Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ARALSOR.. 1) drainless bitter and salty an eskar. In Kazakhstan, on Prikaspijskoj nizm. 101 км2. Salt-making process... 2) the Drainless bitter lake in Kazakhstan, on Uralo-Embinskom an interfluve. The area 72 км2.
  • ARALSK, city (with 1938) in Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-Orda region. A depot (Aral sea). 31,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Combine " Аралсульфат ", a clothing factory, etc.
  • ARAL PEST (Aral), drainless brine lake the pest in Uzbekistan (Kara-Kalpak) and Kazakhstan. To 1990 area has constituted 36,5 thousand км2 (including t. n. Major the pest - 33,5 thousand км2). Prevailing{dominating} depths 10 - 15 m, the greatest - 54,5 m. St. 300 islands (the largest - Barsakelmes and Revitalizations). With nach. 60th of 20 century a level of Aral sea hardly drop in connection with an intensive fence of waters of the running rivers on agricultural requiring: waters of Syr-Darya and, in separate years, Amu Darya do not reach up to starving. Aral sea - a zone of ecological disaster. There is a desertification of accumbent terrains, change of socio economic structure Priaralja.
  • ARAM (pastushkovyj a crane), a unique kind{view} of a like set of order zhuravleobraznyh. Length up to 65 see. Flies hardly, well runs. In America (from the south the USA up to Argentina) and on the Antilles islands.
  • ARAMEI (aramejtsy), semiticheskie nations, natives of Arabia. In 14-11 centuries up to n. e. Were settled across Forward{Front} Asia.
  • ARAMAIC TONGUES, group of Semitic tongues (dialects). The most ancient season{term} is submitted{shown} staroaramejskimi by inscriptions of 9-7 centuries up to n. e. Hereinafter branch on western and eastern dialect groups.
  • The ARAMAIC LETTER, kind{view} konsonantnogo the letter which have arisen in nach. 1-st thousand up to n. e. On the basis of the Phoenician letter for arameev. The most ancient monuments fall into 9-7 centuries up to n. e. To the aramaic letter ascend syrian, jewish square, Arabian, pehlevijskoe, the Uigur, Mongolian letter.
  • ARAMIL, city (with 1966) in the Russian Federation, Sverdlovsk region, on r. An Inet. A depot. 13,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). A woollen-goods factory, factory of plastics materials.
  • ARAMKO, see. The Arabsko-American petroleum company.
  • ARANAUSKAS Leonas Semenovich (r. 1921), the Russian architect. One of writers of site development of area New CHeremushek (1950-60-С), the exhibition building on Red Presne (1973), a sport center "Olympic" (1980) - in Moscow. The lenin premium (1982).
  • "ARANDA" ("Aranda"), a research vessel of Institute of marine probes (Finland). It is constructed in 1953; displacement 1100 t. Biological and ihtiologicheskie probes in Baltic m. and the Sowing. To Atlantic.
  • ARRANGEMENT (from frants. arranger, characters. - to put in order).. 1) transposition of a piece of music for performance{fulfillment} on other instrument or other voice, other structure of instruments or voices... 2) the Alleviated exposition of a piece of music for performance{fulfillment} on the same instrument... 3) In variety music - harmonization and instrumentation of a new or well-known melody... 4) In a jazz a way of fixation of general premeditation ansamblevoj and orkestrovojinterpretatsii and glanyj the carrier of style qualities.
  • ARANHUES (Aranjuez), city in Spain, on r. Tagus, suburb of Madrid. St. 35 thousand inhabitants. The metal-working, photochemical and pharmaceutical enterprises. Center of tourism. A former residence of spanish kings. An architectonic monument of 18-19 centuries.
  • ARANHUESSKOE PERFORMANCE{STATEMENT} 1808 (on March, 17-18 in. Aranhues where there was an imperial yard; revolt which outcome was demission of prime minister M.Godoja and Charles's abdication IV for the benefit of son Ferdinand was distributed to Madrid).
  • ARAN (Arany) JAnosh (1817-82), the Hungarian poet. The participant of Revolution 1848-49. Poem - trilogy "Toldi" (1846-79), patriotic verses and ballads (" the Welsh malt - residues ", 1857), epicheskie and satirical poems, lyrical and philosophical verses.
  • ARANJAKI (sanskr. Wood books), in ancient India books of manuals for wood hermits.
  • ARANJANI (sanskr. Wood), the old indian goddess of a wood and trees.
  • ARAPOV Pimen Nikolaevich (1796-1861), the Russian playwright, the historian of theatre. Has constituted " the Annals of Russian theatre " (1861) - the chronicle of theatre life with 1673 on 1825 (cramps on repertoir, troupes, a theatrical household activities and so forth). Articles about theatre. Vaudevilles.
