Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ANFIJA Roman (mind{wit}. 120), the Christian martyress damaged in Rome in persecution of emperor Adriana, mother of martyr Elevferija Illirijskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 15 (28).
  • ANHEL (Angel), a cataract in verhovjah r. CHurun, in Venezuela. An altitude of fall of 1054 m (the highest on the Earth).
  • ANHIZ (Anhis), in the Grecian mythology and for Vergilija tsar dardanov, the grandson of Trojan tsar of the Ooze, beloved the Aphrodites, given birth to him of son Eneja. Has divulged the mortal about love of the goddess, for what have been punished Zevsom by blindness (or has become weakened). In an impact time of Troy Enej has born the father from burning city on the shoulders{arms}. Anhiz has died on about. Sicily during wanderings Eneja.
  • ANHRA-MAJNJU, in zoroastrizme the main malicious godhood, olitsetvorenie the malicious beginning, antagonist Ahuramazdy.
  • ANHUR, see. Onuris.
  • ANTSENGRUBER (Anzengruber) Ludwig (1839-89), the Austrian writer. In social - critical dramas " the Priest from Kirhfelda " (1870), " the Fourth precept " (1878), etc. first in the Austrian literature has shown life of village.
  • ANTSERANANA (Antseranana), former Diego-Suares (Diego-Suarez), city and seaport on Madagascar, adm. ts. prov. Antseranana. 53 thousand inhabitants (1986). Shopping center of a farming area. The textile, flavoring enterprises. A ship repair. Branch of university.
  • ANTSILUSY, a stem of freshwater Castropoda of mollusks of order sidjacheglazyh. A shell kolpachkovidnaja, a diameter of 5 mm, an altitude of 4 mm. Some kinds populate fast brooks and the rivers. Antsilusy have denominated Antsilovomu an eskar. - I stain, existing at-sight the modern Baltic the m. ok. 7,5-6 thousand flying back.
  • ANTSIRABE (Antsirabe), city on Madagascar. 150 thousand inhabitants (1985). Textile, flavoring, etc. the enterprises. Jeweller manufacture. Center of a farming area.
  • ANTSIFEROV Vladimir Nikitovich (r. 1933), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses under the theory and technologies of sintered materials, foam materials on the basis of metals, metal composites, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1982).
  • UPAS - TREE, stem of trees and bushes of a set of a mulberry family. 5-6 kinds{views}, in tropics of Asia, Africa. One of the Asian kinds{views}, t. n. The upas-tree, contains the toxicant milky juice used for a poisoning of booms.
  • UPAS - TREES Michael Leonidovich (1923-90), the Russian writer. To be typed the beginnings in 1964 (the story " the Austrian wood "). In prose, partly close to science fiction, reverts to filosofsko-ethical problems. Novels: " the Theory of inconceivability " (1965), " This blue April " (1967), "Box forest" (1979). Books: " it is dear through chaos " (1983), " the Note of the wandering enthusiast " (1988), " As bird Garuda " (1989), etc.
  • ANCHISHKIN Alexander Ivanovich (1933-87), the Russian economist, academician AN the USSR (1984). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of a breeding, macromodeling and forecasting of development of a national economy. The state premium of the USSR (1989, posthumously).
  • ANCHOVIES, set of fishes of order seldeobraznyh. Flocking fishes. Length up to 20 sm, weigh till 19 of 15 stems, over 100 kinds{views}, in marine and fresh waters of moderate and tropical latitudes, including in Black, Azov and Japanese seas. Object of a craft.
  • ANSHAKOV Gennady Petrovich (r. 1937), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1983). Has created guidance systems of space complexes of sounding{probing} of the Earth, the theory and methods of construction of adaptive automatic guidance systems of the spacecraft. The lenin premium (1988), the State premium of the USSR (1977).
  • ANSHLIF (a nem. Anschliff), a non-transparent microsection, a piece of ore, a rock or a petrification with the slicked and finished shear surface, intended for probe under a microscope in an indirect light.
  • ANSHLJUS (a nem. Anschlu - apposition), policy of violent apposition of Austria to Germany, carried out{spent;conducted;performed} by Germany after 1-st world war. It was finished by capture of Austria by Germany on March, 11-12 1938. Independence of Austria recovered{restored} in April 1945, after its{her} discharging during 2-nd world war, and legalized by the State agreement (1955) forbidding anshljus.
  • ANSHJUTS Genrih (1785-1865), the Austrian actor. One of founders of scenic realism at the Austrian theatre. Worked in Germany, with 1821 in "Burgteatre" (Vienna).
  • AN LUSHAN (?-757), the Chinese commander. Has raised (755) anti-government mutiny and has proclaimed itself emperor (756). It is killed by the son.
  • ANDUN, the title of. Dandun in China up to 1965.
  • " ANELLI - NAZI " (Agnelli - Nasi), industrial group of Italy. Has developed in nach. 20 century. A nucleus of group - concern " ФИАТ " effecting 90 % of automobiles{cars} in country. Monitors also the enterprises of other industries.
  • ANHUI (Anhuej), province in Vost. China, in a bass. Yangtze. Ok. 140 thousand км2. The population 56 million person (1990). Adm. ts. - Hefei.
  • ANHOJSKAJA the CLIQUE (anfuistskaja a clique), in 1916-20 in the Sowing. China one of groupings bejjanskih militarists. The title has received from prov. Anhui which natives were leaders of a clique - Duan TSizhuj, etc. In 1918 anhojskoj the clique had been built political club Anfu (from here its{her} other title). It was sustained by Japan.
  • ANCHING (Huajnin), city and port in China, in prov. Anhui, on r. Yangtze. 240 thousand inhabitants (1987). Alimentary, textile, a petrochemical industry. The large centre of manufacture of tea.
  • ANSHAN, city on north-east of China, in prov. Liaoning. 1,2 million inhabitants (1989.) Center of production of iron oxide and iron and steel industry. Heavy engineering. The oil refining, chemical, cement enterprises.
  • ANJALSKY the UNION, in 1788-89 plot of the Swedish and finnish officers [the title on d. Anjala (Anjala, Finland) where program documents] against the Swedish king Gustava III have been constituted; the part of conspirators achieved state branch of Finland from Sweden. In nach. 1789 participants Anjalskogo of the union have been repressed.
  • ANYANG (CHzhande), city in Central China, in prov. Henan. 389 thousand inhabitants (1989). Textile, a food-processing industry. Bliz Anyang - residues of settlements from a neolith before epoch Shang - In (till 11 century up to n. e.), including the last capital of kingdom In (a palace, temples, inhabited and craft quarters, tombs).
  • ANJUJ, the river on north-east of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} of Kolyma. Length of 8 kms (the area of basin of 107 thousand км2); it will be derivated by interflow Major Anjuja (693 kms, the area of basin of 57 thousand км2) and Small Anjuja (750 kms, the area of basin of 50 thousand км2). Average discharge of 650 m\s. It is used for navigation, a floating, fishery.
  • PANSIES, grassy 1-2-летнее a plant of a set of a violet family. Basically in Eurasia. Grades with large flowers of the miscellaneous form and colour use in an ornamental gardening.
  • Joint-stock company, in the Chinese mythology a turtle, carrier on I stain three sacred mountains on which live immortal; ministers a numeral of wisdom and learning.
  • Joint-stock company BIN, in the Chinese mythology the hero, son Ao of the Chinchas, tsar dragon's; the Marine soldier keeping in arms{hand} a spear.
  • AOMORI, city in Japan, on about. Honshu, adm. ts. Prefectures of Aomori. 288 thousand inhabitants (1990). Wood-working, a fishing industry. A train ferry on about. Hokkaido.
  • AOMIN (Aomen) (Macao), terrain in Vost. Asia, for a shore of the JUzh.-Chinese m., in a mouth r. CHzhutszjan. Actuates p-ov Aomin and accumbent islands. The area 18 км2. The population of 378 thousand person (1993), predominary Chinese (68 %), Portugueses (28 %). Believers - Buddhists (45 %), roman catholics (7 %). The official language - Portuguese. Adm. ts. And a port - Aomin (342 thousand inhabitants, 1991). About 1680 possession, with 1951 " an overseas province of Portugal. According to joint statement (1987) governments of Chinese People's Republic and Portugal, the terrain of Aomin will proceed{pass} under the sovereignty of China in 1999. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - tourism, and also manufacture for export clothes{clothings} and other textiles, electronic parts, toys, etc. International intermediary trading - financial transactions. Fishery. A seaside resort. Gambling houses. Foreign trade ties primarily with Siangan and China. Monetary unit - pataka.
  • AORIST (grech. aoristos), the aspectual-temporal form of a verb. In a number{series} indoevropejskih tongues (Grecian, old church slavonic, old russian, etc.) means the action referred to past, napr. Old church slavonic polozhih - " I have put ".
  • AORTA (grech. aorte), a main artery of the blood system, coming out of a left ventricle of heart; supplies with an arterial blood all tissues and organs of a body. For the person, mammals and birds an aorta the main{basic} vessel of a great circle of a blood circulation.
