated by the Christ Christian mythology.
  • ANTICYCLONE, plenum in an atmosphere with a maximum at the centre (sea-level 1050-1070 gPa). A diameter of an anticyclone - about thousand in km. The anticyclone is defined by system of the winds blowing clockwise in Boreal hemisphere and against - in Austral, slightly overcast both a dry weather and gentle winds.
  • ANTITSIPATSIJA (an armour. anticipatio).. 1) anticipation... 2) Anticipatory approach any the phenomena.
  • ANTIPARTICLES, the fundamental particles having same mass, a spin, survival time and some other internal performances, as their "half-and-halfs" particles, but distinguished from particles marks of an electric charge and a magnetic moment, a baryon charge, a leptonic charge, strangeness, etc. All fundamental particles, except for absolutely neutral{inert}, have the antiparticles. At crash particles and antiparticles there is their annihilation.
  • ANCIENT ART, the title ancient greek and drevnerimskogo the arts, arisen in Renaissance. Has engendered in an austral part Balkan p-va, on islands Egejskogo arh. And western M.Azii's shore also has gone through the best bloom in Other. Greeces in 5-4 centuries up to n. e. In epoch ellinizma his{its} influence was distributed to extensive terrains, accumbent to Mediterranean and Black seas, and also on Short-range and Compare. The orient (down to India) where there were aboriginal schools ellinisticheskogo arts. Traditions ancient greek and ellinisticheskogo arts have received new development in art Other. Rome. The best products{creations} of the ancient art which has embodied in classically clear, raised forms high humanistic ideals, routinely contact submissions about art perfection{efficiency} and an inaccessible art sample.
  • ANTIQUE STIHOSLOZHENIE, see. Metrical stihoslozhenie.
  • ANTIQUITY (from an armour. antiquus - ancient), in the broad sense of the word the term equivalent Russian "antiquity", in fine-bored and more common value - a greko-Roman antiquity (a history and crop Other. Greeces, etc. Rome).
  • ANTIQUE CITIES in Black Sea Coast; have arisen during the Grecian colonization since 6 century up to n. e. The largest antique cities: in a north - the Shooting gallery, Olvija, Chersonese, Feodosiya, Panticapaeum, Fanagorija, Tanais; on Caucasian a shore - Gorgippija, Dioskuriada, Fasis. Did business cities Other. Greeces and M.Azii, skiffs. In 5 century up to n. e. The part of cities was aggregated in the state Bosporskoe. Since 3 century up to n. e. Exposed to offences of skiffs, Sarmatians. In 2 century up to n. e. Under an authority of the state Pontijskogo, then Rome. After encroachment it is ready and gunnov (it is grey. 3 - kon. 4 centuries n. e.) came in decline.
  • ANTOKOLSKY Mark Matveevich (1843-1902), the Russian sculptor. Was close to peredvizhnikam. Steep istoriko-psychologic certainty notes the modes{images} of Russian historical figures built by him{it} (" Ivan Terrible ", 1871, " Peter I ", 1872) .ANTOKOLSKY Mark Matveevich (Morduh Matysovich) [on October, 21 (on November, 2) 1843, Vilnius - on June, 26 (on July, 9) 1902, Bud - Homburg, Germany], the Russian artist. The largest master of Russian sculptural school of 2-nd half of 19 century. The native of rather poor family of the master of a tavern. Studied in the Petersburg Academy of arts (1862-68) for N.S.Pimenova. Cable cores in Petersburg, with 1871 - in Italy, with 1877 - in Paris. Participat in exhibitions of Company peredvizhnikov, with major sympathy falling into with their searches " truths in art ", standing up to{countering;resisting} to decayed canons of academism. Early small high reliefs Antokolskogo (from a tree or bones) with warm humour embody characteristic types of the jewish provincial household activities ("Tailor", 1864; " Avaricious ", 1865; both in Russian museum). His{its} main theme Russian history, its{her} largest figures, which personalities he soon becomes aspires to uncover in all their drama complexity. Achieving acute psychologic expressiveness of component parts and a general outline profile, he is put forward{extended} in figure of large sculptors - sculptors of monuments of the