  • ARARAT (arm. - Masis), the highest volcanic mass of the Armenian mountains on the orient Turkey, bliz borders{limits} with Armenia and Iran. Will consist of 2 cones of lost volcanoes of Major Ararat draining by the groundings (an altitude 5165 м) and Small Ararat (an altitude 3925). Ok. 30 icehouses. On one of versions, on Ararat it was intercepted, according to the biblical legend, Noys kocheg during a Flood.
  • ARARAT, city (with 1962) in Armenia, on plain Araratskoj. A depot. 20,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Cement - slate combine, factory on spreading capacity of mineral waters.
  • PLAIN ARARATSKAJA, on the average flow r. Araks, between mountains Ararat in the south and Aragats in a north (a large part of plain Araratskoj in Armenia, smaller - in Turkey). An altitude of 850-1000 m. Irrigation agriculture.
  • ARARKTSJAN Babken Gurgenovich (r. 1944), chairman VS of Armenia since December 1991. With 1966 on teaching and scientific activity. From 1986 Yerevan state universities managing by stand. Since August 1990 1-st vice-president VS of Armenia. Since July 1995 chairman of National assembly of Armenia.
  • ARAT from Sikiona (271-213 up to n. e.), in Other. Greeces chief Ahejskogo of the union (the strategist with 245 more than 17 times). At a nem the union has reached{achieved} independence of Macedonius.
  • ARATY, in Mongolia and areas of moving of Mongols in China workers - breeders, in a broad sense - workers generally, people. In the Russian Federation aratami peasants of Tuva call.
  • ARAUKANSKY TONGUE, falls into andskoj to group of tongues (see. Ando-equatorial tongues).
  • ARAUKANY (the self-title - mapuche), American Indian people in Chile (800 thousand person, 1992) and in the west of Argentina (70 thousand person). Tongue araukansky. Save traditional convictions, a part - roman catholics.
  • ARAUCARIA, stem of coniferous trees of a set araukarievyh. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, primarily in Australia and JUzh. To America. Are decorative. Seeds are edible, wood use in construction, for manufacture of furniture. Some kinds cultivate as the decorative on Black Sea a shore of Caucasus.
  • ARAFAT (Arafat) JAsir (r. 1929), the Palestinian statesman, the chapter of administration of the Palestinian autonomy with 1994, the chairman of executive committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (OOP, with 1969). After capture of all terrain of Palestine by Israel in 1948 Arafat has emigrated. In 1956 he has ended Cairo university and has simultaneously had training military preparation for sharing{participation} in subversive activity against israelites in terrain of Palestine. The same year participat in structure of egyptian army in the Suez conflict (see. Anglo-franko-izrailskaja aggression against Egypt). In 1957 he has based a subversive grouping Al-veils which with 1959 has become part OOP. Working in a civil engineering firm in Kuwait, Arafat repeatedly executed guerilla roads on terrain of Palestine. In 1964 Al-veils has drained with OOP, and Arafat has become one of the most influential politicians in the Palestinian liberation movement, and with 1969 chairman of executive committee OOP. In 1970 he has become supreme commander in chief of armed forces of the Palestinian Resistance movement. In 1960th. Arafat has come to comprehension of necessity of building of the do-it-yourself Arabian Palestinian state. Hereinafter he has directed the gains on achievement of confession OOP as the plenipotentiary of interests of Palestinian people. With 1974 OOP becomes the member of League of Arabian countries. From marginal, hard lines in opposition with Israel Arafat passes to more moderate views on the Middle East problem. In 1988 he has recognized the right of Israel on existence which before was categorically denied by the Palestinian political leaders. This walk has discovered a capability of achievement of the nonpredatory agreement between the Palestinian arabs and israelites. In 1989 Arafat has been professed by the president of the state Palestine. During war in Persian gulf 1990-91 Arafat has supported Saddam Husejna's aggression that was negatively reflected in international reputation of the Palestinian leader, especially among the oil producing Arabian states. Nevertheless, at intermediary the USA, Arafat has gone on negotiations with Israel which outcome signing in Washington in September of 1993 agreements on which in throttle levers and Jericho the Palestinian self-management was introduced{uptaken} has become. In May 1994 Israeli troops in these terrains have been substituted with the Palestinian police, and in July Arafat has solemnly returned to Palestine in the capacity of chapters of administration of the Palestinian self-management. The same year Arafat together with the Israeli chiefs Itshakom Rabin and Shimonom Peres has been awarded with the Nobel Prize of the world. In January 1996 Arafat has been selected executive the chapter of National advice{council} of Palestine, having typed from above 88 % of voices.
  • ARAFURA SEA (English Arafura Sea), in Indian ok., between Australia, It is new. Guinea and Tanimbar islands and Kaj. 1017 t. км2, depth predominary up to 200 m, the greatest of 3680 m. A large bay gulf of Carpentaria.
  • ARACHIDONIC ACID, CH3 (CH2) 4 - (CH-CHCH2) 4 (CH2) 2COOH, a colourless liquid, tпл = 49,5 °S. Falls into to essential fatty acids.