  • AORTITIS, inflammation of a wall of an aorta; a chronic aortitis - predominary at a lues.
  • AOSTA (Aosta), city in Italy, in the Alpes, adm. ts. prov. And region. Valle-d'Aosta. Ok. 40 thousand inhabitants. A traffic centre on approaches to saddle-points Б. and M.Sen-Bernar. Electrometallurgy.
  • APADANA, a main hall in imperial palaces Ahemenidskogo of Iran, mnogokolonnyj, with a flat wooden ceiling.
  • APANAZH (frants. apanage), the part of royal domain given in France (up to 1832) and some other european monarchy sovereigns to the junior sons, brothers (it is routine for life).
  • APANASENKO Joseph Rodionovich (1890-1943), the commander, the general (1941). In the Civil war the commander kavalerijskoj divisions in 1-st Horse Army. In 1938-43 commanding a troops Central Asian IN and a troops of Far East front. Since June 1943 deputy of Voronezh front commanding by a troops. Has died of wounds.
  • APART (frants. aparte, from a part - aside), scenic monologue or the replicas uttered "aside", for the public, and, on premeditation of the writer, "inaudible" to partners on the scene.
  • APARTMENTS (from frants. appartement - a dwelling unit), a major magnificent room.
  • APARTHEID (aparthejd) (on a language afrikaans apartheid - separation), the most marginal form of racial discrimination. Means forfeiting fixed groups of the population depending on their race political, socio economic and civic rights, down to territorial isolation. Some certificates{acts} of apartheid can compound{make} genocide. The modern international law considers{counts} apartheid as crime against humanity. In 1973 the International convention on suppression of crimes of apartheid and punishment for him{it} is adopted.
  • APAS (sanskr. Water), vedijskie godhoods of waters; easygoing in relation to people salutary waters.
  • APATITE, mineral of a class of phosphates, Ca5 [PO4] 3. (F, Cl, OH) 2. Content P2O5 - 41-42 %. Impurity{additives} CO2-, Mn, rare-earth elements, U, Sr, etc. White, light-blue, yellow, violet both other crystals and acinose units. Hardness 5; firmness ok. 3,2 g / sm3. An origin magmatic, hydrothermal, pnevmatolitovoe. Raw material for fertilizers, manufactures of a phosphoric acid and its{her} salts; it is applied in metallurgy, a ceramic and glass industry. The synthetic apatite with an impurity{additive} of rare-earth elements is used in optician.
  • APATITOVYE ORE. The greatest industrial value magmatic deposits have, the bound with masses nefelinovyh sienitov. Content P2O5 in such apatitovyh ores of 16-19 %. Main storages apatitovyh ores - in the Russian Federation (Kovdorskoe and Hibinskie deposits); abroad the considerable reserves apatitovyh in Brazil, Vietnam, the republic of South Africa, Finland, Uganda, Canada.
  • APATITOSIS, the pneumokoniosi stipulated by influence apatitovoj of a dust.
  • APATITES, city (with 1966) in the Russian Federation, Murmansk region, close an eskar. Imandra. A railway junction. 88 thousand inhabitants (1991). Apatito-nefelinovaja ore dressing factory, etc. The Kirov state district power station. The Kola centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science. Has arisen in 1935 as a settlement in connection with development Hibinskih of deposits.
  • APATHY (from grech. apatheia - impassivity).. 1) indifferent, indifferent attitude{relation} to ambient; a condition at which are reduced or internal drives{excitings}, interests, emotional reactions are completely lost... 2) One of the main{basic} concepts of ethics of stoicism, uncontrolled liberty showers from passions and hot bloods. It is pushed Stilponom (megarskaja school), it is developed stoikom Zenonom from Kitiona, Epiktetom.
  • APATOZAVRY (brontosaurs), a stem extinct huge kowtowing order jashcherotazovyh dinosaurs. Lived in a Jurassic in the Sowing. To America and, probably, in Europe. Length up to 25 m. of 5 kinds{views}. Rastitelnojadnye.
  • STATELESS PERSONS (stateless persons) (from grech. apatris and apolis - denuded the fatherland, denuded Rhodinums), the faces which are not having citizenship (citizenship).
  • APACHES (the self-title - a dyne), group atapaskskih peoples (navaho, meskalero, hikarilla, etc.) in the USA (pieces. Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma). 20 thousand person (without navaho, 1992). Tongues compound{make} an austral branch atapaskskih tongues. Believers - christians.
  • APASH (frants. apache - under the title of American Indian nation apaches).. 1) deklassirovannyj an element in France; the hooligan, the thief. The word has become to be used in France from time of its{her} sharing{participation} in colonization the Sowing. America... 2) Otlozhnoj the open not clasped{buttoned} collar under which it is impossible to put on a cravat; the jacket with such collar.
  • UPWELLING (from English up - upward and well - to rush), a upwelling from depth of a water reservoir to a surface. It is invoked{produced} by resistantly blowing winds which drive surface waters aside the high sea, and return{in exchange} on a surface waters of subjacent layers are hoisted.
  • APDAJK (Updike) John (r. 1932), the American writer. Social - psychologic and ironical prose (stories, pov. "Fermat", 1965; the tetralogy " the Rabbit, run ", 1960, " the Rabbit healed ", 1971, " the Rabbit has grown rich ", 1981, " the Rabbit has comforted ", 1990) about attempts of redemption of the modern bezduhovnoj life and finding by " the mean American " moral supports zhiznestojkosti and good will. The mythological novel "Centaur" (1963) about immortality of goods and tragedijnosti his{its} destinies; " the novel of ideas " about religious belief " Роджера Version " (1986).
  • APE (Ape) (up to 1917 official title Oppekaln), city (with 1928) in Latvia, in 57 kms from zh.-d. An item. Valga. 1,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood-working, metal-working and a food-processing industry.
  • APEJRON (grech. apeiron - infinite, boundless), the term of ancient greek philosophy; for early philosophers - property pervoelementov, for Platona and Pythagoreans - a synonym of a matter. The analysis of concept is given Aristotelem in "Physics".
  • APEX (from an armour. apex - a top) solar motion, a point of celestial sphere (in mia maid of Gercules) to which the Sun concerning asters goes; the counter point of celestial sphere calls as an antiapex.
  • APEX, in botany - the same, that an apical cone.
  • APELDOORN (Apeldoorn), city in Netherlands. 148 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, a chemical, impregnated-paper, textile industry. Bliz Apeldoorn - the Royal summer palace.
  • APELLA (Apella), public assembly in Sparta; the supreme body of an authority, but his{its} solutions admitted gerusiej or tsar harmful, were cancelled. Was going monthly in the open; voted cry.
  • APELLES, the ancient greek painter 2-nd floor. 4 century up to n. e. Wrote distemper on wooden boards; artfully possessed a treatment of light and shade ("Aphrodite Anadiomena"). Products{creations} were not saved. Expression " feature of Apelles " means the high perfection{efficiency} reached persistent transactions.
  • APELLY (Apelles) (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, diocesan Iraklijsky (Thracian). It is mentioned in the Message to Romans 16:10). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on October, 31 (on November, 13).
  • PELLJATSIJA (from an armour. appellatio - the circulation).. 1) support call (napr., the appeal to public opinion)... 2) the Appeal of any solution in higher instance... 3) In the right - the appeal of judgements and the solutions which have not entered the enforceability. The appeal court anew investigates available in business and again introduced proofs and or asserts{approves} the appealed against solution, or bears new. See also the Appeal.
  • COMMON ORANGE, evergreen tree of a stem an orange of a set of a rue family, a fruit plant. Only in crop in tropical and subtropical belts. In fruits of Saccharum, a citric acid, vitamins C, groups B, P, in a rind an essential oil. Productivity of 100-150 kg from a tree.
  • PENINSULA APENNINSKY, in the south of Europe. The m. on 1100 kms presses in Mediterranean. The area of 149 thousand км2. Lengthways Apenninskogo p-ova Apennines reach{extend;stretch}. Bliz shore Tirrenskogo in m. - area of volcanism (Vesuvius, Flegrejskie fields). On Apenninskom p-ove the states are located: Italy (ok. 1/2 terrains), Vatican, San Marino.
  • APENNINES (Appennino), a range in Italy, on Apenninskom p-ove. Length ok. 1200 kms. Prevailing{dominating} altitudes of 1200-1800 m, maximum - 2914 m (Monte Corno). The Mediterranean bushes, a beech family and coniferous forests; at tops - meadows.
  • APERITIF (frants. aperitif), a beverage for exaltation of appetite, routinely spirituous.
  • The APERTURE (from an armour. apertura - an aperture).. 1) in optician - the focal aperture of an optical device defined in the dimensions of lenss or diaphragms. An angular aperture - an angle a between marginal rays of the taper light beam which is logging in. A numerical aperture - figure And = nsin • (a/2) (n - refractive index of medium); determines an image illumination, proportional A2, and resolution of the device, proportional А.. 2) In the antenna to technique the aperture (aperture) - a surface of beam arrays raying or accepting radiance.
  • APERTURE DIAPHRAGM, see. A diaphragm in optician.