time. The modes{images} of Ivan built by him{it} Terrible, submersed in gross meditation (1871, bronze version in Russian museum, mottled, 1875 - in Tretjakovskoj to passageway), and Peter I (1872 use the greatest popularity; the bronze statue is established{installed} as a monument in Petrodvorets, Taganrog and Arkhangelsk), the figure of the latter is full pride power, is accepted as a numeral of Russia discovering novoevropejsky a stage of the history. In the course of time in creativity Antokolskogo features of philosophical meditation strengthen. Following sample for an european sculpture of that time of the tendency to maximum "alive" form, he creates products{creations} of generalized - symbolical character, aspiring to figured not so much concrete historical characters, how much plastic examples of moral searches, doubts and inspirations of spirit. Are those it{him} " the Christ before court of people " (bronze version - 1874), " Mors Sokrata " (1875), "Spinosa" (1882), "Mefistofel" (1883, all - Russian museum), " the Christian martyress " (" Not from the world this ", 1887, Tretjakovskaja passageway). Modelirovka these products{creations} - it is routine in a finalized version executed in white marble - reaches special nervous thinness. They largely forestall a sculpture of symbolism. And in serotinal{late} season{term} Antokolsky though and less often, reverts to motives of Russian history, creating such epicheskie compositions, as a high relief " JAroslav Wise " (a majolica, 1889), "Nestor-letopisets" (marble, 1890), "Ermak" (bronze, 1891, all - Russian museum) .Antokolsky - the writer of some gravestones (M.A.Obolenskoj in Rome, 1877; F.M.Dmitrieva in Moscow, 1888, both - marble, etc.) And iconic busts, including V.V.Stasov criticism (bronze, 1873, Tretjakovskaja passageway) to which it{he} was bound with long friendship and correspondence. In the letters and articles (gathered under Stasov edition in the collection 1905) called as the ideals "sincerity" and " to douche in art ". His{its} judgments about crisis of the modern to him of art crop are close L.N.Tolstogo's to aesthetics. Литература:Кузнецова E. Century. M.M.Antokolsky: Life and creativity. М., 1989. Mark Antokolsky: the Exhibition of products{creations} to the 150-anniversary from birthday. The check list / the State Russian museum. SPb., 1994. M.N.Sokolov
  • ANTOKOLSKY Paul Grigorjevich (1896-1978), the Russian poet. Poems " the Commune 71 years " (1933), "Son" (1943; the State premium of the USSR, 1946), " In a narrow passage for Arbatom " (1954), collections of verses "Workshop" (1958), "Time" (1973), the book " About Pushkin " (1960; verses and an essay) differ tendency to historical and cultural generalizations. Transfers{translations}.
  • The ANTHOLOGY (grech. anthologia, characters. - collection of colours), the collection of selected products{creations} (literary, philosophical, the musical) miscellaneous writers.
  • ANTONELLO YES MESSINA (Antonello da Messina) (ok. 1430-79), the italian painter of Early Revitalization. In plastic clear, poetic patterns, distinguishing portraits used technique of lubricated painting, achieving a color depth, saturated light ("Crucifixion", 1477, " St. Sebastjan ", 1476).
  • ANTONESKU (Antonescu) Jon (1882-1946), the dictator of Romania in 1940-44, marshal (1941). The participant of depressing{supression} of Country revolt. 1907, interventions against the Hungarian Soviet republic 1919. Government Antonesku has cast into 1941 Romania in war against the USSR. In 1946 it is executed under the sentence of the tribunal.
  • ANTONIADI (Antoniadi) Ezhen Michel (1870-1944), the French astronomer. During great opposition of Mars (1909) has found, that dark strips on his{its} surfaces, "channels", are derivated separate spots and cannot be outcome of reasonable activity.
  • ANTONIEVO-SIJSKY the MONASTERY, men's, is based in 1520 on r. This, in-leak{influx} the Sowing. Dvina (in terrain of the modern Archangelical region), the outlet box Anthony. Played the important role in economic assimilation of Pomorze. It is abolished after October revolution. An architectonic monument kon. 16-18 centuries.