  • APIA (Apia), capital and a main port of the state Zap. Samoa, on about. Upolu. 32,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). An international airport. Export of a copra, bananas, a cacao beans.
  • APICAL (from an armour. apex - a top), in biology - apical, located on a top or inhering to her, versed up, napr. Apical shoot for plants. Compare. Basal.
  • "APIMONDIJA", international federation pchelovodnyh associations. It is built in 1949. Center - Rome. Members - 62 countries (1988).
  • APIS, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the sacred bull esteemed as earth implementation of god Pta.
  • APITHERAPY (from an armour. apis - a bee and therapy), application of a sting poison and his{its} drugs with the medical purpose.
  • APITS (Apitz) Bruno (1900-79), the german writer. In 1933-45 prisoner of fascist concentration camps. Roman " Naked among wolfs " (1958) about resistance of prisoners Buhenvalda. Roman "Rainbow" (1976) about destinies of german workers nach. 20 century.
  • APLASIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. plasis - education), a malformation, inborn absence of any part of a body or an organ. An aplasia of one of twin organs (napr., one kidney) can not result in to the functional violations{disturbance}. Compare. A hypoplasia.
  • APLANAT (from grech. aplanetos - correct), a lens in which a number{series} of optical aberrations is removed; it is driven out by more perfect lens - an anastigmat.
  • APLIZII, the same, that marine hares.
  • APLITE, uniformly and fine-grained zhilnaja a rock, poor colour minerals, routinely structure of granites.
  • APLOMB (frants. aplomb), redundant self-righteousness in conduct, in speech.
  • APLU (an armour. Aplu, Apulu, Aplun), in etrusskoj mythologies the godhood, in many respects corresponds{meets} to god Apollo.
  • APNOE (from grech. apnoia - absence of respiration), suspend of respiration at a depletion of blood a carbonic gas (napr., after reinforced synthetic or arbitrary respiration). False apnoe occurs at the strong irritation of a leather (napr., cool water).
  • APO (Apo), a burning mountain on about. Mindanao, the highest on Philippines (2954 м). National park.
  • APO... (from grech. apo - from, from, without), the part of the composite words meaning: denial, loss, absence something (napr., an apomixis), an origin from something (napr., Apomorphinum), removal.
  • APOGAMY (from apo... And grech. gamos - spoilage), development of a germ from cells of a prothallium or a foetal sac for some seed plants and ferns. A version of an apomixis. APOGEE (from apo... And grech. ge - the Earth).. 1) the point of an orbit of moon most remote from the Earth or an artificial satellite of the Earth... 2) the Top gear, bloom (napr., apogee of glory).
  • APOKAVK Alexey (?-1345), the head of government in Byzantium with 1341, in the season{term} of the infancy of emperor John V. Settled principles of a centralization of the state. Resting on metropolitan merchant class and handicraftsmen, struggled with feudal znatju and with John VI. It is killed John's by adherents VI.
  • The APOCALYPSE (grech. apokalypsis - revelation), John's Revelation, one of books of the New testament, most ancient of kept Christian literary works (it is grey. 68 - nach. 69). The church attributes authorship to John Bogoslovu. Contains prophesies about "end of the world", about extirpation between the Christ and the antiChrist, "final judgment", " a thousand-year kingdom God's ".
  • "APOKRISIS", H.Filaleta's polemic composition against the Brest union (it is issued in Vilno, 1597). Settled sharing{participation} laymen in church cathedrals, criticized the maximum Ukrainian and Byelorussian orthodox clergy for the agreement with Vatican and Polish znatju.
  • APOCRYPHAS (grech. apokryphos - secret, secret), products{creations} judaic and early Christian writings, not live in a biblical canon.
  • STATELESS PERSONS, see. Stateless persons.
  • APOLLINARY Junior (ok. 310 - 382/392), diocesan of. Laodikii, pupil Afanasija Alexandria. Shadowed the orthodox doctrine against arians, however hereinafter, having put forward the thesis about " the unified embodied nature of the God of the Word ", has become the founder of the christological heresy convicted on a cathedral in Rome (374-380) and on Ecumenical council in Constantinople (381).
  • APOLLINER (Apollinaire) Guillaume (an ice-film. A name Wilhelm Apollinary Kostrovitsky, Kostrowicki) (1880-1918), the French poet. Lyrics Apollinera (a cycle " Life to devote to love ", 1917) combines courageous sincerity, acute, sometimes sarcastic sensation of cruelty of life (a cycle " the Bestiary, or Tuple Orfeja ", 1911) and pleasure of its{her} acceptance, opposition to losses and time (poems " Most Mirabo ", 1912; " Alkogoli. 1898-1913 ", 1913). Collections of short stories " Eresiarh and To ° " (1910.) " Kalligrammy. Poems of the World and War. 1913-1916 " (1918) - the lyrical chronicle of tragical perception of 1-st world war which participant was Apolliner. Meditation about tragical time and the personality - passion play - buff " Colour of time " (1918, it is published 1920).
  • APOLLODOR from Damascene, drevnerimsky the architect and the engineer 1-st floor. 2 century. Has constructed a grandiose forum of Trajan, odeon, a circus and terms of Trajan in Rome, the bridge through Danube.
  • APOLLODOR (the last third of 5 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek artist, from Athenes. On Pliniju to the Higher (the Roman scientist and the writer), has received a nickname skiograf, i.e. tenepisets, t. To. First began to transmit shades and to use demitints.
  • APOLLODOR ATHENIAN (ok. 180 - after 119 up to AD), ellinistichesky the philologist, religioved and the chronologist, the writer of "Chronicle" (from fall of Troy, 1184, up to 119 up to AD) - the main{basic} source of our datings. Reached under his{its} name " the Mythological library " (the most popular tutorial of the Grecian mythology in new time) - serotinal{late} compilation of 1 or 2 centuries.
  • APOLLO, the butterfly of a set of sailing vessels. Side panels in scope{span} of 7-9 sm, white, for tops diaphanous, with black and red spots. Meets predominary in mountain areas of Europe, Caucasus and Zap. Siberia. In many countries it is guarded. In the Red Data Book.
  • APOLLO (Feb), in the Grecian mythology and religion son Zevsa, the god - healer and the divinator, the promoter of arts. It was figured perfect{fine} young men with an onions or kifaroj. Among Apollo's plotting ancient greek statues (are known in Roman copies): " Apollo killing the lizard " (ok. 370 up to n. e., sculptor Praksitel) and "Apollo Belvedersky" (it is grey. 4 century up to n. e., sculptor Leohar).
  • "APOLLO", the literary and art log-book, 1909-17, Saint Petersburg. Has been connected to symbolism, later with acmeism.
  • APOLLO, planetoid a dia ok. 1 kms, it is open{discovered} K.Rejnmutom (Germany, 1932), reverts around of the Sun on an elongated elliptical orbit with the season{term} 1,81 years. Apollo's distance from the Sun variates from 0,65 up to 2,33 and. e. Approachs with the Earth up to 0,1 and. e.
  • "APOLLO", a series of the American 3-aboriginal spacecrafts; the program of their development and flights. A main role - delivery of astronauts to moon; unmanned flights and flights of astronauts around of the Earth are accomplished also; "Apollo's" updatings were used for delivery of crews to orbital station " Скайлэб " and a docking with Soviet spacecraft " Soyuz - 19 " under program EPAS. A maximum lift-off mass ok. 47 t, volume of living modules of 12,7 m3. In 1968-75 15 spacecrafts manned are started (only 38 astronauts), from them 6 "Apollos" have successfully executed{have successfully come true} lunar expeditions (in 1969-72 on "Apollo - 11",-12,-14,-17). To moon 12 astronauts, first on "Apollo - 11" N.Armstrong, E.Oldrin (1969) landed. A maximum residence time on moon 75 h ("Apollo - 17", 1972).
  • APOLLO BELVEDERSKY, the statue located in a hall the Belvedere in Vatican. A Roman copy of a bronze first copy of activity of ancient greek sculptor Leohara (ok. 330-320 up to n. e.). Long time was considered as top of the Grecian art.
  • APOLLONIAS Antinojsky (mind{wit}. 286), the Christian martyr, the reader damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 14 (27), in Roman catholic on July, 6.
  • APOLLONIAS ATHENIAN (nach. 1 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, son Nestora. The signature of this master was saved on t. n. " Belvederskom a torse " in Rome and a bronze statue kulachnogo the fighter (the National museum, Athenes).
  • APOLLONIAS FROM TRALL (2-1 centuries up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, son Artemidora, brother Tavriska. It agrees Pliniju to the Higher, together with the brother has created sculptural group " Execution Dirki " (see. Farnezsky the bull) on Rhodes.
  • APOLLONIAS Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • APOLLONIAS PERGSKY (ok. 260 - 170 up to n. e.), ancient greek mathematician and the astronomer, the pupil of Euclid. Basically transactionses "Conic sections" (8 books) has given a full exposition of their theory. For argument of apparent motion of planets has constructed the theory of epicycles. Apollo Pergskogo's ideas have rendered major influence on development of natural sciences of new time.
  • APOLLOS (Apelly) (1 century), apostle from 70-ти; the jew from Alexandria, spodvizhnik apostle Paul (Particular act of apostles 18:24-28; 1 epistle to the corinthians 3:4-6). Some explorers attribute to him authorship of the Message to Jews. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on March, 30 (on April, 12), on September, 10 (23) and on December, 8 (21).
  • APOLOGISTS (from grech. apologeomai - I protect).. 1) the collective title rannehristianskih writers, primarily 2-3 centuries shadowing principles of christianity from criticism of christless philosophers. Among apologists - Justin the Martyr, Origen, Tertullian... 2) Figuratively - jaryj the adherent of any idea, a direction, the social device.
  • APOLOGIA (grech. apologia), unlimited, excessive eulogy somebody or something, protection (routinely prejudiced).
  • APOMIXIS (from apo... And grech. mixis - mixture{mixing}), different ways of an asexual reproduction animal and plants; in more fine-bored value - education of a germ without fertilization. Napr., a parthenogenesis and an apogamy - versions of an apomixis. Compare. An amphimixis.
  • APONEVROZ, soedinitelnotkannaja a plate with which help muscles are fixed. For the person aponevrozom call also penetrated as tendinous filaments of a fascia of a sole and a palm.
  • APOP, in egyptian mythology the huge snake to whom Ra combats every night during the float on underground waters; the collective mode{image} of enemies of the Sun.
  • The APOPLEXY, subitaneously developing extravasation in any organ. See, napr., the Insult.
  • APORIJA (grech. aporia, characters. - hopelessness), a refractory or insoluble problem, the bound with originating the contravention, with availability of argument against apparent, conventional. See. Zenon from Elei.
  • APORT, rannezimnie grades of an apple tree in austral areas of a fruit growing: aport blood-red, aport Alexander, or Alma-Ati (an arcaded Russian grade), aport Kuban, etc. Fruits very large, vinnosladkie with a pleasant{sweet} acid. Productivity of 200-400 kg from a tree.
  • A POSTERIORI (from an armour. aposteriori - from consequent), descending from experience; concept of the theory of knowledge, counter a priori.
  • APOSTLE, the Christian liturgucal book keeping a part of the New testament (particular act and the message of apostles) and the Apocalypse. 1-n a book of Ivan Fedorova (1564).
  • APOSTLE Daniel Pavlovich (1654-1734), the last elective hetman of Left-bank Ukraine (with 1727). The participant of Boreal war and the Persian marching 1722-23.
  • APOSTOLIKI (the Apostolic brothers), krestjansko-plebeian sect 2-nd floor. 13 - nach. 14 centuries in the Sowing. Italy. Opposed a feudal press and a latin church, invoked for poverty, failure{refusal} of property. Sect has based Segarelli (ok. 1260), with 1300 headed Dolchino.
  • APOSTOLOVO, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region. A railway junction. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: canning, maslodelatelnyj, concrete products, metalworks for hothouses. It is based in 18 century.
  • APOSTLES (from grech. apostolos - a salting), in early Christian writings nomadic ecclesiasts of christianity. In the New testament twelve apostles - the nearest followers ("pupils") of the Christ.
  • APOSTROPHE (from grech. apostrophos - versed aside or back), the overline comma used for notation of the skip vocal (napr., English do not instead of do not, frants. l'homme). In Russian it is used in spelling some speaking another language proper name.
  • APOTHECIUM (from grech. apothekion - a storage room), the open fruit body of some thecasporous fungi and lichens.
  • APOTROPEJ (dr .-греч. otvrashchajushchy a trouble), a magic subject to which in an antiquity attributed properties to preserve people, animal, home units against malicious forces. Apotropei often represented plotting of frightening godhoods and beasts: Gorgony, dwarf Besa, a lion, a griffon and so forth.
  • APOFATICHESKAJA THEOLOGY (from grech. apophatikos - negative), aspires to express nature absolute potustoronnego the god by serial jettisoning ("denial") of all definitions relating it{him} as incommensurable with his{its} nature. It was developed by Grigory Nisskim and in "Areopagitikah", in Middle Ages - Nikolay Kuzanskim. Often it was supplemented katafaticheskoj by theology, however was considered as more perfect way of knowledge of the god.
  • APOFEGMATY (from grech. apophthegma - saying), arcaded collections of witty and moralizing sayings or short instructive stories (" Apophthegmata Laconica " Plutarha).
  • APOTHEM (from grech. apotithemi - I lay off).. 1) a cutting (and also his{its} length) a perpendicular and, a regular polygon lowered{omitted} from the centre on any of his{its} parties... 2) In a regular pyramid an apothem - an altitude of a lateral face.
  • DEIFICATION (from grech. apotheosis - obozhestvlenie).. 1) obozhestvlenie ancient greek statesmen, hereinafter Roman emperors... 2) Glorifying, vozvelichivanie any face, event, the phenomena... 3) the Final solemn crowd scene of performance or the celebratory concert program.
  • APOENZYME, protein part of ferments for which development of catalytic activity presence and a nonprotein component - a coenzyme is necessary. The apoenzyme determines specificity (selectivity) of action of a ferment and a capability of a regulation of his{its} activity.
  • APOPHYSIS (from grech. apophysis-), in geology - zhilopodobnoe branch from magmatic bodies, communication{connection} with which it is possible to trace a process, shoot directly.
  • APOFONIJA, the same, that ablaut.
  • APOCHROMAT (from apo... And grech. chroma - colour), a lens in which selection of grades of an optical glass fits a spherical aberration, and the chromatic aberration is small.
  • APOFOCUS (from apo... And the centre), a point of an orbit of the heavenly body, the most remote from the centre of a body around of which there is a circulation.
  • APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS (Appalachian Mountains), a range on the orient the Sowing. America, in the USA and Canada. Length of 2600 kms. A sowing. Appalachian mountains (northward from rr. Mohok and Hudson) - a corrugated tableland with separate masses an altitude up to 1916 m (Washington); tracks of an ancient glaciation. JUzh. Appalachian mountains in an axial zone will consist from parallel hrebtov and masses, disjointed broad valleys; to an axial zone fit to from the orient of Piedmont plateau, from the west - Appalachian plateau. An altitude up to 2037 m (. Mitchell). Deposits of mineral coal, petroleum and gas, iron oxides, a titanium. Broad-leaved, conifers and mixed forests.
  • APPALACHSKY the COAL BASIN, on the orient the USA, along Appalachian mountains, in Predappalachskom a forward sag. Broad assimilation with 1840. Ok. 180 thousand км2. Uglenosny adjournments permi and Carbon. Common stocks up to depth of 900 m 1600 billion t. Carbons basically bituminous. Combustion heat of 28,9-35,4 MDZH/KG. Production open{discovered} and underground ways.
  • APPALACHIAN PLATEAU, flanges a western edge{boundarouse} of a range of Appalachian mountains (USA). Length ok. 1500 kms. It is combined predominary by limestones; karst is developed. An altitude from 500 m to the west up to 1500 m to the orient where Appalachian plateau acquires character of mountains (Allegheny mountains). Broad-leaved forests.
  • The APPARATUS (from an armour. apparatus - the equipment).. 1) the device, the engineering device, the adaptation... 2) Set{Combination} of establishments, the organizations maintaining any control area, economies and t. p... 3) Set{Combination} of workers of any establishment, organization; set{combination} of the employees ensuring operation of any elected body... 4) Notes, indexes{indicators}, etc. by-products to scientific to transactionses, printed publicity material, etc. (the critical apparatus, the scientific - reference apparatus)... 5) Set{Combination} of organs of the person, animal or the plants, executing{designing} any special function of an organism (the alimentiry apparatus, a respiratory apparatus).
  • The SPREAD FUNCTION of an optical device, describes distribution of illuminating intensity in the plotting of a point source of light created by the device. The spread function allows to evaluate resolution of the device and distribution of brightness in object.
  • CONDENSER SPINNING, system of spinning for manufacturing a tag nappy yarn from short fibres, a debris trash, and also their mixes. In spinning a wool a condenser spinning call also cloth.
  • RAMP (from frants. appareil - entry).. 1) shallow descent in slopes of entrenchments and shades for entry (exit road) of military technique... 2) the Cavicorn dike (ramp) for loading technique (horse structure) in the train or on perepravochnoe a means... 3) the Device in a nose of a landing ship for a tails of staff and military technique on a coast.
  • APPASSIONATO (ital. appassionato), passionate, inspired; notation of character of the musical performance{fulfillment}. One of fortepiannyh L.Beethoven sonatas is known under the title "Appassionata".
  • APPEL (Appel) the Karelian (r. 1921), the Netherlands artist. A team member "Cobra". In 1940-50-С has developed the version of the abstract ekspressionizma, gravitating to monumental, epicheskomu to style of expression with elements of znakovo-mythological symbolics.
  • APPEL (Appell) Pol Emil (1855-1930), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1911), foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1925). Transactionses on mechanics, geometries, function theories.
  • APPENDIX (from an armour. appendix - an appendage), an appendix of a caecum.