  • ANTHONY (in world Dobrynja JAdrejkovich) (mind{wit}. 1232), archbishop Novgorod, the writer " Books the Pilgrim " about traveling to sacred places.
  • ANTHONY Great (ok. 250-356), the founder of Christian monasticism, a hermit in Egypt. It is sainted by church.
  • ANTHONY Mark (Marcus Antonius) (ok. 83-30 up to n. e.), the Roman commander. Adherent Caesar. In 43 with Oktavianom and Lepidomas has formed 2-nd triumvirate, having divided troops Bruta and the Senna (42). In 42 has received in steering Oriental regions Roman the mandatory powers. It was pulled together to egyptian queen Kleopatroj. After the declaration a senate of war Kleopatre and defeats of egyptian fleet for headland of Shares (in 31) has committed suicide.
  • ANTHONY Martkopsky, Iversky (6 century), the Christian outlet box, stolpnik; Saint John Zedaznijskogo's who has come from nymas from Antioch to Georgia the pupil. Preached in Kahetii; has based a monastery and has constructed temple Spasa of the Not-made-by-hand mode{image}. The last 15 flying of life podvizalsja on a column. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 19 (on February, 1) and on May, 7 (20).
  • ANTHONY Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • ANTHONY PADUANSKY (1195-1231), a sacred Latin church, the outlet box - franciscan, the well-known ecclesiast. Memory{remembrance} in the Latin church on June, 13.
  • ANTHONY PECHERSKY (983-1073), the founder (1051) Kievo-Pecherskogo a monastery. In 1069 ran from anger Izjaslava JAroslavicha to Chernigov where has based a monastery. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church.
  • ANTONIK Vladimir Vladimirovich (r. 1953), the Russian film actor. The main{basic} role of the romantic hero. Roles: Ratibor (" Russia initial ", 1986), Gurov ("Corruption", 1990), the Ring (" Tsar Ivan Terrible ", 1991), Nikita (" the Feral{Natural} field ", 1991), Krasnov (" White clothes{clothings} ", 1993, a TV movie under V.D.Dudintseva's novel), Hurricane (" the Wizard of emerald city ", 1994), etc.
  • ANTONYMS (from anti... And grech. onyma - a name), words with a converse. Napr.: " the truth - lie ", " poor - affluent ".
  • ANTONIN Kesarijsky (Palestinian) (mind{wit}. 308), the presbyter, the martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana Galerija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 13 (26).
  • ANTONIN the Maccabee (mind{wit}. 166 up to n. e.), under the legend, - antiquated martyrs, killed for failure{refusal} to break a law one of seven brothers Moiseyev in persecution of Antiochus IV Epifana (2 Maccabean, 7). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 1 (14).
  • ANTONIN PY (Antoninus Pius) (86-161), Roman emperor with 138, from dynasty Antoninov. Prolonging policy Adriana, escaped wars and erected shore fortifications on borders{limits}.
  • ANTONIN Sirakuzsky (mind{wit}. ok. 886), the Christian martyr, killed in Africa arabs - moslems; the son of martyr John Sirakuzskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 23 (on October, 6).
  • ANTONIN Syrian (mind{wit}. Up to 440), the Christian outlet box - ascetic, podvizavshijsja in Syria on a knap. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 23 (on March, 8).
  • ANTONIN Uglichsky, Pokrovsky (mind{wit}. 1609), the abbot, the martyr who has perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
  • ANTONINY (Antonini), a dynasty of Roman emperors in 96-192. The title by name Antonina Pija. Are most significant{sizeable}: Trajan, Adrian, Mark Avrely. At Antoninah the monarchic authority and the bureaucratic apparatus were issued. The aggressive foreign policy (especially by Trajan) was conducted.