  • APPENDIKULJARII, a class marine chord animal a subtype obolochnikov. The body (it is routine less than 1 sm) diaphanous, will consist of a trunk and a tail (in which passes the chord). From secretions will derivate periodically removable diaphanous "cabin". Ok. 100 kinds{views}, are distributed widely.
  • APPENDICITIS, inflammation of an appendix. Attributes of an acute appendicitis: abdominal pains, predominary in dextral ileal range, a nausea, a vomiting, etc. Complications: a perforation of a process and a peritonitis. Treatment surgical.
  • APPERCEPTION (from an armour. ad - to and perceptio - perception), concept of philosophy and psychology of the new time, clear and realized perception of any impression, sensation, etc.; it is entered by G.Lejbnitsem as against a unconscious perception. I.Kant alongside with this " an empirical apperception introduces concept "transtsendentalnoj" apperceptions - initial invariable " unities of consciousness " as conditions of any experience and the knowledge, permitting to synthesize diversiform perceptions. In founded V.Vundtom of psychology of an apperception - the perception requiring of pressure{voltage;stress} of will. In the modern psychology a synonym of perception.
  • APPETITE (from an armour. appetitus - desire), sensation, the bound with a food requirement; the physiological mechanism regulating receipt{entry} in an organism of alimentary substances. At a long absence of nutrition appetite passes in sensation of famine.
  • APPIAN (?-70-С of 2 century), the historian Other. Rome, the Greek. The writer of " the Roman history " from the grounding of Rome up to nach. 2 century (in the Grecian tongue); from 24 books books 6-9 and 11-17 have reached bodily, are completely lost 18-24.
  • ROAD APPIEVA (an armour. via Appia), the first Roman paved road, is built at censor Appii Klavdii in 312 up to n. e. Between Rome and Kapuej (350 kms); in 224 up to n. e. It is finished up to Brundizija. All was saved almost.
  • Z-COORDINATE (from an armour. applicata, characters. - enclosed), one of Cartesian axials of a point in the space.
  • APPLIKATURA (from an armour. applico - I hold down, I put), a way of an arrangement and a sequence of pins at the game on a musical instrument; notation of this way in notes. Selection applikatury is connected to interpreting the composition.
  • APPLIQUE PATTERN (from an armour. applicatio - applying), building of art plotting by glueing, nashivaniem on a tissue or a paper of a motley shards of any material; the plotting, a pattern built in such a way.
  • DRESSING (from frants. appreter - finally to finish), impregnation of textiles or deposition on them at furnish of different substances - dressing (starch, glue, synthetic resins, etc.), attaching to materials stiffness, wrinkle recovery, shrink resistance, a flame resistance, etc. properties.
  • APPROXIMATING (from an armour. approximo - I come nearer), changing of one mathematical objects (napr., figures or functions) other, more simple and in this or that sense close to initial{starting} (napr., curves close to nymas polygonal lines).
  • APRAKSIN Peter Matveevich (1659-1728), columns, spodvizhnik Peter I. Brother F.M.Apraksin and queens of Martha, the wife of tsar Feodor Alekseevicha. In 1702-04 has gained a number{series} of victories above the Swedish troops. In 1708 has concluded the agreement for acceptance of Kalmyks in Russian citizenship. With 1722 president of JUstits-board.
  • APRAKSIN Stepan Fedorovich (1702-58), the Russian general - field marshal (1756). In the beginning of Seven-year war 1756-63 commander-in-chief Russian army. For vacillating actions in 1757 it is discharged of the position.
  • APRAKSIN Feodor Matveevich (1661-1728), columns (1709), spodvizhnik Peter I, general - admiral (1708). Brother P.M.Apraksin and queens of Martha, the wife of tsar Feodor Alekseevicha. Commanding Russian fleet in Boreal war and the Persian marching. With 1717 president of Admiralty - board, with 1726 member of the Supreme Privy Council.
  • APRELEVKA, city (with 1961) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A depot. 21,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory of long plays. NPO "Device", chemicals plant, etc.
  • APRIL (an armour. Aprilis), the fourth month of a calendar year (30 sut).
  • APRIL CRISIS 1917, political crisis in Russia after February revolution. Has arisen in connection with publication on April, 20 (on May, 3) the obligation of the Providing government to keep war. Mass demonstratings have arisen on April, 20 naturally (15 thousand person), on April, 21 (on May, 4) - on call-up of bolsheviks with a request of the world and a handover of power to Advices{Councils} (to 100 thousand person). The guiding of Advices{Councils} has supported the Providing government which structure included leaders eserov and menshevikov.
  • The APRIL REVOLT 1876, the largest performance{statement} of Bulgarian people against a turkish yoke. It preformed{readied} by the Bulgarian revolutionary central committee. The greatest scope{span} has received in an austral part of Bulgaria. At depressing{supression} has perished ok. 30 thousand person.
  • APRIL REVOLT 1945, national armed revolt in the Sowing. Italy against fascist occupiers and their italian henchmen; has finished discharging Italy of fascism. On April, 25 - in Italy a national holiday.
  • APRESJAN Jury Derenikovich (r. 1930), Russian jazykoved, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses in range of semantics, syntax, a lexicography, structural and mathematical linguistics, machine translation, etc.
  • APRILOV Vasil (1789-1847), the Bulgarian educator, the organizer of 1-st in Bulgaria (in Gabrovo) society school (1835). Settled idea of rendezvous{approach} of the Bulgarian crop with Russian.
  • A PRIORI (from an armour. apriori - from precedent), concept of logic and the theory of the knowledge, the defining knowledge precedent to experience and independent of him{it}; it is entered in medieval scholasticism into contrast a posteriori. In I.Kanta's philosophy the prior knowledge (the space and time as forms of contemplation, a grade) - conditions of the trial knowledge, attaching to him made out, overall and necessary character.
  • APPROBATION, in an agriculture - examination of varietal crops and plantings of agricultural crops for verification of a grade, suitability of their crop on the seed purposes, checks of fulfilment of regulations of a seed growing.
  • APPROBATION (an armour. approbatio), approval, the statement{confirmation}, founded on check, examination, test.
  • APROSH (frants. approche), a gap between characters (marks) and words in a typographical panel.
  • APSARY, in indian mythology the heavenly dancers dwelling{living} on heavens and charming with dancing of gods; beloved gandharvov.
  • APSIS, absida (from grech. hapsis, a stem. Item hapsidos - the canopy), a projection of the building, semicircular, faceted or rectangular in the plan, overlapped{blocked} by a semidome or a closed semidone. Apses have appeared in drevnerimskih basils. In Christian temples an apsis - altarnyj a projection.
  • APSIRT, in the Grecian mythology the son of tsar of Colchis Eeta and the brother of the Medea. Has been seized JAsonom and the Medea during their escape behavior from Colchis and it is killed. The Medea has scattered parts of body Apsirta on I stain, that Eet has stopped persuit of the ship{spacecraft} and has stayed for burial of the son.
  • APSISHU EKABS (an ice-film. A name and fam. JAnis JAunzemis, Jaunzemis) (1858-1929), the Latvian writer. A cycle of realistic stories about rural life, including " From national picture passageway " (1889-91).
  • APSU, see. Abzu.
  • APT Solomon Konstantinovich (r. 1921), the Russian literary critic, a translator. In a centre of attention - the german literature of 20 century (T.Mann, F.Kafka, G.Gesse, M.Frisch). The book " Above T.Manna's pages " (1980).
  • APTE Hari Narajan (1864-1919), the indian writer. The initiator of realism in the literature on marathi. A series of novels " the Modern histories " (1890-95), historical novels " the Tiger of Mysore " (1890-91), "CHandragupta" (1902-04).
  • DRUGSTORE (from grech. apotheke - a warehouse), establishment (or subdividing of hospital), executing manufacturing and holiday of medicines. The first drugstore is open{discovered} in 754 in bagdad; in Russia - in 1581 (t. n. tsareva a drugstore).
  • APOTHECARIES WEIGHT, the measurement of mass used at weighing of medicines. The basic unit - an apothecaries pound, is divided on 12 ounces, 1 ounce on 8 drachmas, 1 drachma on 3 skrupula, 1 skrupul on 20 granov. 1 Russian apothecaries pound - 358,323 g, 1 ounce - 29,860 g, 1 drachma - 3,732 g, 1 skrupul - 1,244 g, 1 gran - 62,209 mg. The system is cancelled in the USSR on January, 1 1927.
  • APTEKMAN Vasilyevich (1849-1926), the revolutionary populist Has got hoarse. The participant " boatings in people ", the member " the Earth and will ", one of osnovatelej " Black repartition ". In 1880 it is banished to Yakutia. In 1893 participat in building a consignment " the National right ". In 90th the participant of Revolution 1905-07 is close to a social democracy. Memories: "Society" the Earth and will " 70th on personal memories " (2 issuings, 1924).
  • APTERIGOTY (Apterygota), the lowest hexapods. Length up to 5 see. Dwell{live} in soil, a duff, a rotten wood, etc. Orders: bessjazhkovye, diplura, collembola, shchetinohvostki. Nowadays 3 first orders fall into entognatnym a hexapod, and the last order and all flies - to ektognatnym.