  • ANTONIONI (Antonioni) Mikelandzhelo (r. 1912), the italian film director. Has expanded a problematics of neo-realism, having included in it{her} motives of tragical loneliness of people, their spiritual spiritual bankruptcy, uncommunicativeness. Films: "Adventure" (1960), "Night" (1960), "Eclipse" (1961), " Red desert " (1964), "Zabriski-point" (1970), " the Trade: the reporter " (1975), " Identification of woman " (1982), etc.
  • ANTONOV Alexander Stepanovich (1888-1922), the chief of revolt of peasants Tambov and parts Voronezh lips., dissatisfied with policy of " military communism " (1920-21), t. n. antonovshchiny. A party member eserov with 1906. After February revolution 1917 the chief of district militia has returned to Tambov from the reference. In the autumn 1918 has raised revolt in villages Rudovka, Vasiljevka and Nikolskoe, soon suppressed{quenched}; in the summer 1919 has organized order, fast razrosshijsja up to 2 armies in 50 thousand person with whom assaulted warehouses with weapons, militia, krasnoarmejskie parts. In November 1920 has headed main operating headquarters rising, acting under slogans " Doloj prodrazverstku!, " Long live a free market!, etc. After liquidation of revolt (Red Army, troops VCHK, VOHR and Special purpose units (CHON), under M.N.Tukhachevsky general guiding) has concealed{hidden}. It is killed at arrest.
  • ANTONOV Alexey Innokentjevich (1896-1962), the commander, the general (1943). In Great Domestic war the chief of headquarters of some fronts, 1-st deputy the chief of the General Staff (with 1942), the chief of the General Staff (with 1945). In 1946-48 and with 1954 1-st deputy chief of the General Staff, and with 1955 and the chief of headquarters of Consolidated Armed forces of the state-participants of the Warsaw agreement.
  • ANTONOV Vladimir Konstantinovich (1927-92), the Russian chemist - bioorganik, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Probeed structures and functions of proteolytic enzymes and capabilities of their use in gene engineering. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • ANTONOV Ivan Zaharovich (1919-60), the Mordovian writer. Roman " In family unified " (1954) about cohesion of Soviet people within Great Domestic war, sketches and stories.
  • ANTONOV Oleg Konstantinovich (1906-84), the aircraft designer, academician AN the USSR (1981) and AN Ukraine (1967), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). Under guiding Antonova a number{series} of airplanes is built, including. Ан-124 ("Ruslan"). The lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ANTONOV Sergey Petrovich (1915-1995), the Russian writer. Stories and to lead predominary about the modern village: " Poddubenskie chastooshkas " (1950), " Business was in Penkove " (1956), " Chipped rouble " (1966), " From the first person. Stories about writers, books and words " (1973). Stories about drama destinies of people in 1930th: "Vasyok" (1987) about builders of underground railway; "Gullies" (1988) - about collectivization. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ANTONOVA Olga Sergeevna (r. 1937), the Russian actress, the national actress of Russia (1994). Works at the St.-Petersburg theatre of a comedy him{it}. N.P.Akimova. Roles at theatre: Selemena ("Misanthrope" Z.B.Moliere), Filumena (" Filumena Morturano " Э. de Filippo), CHeboksarova (A.N.Ostrovsky "Easy money"), etc. To Антоновой Game the thin psychologic development of characters excellent exhibited in cooperation to K.G.Muratovoj (Natasha in film " the Asthenic set of symptoms ", 1989) is peculiar. It was taken out in films: K.G.Shakhnazarov "Regicide", A.O.Balabanova's "Clasp", TV movies " Damnation Djuran ", " almost ridiculous history ", " my people ", etc.
  • ANTONOVICH Vladimir Bonifatjevich (1834-1908), the Ukrainian historian, the ethnographer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1901), the professor. Transactionses on the Ukrainian archeology, a history of the Great principality Lithuanian, Ukraine. The publisher of " Archive of Southwest Russia ".
  • ANTONOVICH Daniel Isidorovich (1889-1975), the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1954). On the scene with 1919. With 1926 at the Ukrainian theatre him{it}. Shevchenko (Kharkov). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • ANTONOVICH Maxim Alekseevich (1835-1918), the Russian literary critic, the publicist. In 1860-66 employee of "Contemporary". Supported the democratic literature. Propagandized materialism, a darvinism. The writer of memories.
  • ANTONOVKA, winter grades of an apple tree: antonovka dace, antonovka kamenichka (arcaded Russian grades), antonovka shestisotgrammovaja, etc. Fruits large and an average, tartrate, with characteristic aroma. Productivity of 500 kg and more from a tree.
  • ANTONOV-OVSEENKO Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1883-1939), the political figure. During October revolution the secretary of Petrograd revolutionary-military committee (VRK), supervised over taking of the Winter palace. In 1917-19 one of organizers of the Red Army, commanding the Soviet troops of the South of Russia. In 1922-24 chief of Political department RVS of the USSR. With 1924 ambassador in Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Poland. With 1934 public prosecutor of RSFSR. With 1936 consul-general in Barcelona. With 1937 narkom justicia of RSFSR. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • ANTOFAGASTA (Antofagasta), city and seaport in a north of Chile, adm. ts. Region. Antofagasta, 219 thousand inhabitants (1990). Alimentary, a chemical industry. Nonferrous machine industry. University. It is based in 1870.
  • ANTOTSEROTOVYE MOSSES, a class of mosses, with bladed or rozetkovidnym a thallus. St. 300 kinds{views} (4 stems), predominary in tropics.
  • ANTHOCYANS, pigments (pigments) of plants of red, blue and violet colour. Dissolved of a cell sap; alongside with other pigments determine colour of fruits, flowers, leaves.
  • ANTHRACNOSES, the blights called by parasitic fungi. Strike pulse crops, fruit, bahchevye and other crops. On above-ground organs of a stain, a ulcer with dark red{crimson} or black edges{boundarice}.
  • ANTHRACOSIS, the pneumokoniosi stipulated by influence of a coal dust.
  • INTERVAL (frants. entr'acte, from entre - between and acte - action).. 1) a rest between certificates{acts} (actions) of scenic submission, branches of a concert... 2) the Tool{Instrument} introduction to any certificate{act} (except for 1-st) in opera, ballet, drama performance.
  • ANTHRAQUINONE, light yellow crystals, tпл 287 °C. An anthraquinone - a raw product for synthesis of anthra colors which differ brightness and toughness of paintings and are used for a staining of a wool, silk, preparation of paints.
  • ANTHRACENE, colourless crystals, tпл 216 °C. It is contained in coal tar. A scintillator, raw material for synthesis of an anthraquinone.
  • GREEN OIL, fluid distillation product of coal-mining pitch (range of boiling 280-360 °C). Contains anthracene, phenanthrene and other aromatic compounds. Green oil use for secretion of anthracene, in manufacture of carbon black, for a wood preservation.
  • ANTHRACITE (up to 1962 Bokovo-anthracite), city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Lugansk region. A depot. 72,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of mineral coal. Repair of a mining equipment; the enterprises alimentary and a light industry, etc.
  • ANTHRACITE, fossil coal of the maximum stage of carbonification. Firmness of 1500-1700 kg / m3; combustion heat of 33,8-35,2 MDZH/KG. Contains (in combustible mass) up to 9 % of volatile substances, 93,5-97 % of carbon. High-performance power-generating fuel. It is used also by manufacture of carbides, electrodes, etc. Major deposits of anthracite - in the Russian Federation, on Ukraine, in the USA and China.
  • ANTRE (frants. entreе - the introduction, an output on the scene).. 1) in a circus occurrence{appearance} of clowns on a manege (originally), nowadays comic stsenka with use buffonnyh methods... 2) In ballet an introductory part organized a pas de deux (pas de trois), an output of one or several initiators.
  • ANTREA, the title of. Kamennogorsk in the Leningrad region up to 1948.
  • ANTREPRENER (frants. entrepreneur - the businessman), the master, the leaser, a holder of the private{individual} entertainment enterprise (theatre, a circus, etc.) - enterprises.