  • APTERIUMS (from grech. apteros - featherless), epines of a leather the birds which are not having feathers. An arrangement and the form an apterium - a regular attribute.
  • APULEJ (Apuleius) (ok 125 - ok. 180 n. e.), drevnerimsky the writer. The adventurous - allegorical novel " Metamorphosises in XI books " (" the Golden donkey "), proniknutyj erotic motives, elements household satyrs and religious mysticism. "Apologia" - speech in natural protection against the charge in magic.
  • APULEJ SATURNIN (Apuleius Saturninus) (?-100 up to n. e.), in Other. Rome populjar, national tribunes 103 and 100 up to n. e. Has conducted through public assembly the law on vesting by ground of veterans G.Maria; it is killed by adherents optimatov.
  • APULIA (Puglia), range in the south of Italy. 19,4 thousand км2. The population 4 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Bari. It separate on prov. Bari, Brindisi, Lechche, Taranto, Foggia.
  • APULIA, peninsula in Italy; see. Salentina.
  • APURE (Apure), the river in Venezuela, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Orinoco. 1580 kms, the area of basin of 147 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 2000 m3 / with. It is navigable on 600 kms, in a rainy season - on all stretch.
  • APURE, staff on a southwest of Venezuela. The area of 76,5 thousand км2. The population of 305 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - the Dignity - Fernando-de-Apure.
  • APURIMAC (Apurimac) (in the lower flow - Ene, Tambo), the river in Peru, the left-handed component of Ucayali (bass. Amazon). 1250 kms, the area of basin ok. 125 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 2,9 thousand m3 / with.
  • APUHTIN Alexey Nikolaevich (1840-93), the Russian poet. The main{basic} motives of lyrics - grust, disappointment, grievance life. On words of a poem " Nights mad ", " To forget so it is fast ", whether " Day reigns ", etc. P.I.Chajkovsky has written romances.
  • APFIJA (Appija) Kolosskaja (mind{wit}. Between 54-68), the Christian martyress, ravnoapostolnaja; the marital partner of apostle of Philemon (the Message to Philemon 1:2). Has suffered in Colossuses in persecution of emperor Nerona. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 19 (on March, 4) and on November, 22 (on December, 5), in Roman catholic on November, 22.
  • APSHERONSK, city (with 1947) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar territory, on r. Psheha. A depot. 34,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood-working, a food-processing industry, metal working. A recreation area and tourism. In area - a crude production.
  • APSHERON, eastern tip of Caucasus, in Azerbaijan. The m. on 60 kms presses in Caspian; width up to 30 kms, an altitude up to 165 m. Oil fields and gas (see. The Baku oil-and-gas-bearing area). On austral a shore - Baku. Climatic and balneal health resorts - Bilgjah, Pirshaga, Mardakjan, etc.
  • ARE (from an armour. area - the area), a unit of area in a metrical measurement, 1 are = 100 m2 = 0,01 ga.
  • ARE the EXTRA-SEC CHAMPAGNE (frants. art brut, characters. - rough, raw art), a direction in from - art of midpoint of 20 century. It is related to surrealism and primitiveness, integrates in the aggregate a race course of activity of nonprofessionals ("naive" creativity of children and insanes) with products{creations} of professional masters which contrast the expressly "barbarous", as though vyplesnuvshiesja from depths of a subconscious mind modes{images} to a hypocritical external sleek of the modern civilization. The leader of a direction Z.Djubjuffe was.
  • ARE DEKO (frants. art deco, abbr. from an ornamental art), style of decorative - design creativity and the design, eurysynusic in Zap. To Europe and the USA 1920-30-х.. Has united features of a modernist style and constructivism, bent for of external ortamental luxury with the thought over rationality of function and structure (the etalon of are deko registration of interiors{cabins} of huge ocean liners of that season{term} has become). Has especially strongly taken roots in a mode and jeweller art.
  • " ARE NUVO " (frants. art nouveau - new art), widespread{distributed} in some european countries and in the USA the title of style "modernist style".
  • "ARE" (ARA, in abbreviated form from English American Relief Administration - " the American administration of the help ") (1919-23; chief G.Guver), it is built for rendering assistance to the european countries damaged in 1-st world war. In 1921 in connection with famine in the Volga region activity of "ARE" has been permitted{solved} in RSFSR.
  • ARE, the title of 2 stems dlinnohvostyh is bright rastsvechennyh parrots. Length up to 1 m (blue an are). 17 kinds{views}, in America (from Mexico up to Paraguay), in boscages. Flights assault fruit plantations. Are easily tamed and can "speak".
  • ARABATSKAJA the SCAPE, a sand - bar in eastern part Crimean p-ova, separable a hall. Sivash from the Azov m. Length of 113 kms, width from 270 m up to 8 kms.
  • ARABESQUE (frants. arabesque, characters. - Arabian), one of the main{basic} items of classical dance (with a raised and elongated back leg). It is recasted at different rules{situations;positions} of a reference leg, arms{hand}, heads, bodies.
  • ARABESQUE, the musical play, primarily for a piano, with whimsical, it is affluent ornamentirovannym melodic drawing. Writers of arabesques: R.Schuman, A.K.Ljadov, K.Debjussi, etc.
  • ARABESQUE, the european title of the decorative pattern which has been usual in art of Muslim countries. It is constructed by a principle of infinite development and rhythmic repetition geometrical, vegetative or epigraficheskih motives. Differs repeated rhythmic lamination of uniform{homogeneous} forms that creates an impression of a saturated whimsical pattern.
  • ARABIKA, a hills in Gagrskom hr. On Caucasus, raising above. Gagra (Abkhazia). An altitude of 2661 m. Broad-leaved and coniferous forests.
  • ARABINOSE, monosaccharide (pentose); is part some reserve polysaccharides of plants, and also resins, mucilages. For some bacteria - a unique source of carbon.
  • ARABI-PASHA, see. Orabi-pasha.
  • ARABISTIKA, set{combination} of the scientific disciplines investigator a history, tongue and crop of Arabian peoples.
  • ARABLINSKY (an ice-film. fam. Halafov) Gusejn Mamed ogly (1881-1919), the Azerbaijan actor and the producer. On the scene with 1905. One of founders of the Azerbaijan professional theatre.
  • ARABS Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1954), the Russian writer, the poet, the film writer, the publicist. Has acquired popularity as the writer of scripts to A.N.Sokurov films (" the Lone voice of the person " on A.P.Platonovu, " Mournful loss of consciousness " on B.Shou, " Rescue and save " on G.Flaubert, " Days of eclipse ", "Stone", " Quiet pages "). Has written also the script to a TV movie "Nikolay Vavilov" (1990). The story "Cruiser" (1993).
  • The ARABO-ISRAELI WAR 1948-1949 (the Palestinian war), between the Arabian states (Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yemen) and the state Israel. Israel has trapped 6,7 thousand км2 terrains of Palestine which under the solution of General Assembly of the United Nations from 29.11.1947 was intended for the Arabian state, and a western part of Jerusalem. Other part of Palestine, retracted to the Arabian state, and eastern part of Jerusalem have been adjoined by Jordan. From terrain, entrapped Israel, it has been ejected over 900 thousand Arabian inhabitants. Truce agreements (1949) have not settled the middle East conflict which has arisen as a result of the arabo-Israeli war.
  • ARABIAN BREED of horses, high, is introduced in 1-st thousand n. e. On Arabian p-ove. Animal mean growth, it is harmonic are combined, with light motions, are wanton, hardy. Were used at breeding many european breeds. Cultivate everywhere, except for Australia.
  • ARABIAN SEIZURES, military marchings of arabs in it is grey. 7 - nach. 9 centuries finished by seizure of countries Short-range and Compare. The orient, the Sowing. Africa, JUgo-Zap. Europe. During Arabian seizures has been built Halifat - the theocratical state. Interaction of arabs and conquered peoples has reduced in a folding of medieval Arabian crop. Liberation extirpation of peoples Compare. Asia, Iran, Transcaucasia (2-n a floor. 9 - 10 centuries), and also Spain (Rekonkista 8 - 15 centuries) has reduced in their discharging of Arabian domination. Hereinafter on a considerable proportion Short-range and Compare. The orient and the Sowing. Africa were formed the Arabian states.
  • ARABIC NUMERALSES, see. Digits.
  • ARABIAN TONGUE, falls into a Semitic branch afrazijskoj families of tongues. The modern speech Arabian disintegrates on 5 groups of dialects: eastern (mesopotamskaja), Arabian, tsentralnoarabskaja, egipetsko-Sudanese, severoafrikanskaja (magribskaja). A literary language unified. Figure speaking in Arabian tongue 190 million person (1990). Writing on the basis of the Arabian alphabet. Official and a working language of General Assembly of the United Nations and some other organs of the United Nations. The official language of all Arabian countries, the Somali Democratic Republic, Republic Djibouti.
  • The ARABSKO-AMERICAN PETROLEUM COMPANY (ARAMKO; English Arabian-American Oil Company - ARAMCO), it is based in 1933 largest petroleum companies the USA for operation of oil deposits of Saudi Arabia. About 1973 government of Saudi Arabia gradually redeemed its{her} shares, in 1980 has become privately-owned master ARAMKO. Steering of its{her} enterprises and operation of deposits execute, under special agreements with government of country, American petroleum companies " Эксон ", "Chevron", "Teksako", "Mobile" which receive a part of petroleum got{procured} by her{it}. A crude production ok. 200 million t, a thorough revision - 23 million t (kon. 1980th).
  • The ARABIAN LETTER, the kind{view} of the letter distributed in Zap. Asia and the Sowing. To Africa. Has arisen till 4 century in Arabia on the basis of the aramaic letter. Will consist of 28 characters used for notation agree and long vocal. To notation brief vocal can be applied overline and subscript signs. It is read from right to left.
  • ARABS (the self-title - the al-arab), group of peoples (alzhirtsy, Egyptians, moroccans, etc.), the main{basic} population of Arabian countries Zap. Asia and the Sowing. Africa. An aggregate number over 199 million person (1992). Tongue Arabian. The majority - moslems.
  • ARAVAKI, group of American Indian peoples (guahiro, kampa, baniva, naturally aravaki, etc.) in JUzh. To America and West Indies. 400 thousand person (1992). Tongues aravakskie. Believers hold on to traditional convictions, a part - roman catholics.
  • ARAVAKSKIE TONGUES, family of American Indian tongues JUzh. America. Unified grading no. The most known tongues: lokono (naturally aravaksky), guahiro, island Caribbean, majpure, achagua, ipurina, taino, piro, moho, paresi.
  • The ARABIAN HOLLOW, submerged hollow in northwest Indian ok. Prevailing{dominating} depth of 4000 m, the greatest - 5803 m.
  • The ARABIAN DESERT, north-east part of Sahara, between a valley of Nile and Red m., in Egypt. In the south (22 °s. sh.) passes to Nubian desert. In a relief prevail{dominate} a plateau (a mean altitude 500 м). A climate hot, rains can not fall out a little bit{some} flying the contract. In valleys zlakovo-fruticose vegetation. A crude production, phosphorites.
  • The ARABIAN PENINSULA, on a southwest of Asia, the most major on the Earth (over 2,7 million км2). The hall is washed against in the west in Red m., in the south Adenos. And the Arabian m., on orient Omanskim and Persian a hall. Indian ok. Plains and a plateau, in the west, the south and the orient - mountains (an altitude up to 3600 м) prevail{dominate}. A climate tropical, dry. A rainfall of 50-100 mm annually (in mountains up to 500 mm). The large part is occupied in semideserts and deserts (Rub' al Khali, Dehna, Nefud, Tihama, etc.). Large oil fields (see. Persian gulf oil-and-gas-bearing basin). On Arabian p-ve Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar, Consolidated Arab Emirates, Oman, a part of Iraq and Jordan are located.
  • ARABIAN the PEST, a part Indian ok., between p-ovami Arabian in the west and Hindustan on the orient. 4832 thousand км2. Depth up to 5803 m. Large bays: Adenos, Omansky, Kach, Kambejsky. Large islands: Socotra, Lakkadivskie. Runs r. Indus. Main ports: Bombay, Karachi, Aden.
  • ARAVIJSKO-INDIAN BACKBONE, submerged midocean backbone in northwest Indian ok. Length of 3700 kms, width up to 650 kms; a critical depth above a crops of 1271 m.
  • ARAGATS (Alagez), the highest mountain of the Armenian mountains in terrain of Armenia. An altitude of 4090 m. A lost volcano. On a downslope - Bjurakanskaja an astrophysical observatory.
  • ARAGVI, the river in Georgia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of the Hen. 66 kms, the area of basin 2740 км2. Average discharge of water 55 m3 / with. It will be derivated by interflow White and Black Aragvi. On valley Aragvi the Military - Georgian road passes. In a mouth of. Mtsheta.
  • ARAGO (Arago) Dominik Francois (1786-1853), the French scientist and the political figure, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1829). The member of the Providing government in 1848. Probeed polarization of light, has discovered magnetizing action of a current flow and t. n. Magnetism of rotation, has contacted polar auroras with magnetic storms. Transactionses on astronomy, histories of science.
  • ARAGON (Aragon), autonomous region on north-east of Spain, in a bass. r. Ebro. The area of 47,7 thousand км2. The population 1,2 million person (1989). Adm. ts. - Saragossa. It separate on prov. Saragossa, Teruel, Ueska. In 9 century in course Rekonkisty the county Aragon was formed. About 1035 Aragon - a kingdom aggregated in 1137 on the basis of personal union with county Barselonskim. In 1164 columns of Barcelona become kings of Aragon, having included in him{it} all grounds of Catalonia. In 13-15 centuries. Aragon has conquered islands Balearskie, Valencia, Sicily, Sardinia, Naples. The dynastic union of Aragon and Castile in 1479 has laid foundation to the unified state - Spain.
  • ARAGON (Aragon) Lui (1897-1982), the French writer. One of osnovatelej surrealism (verses, the novel " the Parisian peasant ", 1926). In 30th disjointed items of socialist realism; transformations{conversions} to the USSR interpreted as genuine implementation of socialist idea. One of organizers of Resistance movement (tragical lyricism in the collection of verses " the Knif in heart ", 1941). The historical novel "Passion week" (1958) about ways of the artist to people. In a cycle of novels " the Substantial world " (1934-51; including the tendentious novel "Communists", t. 1-6, 1949-51; Aragon - member FKP with 1927, with 1954 - the member of Central Committee FKP) - ideological evolution of the intellectual circles seeing in working class bottom-up force of the nation. Esseistskie, art criticism books " Anri Matiss. Roman " (1971), "Theatre - novel" (1974). Poetic collections (including " Eyes and memory{remembrance} ", 1954; a poem " the Uncompleted novel ", 1956), the lyrical cycles of verses dedicated by E.Triole, the wife of the poet. The international Lenin premium (1957).
  • ARAGONITE, mineral of a class of carbonates, Ca [CO3]. Colourless, white, grey, violet up to black. Hardness 3,5-4,0; firmness ok. 3,0 g / sm3. Crystals spicular, units branchy, incrusted (iron flowers), etc. Versions: konhit - the main{basic} constituent part (alongside with a chitine) pearl and a nacreous layer of shells of mollusks; a pease stone - hardpan oolites of aragonite. By origin hydrothermal and hypergenic.
  • ARAGUA (Aragua), staff in a north of Venezuela. The area of 7 thousand км2. The population 1,2 million person (1990). Adm. ts. - Maracay.
  • ARAGUAYA (Araguaia), the river in Brazil, the left-handed in-leak{influx} r. Tocantins (a bass. Amazon). 2630 kms, the area of basin ok. 370 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 8500 m3 / with. It is navigable on 1300 kms.
  • ARAD (Arad), city in the west Romania, adm. ts. zhudetsa Arad. 191 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, chemical, wood-working, textile, alimentary, a footwear industry.
  • ARAZI (an ice-film. A name and fam. Movses Melikovich Arutyunyan) (1878-1964), the Armenian writer. The participant of revolutionary movement. Stories and stories ("Comrade Mukuch", 1924, etc.) about socialist construction; novels: autobiographical " Speaking horizon " (1940) and historical " Israel Shout " (1959).
  • ARAJJA (Araia, Araja) Franchesko (1709-ok. 1770), the italian composer. In 1735-62 (with rests) headed italian troupe in Saint Petersburg. Operas " Force of love and hatred " (1736), " TSefal and Prokris " (1755; the first opera on the Russian libretto - A.P.Sumarokov; it is executed by Russian actors), etc.
  • ARAKAVA (Arakawa) SHusash (r .1936), the Japanese artist - conceptualist. One of organizers of group " Нео-дада " in Tokyo ("Boxes", 1960; a series of "Diagram", 1961). With 1961 lives and works in New York.
  • ARACAJU, city and port on north-east of Brazil, adm. ts. Pieces. Serzhipi. 288 thousand inhabitants (1980). An international airport. A sugar, textile, tanning industry. University.
  • ARAKAN (Rakhajn), range on a southwest of Myanma (Burma); in terrain Arakana in the first eyelids n. e. - 1785 there was a like state.
  • ARAKANSKIE MOUNTAINS (Rakhajn), on southwest Manjamy. Length ok. 800 kms, an altitude up to 3053 m (. Victoria). Parallel meridional hrebty with acute tops and abrupt downslopes. Evergreen (in the west) and deciduous (on the orient) woods.
  • ARAKELJAN Sedrak Arakelovich (1884-1942), the Armenian painter, the honored worker of arts of Armenia (1935). Lyrical landscapes and zhanrovopejzazhnye patterns.
  • ARAKAS Sadao (1877-1966), the Japanese political figure. In 1931-34 military minister, in 1938-39 minister for enlightenment. The ideologist of an expansionism and militarization of a country. In 1948 it is sentenced by International military tribunal in Tokyo to life imprisonment. It is free in 1955.