  • MEZZANINE FLOOR (mezzanine floors) (frants. entresol).. 1) the upper intermediate storey of a house (in private residences of 18-19 centuries)... 2) the Top of a room, disjointed on 2 intermediate storeys... 3) In the modern home unit a floor under a ceiling for a storage of things.
  • ANTRIM (Antrim), a basalt plateau on north-east about. Ireland. An altitude up to 554 m. Abrasion arcs, fuselage spine fairings, hexahedral columns an altitude up to 6 m (t. n. Road of jumboes). Bliz Antrim - an eskar. An elaeagnus - her.
  • ANTRIT, an inflammation of a mucous membrane and osteal walls of the largest cell (antruma) a mastoid of a temporal bone; it is supervised predominary at an inflammation of a middle ear for children of the first months of life.
  • ANTROPO... (from grech. anthropos - the person), the part of the composite words meaning: relating the person (napr., anthropology).
  • ANTROPOV Alexey Petrovich (1716-95), the Russian painter. Antropov portraits distinguish communication{connection} with tradition parsuny, truthfulness of performances, picturesque methods of Baroque (Peter's III portrait, 1762).
  • ANTHROPOGENESIS (from antropo... And a genesis), process of istoriko-evolutionary formation of physical type of the person, initial development of his{its} labour activity, speech. The doctrine about anthropogenesis - section of anthropology.
  • ANTHROPOGENIC VEGETATION (from antropo... And... A gene), the communities, resulting a human activity (crops and plantings of plants, a grazing of cattle, a deforesting, inning and so forth).
  • MAN IMPACTS on a nature, different forms of influence of a human activity on a nature. Man impacts envelop separate components of a nature and natural complexes. The quantitative and a qualitative behavior of man impacts is the anthropogenic load. Man impacts can wear both positive, and negative character; the latter causes in application of special nature protection measures.
  • ANTROPOGENOVAJA SYSTEM (SEASON{TERM}) (antropogen), the same, that quarternary system (season{term}).
  • ANTROPOGEOGRAFIJA, flow in the socio economic geography, leaning{basing} on ideas of geographycal school (in sociology), admitted behind natural environments defining role in disposition of the population and an economy. Has arisen in kon. 19 century.
  • ANTROPOLOGIZM (an anthropological principle), the philosophical concept seeing in concept "person" the main{basic} grade and coming from it{her} in argument of a nature, a society and intellection. The anthropological principle in philosophy has entered and has justified L.Fejerbah for whom he has become the basis{fundamentals} of criticism of german classical idealism. In Russia the adherent of ideas of Feuerbach N.G.Chernyshevsky was. Antropologizm it was developed in different philosophical concepts (F.Nitsshe, A.Schopenhauer, a number{series} of representatives of existentialism). In temporal sense the word antropologizm - a constituent part of philosophical doctrines about the person. See also Philosophical anthropology.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY INSTITUTE him{it}. D.N.Anuchina of the Moscow State University, is based in 1922. Probes on all sections of anthropology. At institute a museum (it is based in 1879; anthropological, archeologic and ethnographic collections).
  • The ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCHOOL in cultural science, has developed in the Great Britain in 1860th (E.Tajlor, A.Lang, Dzh. Fraser, in Russia - A.N.Veselovsky), explained similarity of mythology and folklore of miscellaneous peoples identity of a human nature and unity of virgin intellection (an animism, process of analogy); proved, that, having arisen, similar scenes become perpetually guides ("vestiges") of crop.
  • The ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHYLUM, historically usual complex genetically resistant attributes of a physical structure which defines groups of people in fixed terrain. The term " anthropological phylum " mean both major strains, and their subdividings.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY (from antropo... And... logija), science about an origin and evolution of the person (see. Anthropogenesis), education of human strains and about normal variations of a physical structure of the person. As the do-it-yourself science was formed in is grey. 19 century. The main{basic} sections of anthropology: structural botany of the person, the doctrine about anthropogenesis, rasovedenie. With it is grey. 20 century strengthened the complex of disciplines, consolidated under the title "human biology" (study physiological, biochemical and the genetic factors influential in variations of a structure and development of a human body) develops.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY PHILOSOPHICAL, see. Philosophical anthropology.