  • ARAKISHVILI (Arakchiev) Demetrios Ignatjevich (1873-1953), the Georgian composer, the musicologist, the national actor of Georgia (1929), academician AN of Georgia (1950). One of founders Georgian kompozitorskoj schools and the musical folkloristiki. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • ARAKS, the river in Transcaucasia (verhovja in Turkey, a lower reaches in Azerbaijan; on the considerable stretch across Araks pass borders{limits} of Armenia and Azerbaijan with Turkey and Iran), dextral in-leak{influx} of the Hen. 1072 kms, the area of basin of 102 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 285 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation. On Araks - the azerbajdzhano-Iranian hydroscheme.
  • ARAKCHEEV Alexey Andreevich (1769-1834), the Russian state and military figure, columns (1799), the general from artillery (1807). With 1808-10 military minister, has conducted reorganization of artillery; with 1810 chairman of Department of military businesses of the Council of state. In 1815-25 most the close confidant of emperor Alexander I, executed his{its} internal policy; the organizer and the main chief of military settlements. ARAKCHEEV Alexey Andreevich [on September, 23 (on October, 4) 1769, Tver prov. The Novgorod province - on April, 21 (on May, 3) 1834, seconds Gruzino of the Tikhvin district of the Novgorod province], the Russian state and military figure, columns (1799) .Nachalo karjeryIz rather poor nobiliary family. It was since childhood accustomed to stringent discipline, persistent to transactionses, thrift, an adherence of religious rities. In 1783 it is adopted in SHljahetsky ammunition and engineering (afterwards by 2-nd Cadet) a body where has exhibited abilities to military - mathematical sciences and after which terminal (1787) in a peavine of the army lieutenant it is left there by the teacher of arithmetic, geometry and an ammunition affair. Knew also the body library. In 1788-90 during the russko-Swedish war trained recruits to ammunition business. In 1790 under the recommendation of the director of a body has acted{arrived} the tutor in family of the president of Military board of N.I.Saltykova, not without which assistance in 1792 it is adopted in gatchinskie a troops of the successor of a holy table of grand duke of Paul Petrovicha (the future emperor Paul I). Arakcheev put into practice "Prussian" principles of military education prevailing there with a petty pedantry and boundless cruelty. For a short time he has reduced gatchinskuju artillery in the perfect order, has been appointed as the inspector not only artilleries, but also an infantry, has become to steer a management unit and actually gatchinskimi a troops. In July 1796 has been made in a grade of the colonel. Elevation and disgrace at Paul IВхождение in a circle of " a small yard " has become a turning stake in Arakcheev life. The sense of duty and immeasurable personal devotion he has got unlimited confidence of Paul and with his{its} accession has been made in generals - majors, appointed as the commandant of Petersburg. To Arakcheev the affluent ancestral lands in the Novgorod province - the unique gift adopted by him{it} during all service has been welcome. In April 1797 Arakcheev has been appointed as the commander of lejb-guards Preobrazhenskiy a shelf and the general - kvartirmejsterom of all Russian army and the chief of the General staff is put in the chapter of suite of emperor with definition. In January 1798 he also has been appointed as the inspector of all Russian artillery. Arakcheev promoted strengthening of fighting capability and putting in order in army much, that in a troops, especially in Guards, was accompanied by planting palochnoj mushtry. At a yard he, however, was kept otchuzhdenno and the to pit (as later and at Alexander I) bound exclusively to protection of emperor. However even he did not manage to shun opals. In 1798 Arakcheev has been removed from a service, and in 1799 is actually banished in the Novgorod manor. Paul I, some days prior to the death the suspected plot, designed to return Arakcheev to Petersburg, that, in opinion of some historians, could prevent tumble on March, 11 1801, but the chapter of conspirators of P.A.Palen has hindered this. Only after two years after the introduction on a holy table of new emperor Alexander I Arakcheev recovered{restored} in the position of the inspector of all artillery from what began his{its} new elevation. New elevation. Reforms in army in the Summer 1807 he have been made in generals from artillery, and in December of the same year to him was veleno to comprise at emperor with the right to declare the highest decrees on artillery. In 1808 Arakcheev has been appointed as minister for military - overland forces with subordination to him Military - marching office of emperor and feldegerskogo bodies. Simultaneously he becomes the senator. Arakcheev column of shelves has been renamed into a mark of his{its} special merits Rostov mushketersky shelves in Grenadierial. In the winter 1809 he has played the important role activations of operations in the Finnish campaign, having insisted on transition of Russian troops on ice of gulf of Bothnia to the Swedish coasts. Arakcheev began a general reorganization of Russian army (acquisition and education{learning} of front structure, establishment rekrutskogo depot, introduction of divisional organization, the position of the on duty general, etc.), But the most fruitful were his{its} transformations{conversions} to artilleries. Shown in companies and batteries, the artillery was secreted in a do-it-yourself service arm, the dimension of steering carriages and templets of instruments are reduced. The production process of weapons, an ammunition has been advanced, activity of arsenals has become more efficient. Besides the Ammunition committee has been based, has become to leave " the Ammunition log-book " .Vydvizhenie on the foreground of a political life of M.M.Speransky and preparation of plans of state reforms behind Arakcheev back have forced it{him} to tender resignation. In 1810 he has been appointed as the chairman of Military department of again established Council of state, and his{its} post{station} of Military minister was taken by M.B.Barclay de Tolli. Ohranitel - the statesman But in the autumn 1812 Arakcheev have been again approximate to emperor that has been connected to acute grievance reigning failures in war with Napoleon and fall of imperial prestige in a society. Formation of a home guard and ammunition regiments was entrusted to Arakcheev, he has again received the right to declare nominal decrees. In post-war time when in Alexander's I internal policy ohranitelno-reactivity tendencies have amplified, Arakcheev has become actually the second face after emperor in steering of country, having centred in the arms{hand} an immense authority. With 1815 he has managed to subordinate to itself(himself) the Council of state, Committee of ministers, natural His{Its} Imperial Majesties office. Being the unique lecturer I reign on all current problems, nevertheless Arakcheev remained only diligent initiator of will of tsar and his{its} most secret premeditations, whether it be building of military settlements (with 1819 Arakcheev - the chief of headquarters above military settlements, and in 1821-26 - the main chief of the Separate body of military settlements) or sharing{participation} in development of plans of discharging of peasants. In 1818 Arakcheev has constituted the secret design of the repayment treasury pomeshchichjih manors " under voluntarily content prices " that " to promote government in destruction of a serf condition of people in Russia ". The design has not received any motion, but has anticipated the ideas realized afterwards by reform of 1861 Mors of Alexander I has torn off Arakcheev to pit. On December, 20 1825 he has been free by Nikolay I not having a kind feeling for it{him} of businesses of Committee of ministers and eliminated from structure of the Council of state, and in 1826 is discharged of the heads above military settlements. Arakcheev has leaved abroad and has autocratically manufactured{issued} there the issuing of confidential letters to it{him} Alexander I, called scandal in the Russian society and governmental circles. After recurring to Russia Arakcheev of cable cores in manor Gruzino, being engaged in his{its} accomplishment. On ambient Arakcheev personality made a repellent impression stern temper, rough arbitrariness, servile obsequiousness before a holy table in combination to haughty scorn for all inferior. The large military manager, he did not participate in one battle. At scarcity of education Arakcheev has been vested sound practical mind{wit}, found valid solutions in the composite situations, differed fairness, struggled with bribery, most above put interests of treasury though quite often was guided by not state interests, and ambitions tsaredvortsa. His{its} unreasonable vanity found satisfaction in a undivided arrangement to it{him} the autocrat, the slightest elevation of any other stately figure was accepted by him{it} with vindictive jealousy. In eyes of contemporaries and descendants Arakcheev personified the most gloomy parties aleksandrovskogo reigns. Literatura:Ratch V. F. Cramps on the column Arakcheev. SPb., 1864. Kizevetter A.A. Emperor Alexander I and Arakcheev // Kizevetter A.A.Istoricheskie sketches. М., 1912. JAchmenihin To. M. A.A.Arakcheev // Problems of a history. 1991. № 12. Tomsinov V.A.Vremenshchik (A.A.Arakcheev). М., 1996. A.G.Tartakovsky
  • ARALIA, stem of plants of a set aralievyh. Trees, bushes, high perennial grasses. Ok. 35 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics of Boreal hemisphere; in Russia 3-5 kinds{views}, on the Far East. An aralia manchurian - a drug plant (drugs from roots have tonic action). Many - ornamental plants. As an aralia call also an indoor plant of a stem fatsija.
  • ARAL-PAJGAMBAR, reservation in Uzbekistan, the Surkhan-Darya region. An island on Amu Darya (20 kms are lower than Termez). It is based in 1960. The area 3094 ga. Riparian forests of Central Asia from a poplar (turangi) and an elaeagnus; a tamarisk, a saxaul. A Bukhara deer, the cane cat, a wild boar, a jackal; the Tadjik pheasant; gjurza, etc.



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