  • ANTHROPOMETRY (from antropo... And... metrija), in anthropology - the instrumentation system of a human body and his{its} parts.
  • ANTHROPOMORPHISM (from antropo... And grech. morphe - the form, a kind{view}), likening to the person, vesting by human properties (napr., consciousness) subjects and the phenomena of a nonliving nature, heavenly bodies, mythical entities.
  • ANTROPONIMIKA (from antropo... And grech. onyma - a name), section onomastiki, investigator an origin, change, geographycal distribution{propagation}, social operation, etc. sobstvenyh names of people.
  • ANTROPONOZY (from antropo... And grech. nosos - disease), the group of contagions, which causal organisms are capable to strike only the person (a typhoid, a malaria, a scarlatina, etc.).
  • ANTROPOSOFIJA (from antropo... And grech. sophia - wisdom), flow in spiritual life of 20 century, coming from founded R.Shtejnerom " sciences about spirit " - supersensual knowledge of the world through self-knowledge of the person as space entity. In 1913 it is based Antroposofskoe a society (in 1988 ok. 47 thousand members in different countries), in 1923 - " Loose university of science about spirit " (Geteanum) in Dornahe (Switzerland). Ideas antroposofii have received realization in pedagogics (Valdorfskie schools), art (evritmija), medicine (including pharmaceutics), an agriculture, etc.
  • ANTHROPOSPHERE (from antropo... And grech. sphaira - a sphere), a constituent part sotsiosfery, enveloping mankind as set{combination} of individuals.
  • ANTROPOFAGIJA (from antropo... And grech. phagein - is), ljudoedstvo; see. A cannibalism.
  • ANTHROPOCHORIA (from antropo... And grech. choreo - I advance), inadvertent distribution{propagation} of plants by the person (by different transportations and so forth). Napr., the weed a ragweed is delivered to Europe in 19 century from the Sowing. America.
  • ANTHROPOCENTRISM (from antropo... And the centre), view according to which the person is the centre and a prime target of universe.
  • ANTSLA (Antsla), city (with 1938) in Estonia. A depot. 1,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture knitted, garments and furniture. It is known with 1405.
  • ANTSON (Antson) Alexander (1899-1945), the Estonian writer. In pre-war creativity (collection "Epigrammy", 1-3, 1927-33, plays) unmasked german and Estonian fascists. The historical novel "Victory" (it is issued 1946).
  • To PARASTAS (М), women correspondence Anu, shumero-akkadskogo the god of the root.
  • ANTOINE (Antoine) Andre (1858-1943), the French producer, the actor, the theorist. The organizer and the chief of Loose theatre (1887-94), Antoine's (1897-1906) Theatre, headed theatre " Одеон " (1906-14) in Paris.
  • ANTOINE the BURBON (Antoine de Bourbon) (1518-62), duke Vandomsky with 1537, king Navarry with 1555. First one of leaders of huguenots, at the end of life (in Religious wars in France) commanding roman catholic army. Father of the French king Genriha IV.
  • ANTUNISH (Antunes) Antoniu Lobu (r. 1943), the Portuguese writer. Novels " Knowledge of a hell " (1980), " the Tract about birds " (1981), " Mors Karlosa Gardelja " (1990), etc.
  • PARASTASES (an armour. antae), projections of longitudinal walls the buildings enclosuring an orifice (napr., in ancient greek " a temple in parastases ").
  • PARASTASES, the title of association of slavonic nations for the byzantian and gothic writers 6 - nach. 7 centuries. Lived predominary between Dnestr and Dnepr. A chief business - agriculture. The social system - military democracy. Wared against Gotha, Byzantium, avars.
  • ANTEROT (grech. Counter Erotu), in the Grecian mythology the god inspiring to the person hostility to liking it{him}. The guide of the Aphrodite.
  • ANU (An), in shumerskoj mythologies one of three supreme godhoods (alongside with the Enka and Enlilem), the promoter Uruk.
  • ANUBIS, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the god - the promoter dead, and also necropolises, funeral solemnities and an embalming. It was figured in appearance of the wolf, a jackal or the person with a head of a jackal.
  • ANUJ (Anouilh) Jean (1910-87), the French playwright. In plays " the Traveller without luggage " (1937), "Dikarka" (it is put 1938), etc. - the tragical conflict of the hero to cruelty of world around. Liriko-ironical comedies (" the Supper in Sanlise ", 1942, etc.). In tragedy of "Antirun" (it is put 1943), historical dramas ("Lark", 1953, " Bekket or Honour God's ", 1959) - death of the moral - uncompromising hero stating the human dignity. In numerous comedies 1950-80-Х ("Cellar", 1961) is ridiculed narrow-mindedness and burzhuaznost.
  • ANUKET, in egyptian mythology the goddess of fertility and thresholds of Nile, was honored in V.Egipte and in Nubia. It was figured by the way women in a corona from feathers.
  • ANUNNAKI, in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies gods of ground and the underground world, opredeljajushie human destinies.
  • ANURADHAPURA, city in a north of Sri Lanka. Ok. 40 thousand inhabitants. A thorough revision of farm products, handicraft industries (wood carving); tourism; a place of pilgrimage of Buddhists. Ancient Anuradhapura (5 century up to n. e. - nach. 11 century n. e.) - capital of the first Singhalese state. Architectonic reservation; residues of Buddhist temples and monasteries of 3-1 centuries up to n. e. With stone statues of the Buddha of 5 century, cave monastery Isurumunija (5-8 centuries, reliefs), palaces, etc.
  • ANURIA (from grech. an--a negative prefix and uron - urine), the arrest of secretion wet at renal failure (a "true" anuria), and also in connection with pressure drop in renal vessels at krovopotere, a shock (an extrarenal anuria), with an interrupting to out flux wet (napr., at a prelum of ureters a tumour) or reflex influences on renal vessels (napr., at a mental trauma, an acute pain). The long-lived anuria conducts to a uremia.
  • FUNDAMENT, the same, that an anal aperture.
  • ANUCHIN Dmitry Nikolaevich (1843-1923), the Russian anthropologist, the geographer, the ethnographer and the archeologist, one of founders of anthropology in Russia, the academician (1896) and the honorary member (1898) Petersburg AN. The president (with 1890) Societies of fans{amateurs} of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography. Has based domestic school of geographers. Transactionses on ethnic anthropology and anthropogenesis, ethnography, virgin archeology, general physical geography, regional geography and a history of science.
  • ANUSHA (? - ok. 1686), Khivan khan (with 1663), the adherent of establishment trade and diplomatic relations with Russia.
  • FULLFACE (frants. en face, characters. - to face), a face to looking; a kind{view} of a face, a subject endways, in front.
  • ANFELCIA SEAWEED, stem of red algae. A thallome by the way branched cords in length 10-20 see. In a coastal belt, primarily cool seas of Boreal hemisphere. Use for obtaining an agar (in a number{series} of countries cultivate).
  • ENFILADE (frants. enfilade), a number{series} of rooms adjoining to each other, which doorways are located on one shaft that creates a through perspective of interiors (napr., in palaces of Baroque and a classicism).
  • ANFIM Nikomidijsky (mind{wit}. 302), diocesan, the martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 3 (16), in Roman catholic on April, 27.
  • ANFIMOV Nikolay Apollonovich (r. 1935), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on heat exchange and mass transfer. The state premium of the USSR (1980).
  • ANFINOGENTOVA Anna Antonovna (r. 1938), the economist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991), corresponding member of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 1991. Transactionses on theoretical problems of construction of interbranch balance models and their uses in steering.
  • ANFINSEN (Anfinsen) Christian Bemer (r. 1916), the American chemist and the biochemist. Basic transactionses on decoding primary structure of a ferment of ribonuclease. Probeed relation of activity of ferments to their structure, has put in pawn a fundamentals of an evolutionary biochemistry. The Nobel Prize (1972).



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