  • PEANUT, stem one and perennial grasses of a set of pod-bearing plants, oil-yielding crop. Ok. 30 kinds{views}, in JUzh. To America. Cultivate predominary cultural kind{view} - a peanut; in fruits ok. 42 % of edible oil and up to 22 % of protein. The greatest area of crop in India, Chinese People's Republic, Myanma, Nigeria, the USA. Productivity 15-40 ts with 1 ga.
  • ARAHNA (grech. arachne - a spider), in the Grecian mythology lidijskaja the girl, the skilful needlewoman, derznuvshaja to call Afinu on a contest{race} in weaving and transformed{turned into} for it the goddess in a spider.
  • ARAHNOZY, invazionnye diseases animal, called by parasitic mites (napr., demodekoz).
  • ARACHNOIDITIS, inflammation of an arachnoid membrane head or a spinal cord. The causes: infections, traumas, an intoxication. The arachnoiditis of a brain shows a head pain, a vomiting, convulsive attacks, drop of sight, ear and so forth, an arachnoiditis of a spinal cord - pains in extremities, distresses of sensitivity, etc.
  • ARACHNOLOGY (from grech. arachne - a spider and... logija), section of the zoology, investigator arachnids.
  • ARAHOSIJA, ancient range in a bass. Rivers Argandab, Argastan and Ghazni with the main centre in area of Kandahar (the modern Afghanistan). For the first time it is mentioned in Behistunskoj inscriptions. ARASHA (Araxa), tantaloniobievoe and a rare earth deposit in Brazil (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs). It is maintained with 1961. Geologic reserves ok. 462 million t ore. Ore also contain Th, U. The main{basic} metallic mineral - pirohlor.
  • ARBA (turki)., a carriage in Compare. Asia (2-wheel high), on Caucasus and the south of Ukraine (the 4-wheel lengthy).
  • ARBALET (frants. arbalete), propellant weapons in european countries in Middle Ages: a steel or wooden onions, reinforced on the wooden rig (box); the side rail was stringed by a capstan{winch}. In Russia called samostrelom.
  • ARBATOV George Arkadjevich (r. 1923), the Russian historian and the economist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1974). The main{basic} transactionses on problems of economic and international attitudes{relations}.
  • ARBENS GUSMAN (Arbenz Guzman) Hakobo (1913-71), the participant of Guatemalan revolution 1944-54, the president of Guatemala in 1951-54, Minister of Defence in 1945-50. Government Arbensa Gusejna has conducted an agrarian reform, attempted to limit influence of the American monopolies and messages independent foreign policy; was svergnuto as a result of the American intervention.
  • ARBER (Arber) the Werner (r. 1929), Swiss genetics. Has discovered in bacteria restriktazy - the ferments, specificly fissionable hitted in a cell stranger DNK. The Nobel Prize (1978, together with D.Natansom and H.Smith).
  • ARBETNOT (Arbuthnot) John (1667-1735), the English satirist. Pamphlets against war for the Spanish patrimony (1701-14). In " Memoirs Martina Pisaki " (are published 1741; together with Dzh. Swift, A.Popom, etc.) has derided a pedantry, scholasticism and pseudo-learning.
  • The DAYSMAN (an armour. arbiter).. 1) the intermediary, the member of an arbitration tribunal, arbitration... 2) the Sporting judge.
  • ARBITRATION (frants. arbitrage).. 1) a way of the resolution of disputes at which the parties revert to daysmen (arbitration judges), elected by the parties or quoted under their agreement or in the order statutory... 2) Under the Russian right the council of conciliation - the second, after a conciliation commission, mandatory instance on consideration of collective chaffers (conflicts)... 3) the International body under the nonpredatory resolution of disputes between the states (see, napr., the Stationary value chamber of an arbitration tribunal).
  • The ARBITRATION CODE OF PRACTICE of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION------Is adopted by the State Duma on April, 5 1995 years------approved by Council of Federation------Section I. General provisions------Chapter 1. Original positions------Article 1. Implementation of justice by arbitration court------Arbitration court executes justice by the sanction of economic chaffers and other businesses referred to his{its} competence by the present Code and other federal zakonami.------Article 2. Problems of legal proceedings in arbitration court------Problems of legal proceedings in arbitration court are: protection of disturbed or challenged rights and legitimate interests of the enterprises, establishments, organizations and citizens in an orb of enterprise and other economic activities; assistance to consolidation of legality and the warning of offences in an orb enterprise and other economic dejatelnosti.------Article 3. The legislation on legal proceedings in arbitration courts------1. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation the legislation on legal proceedings in arbitration courts in the Russian Federation is in management Russian Federatsii.------2. The order of legal proceedings in arbitration courts in the Russian Federation is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the federal constitutional law about arbitration courts, the present Code and received according to them other federal zakonami.------3. If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes{installs} other rules of practice, than what are stipulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation rules international dogovora.------4 are applied. Legal proceedings in arbitration courts is conducted under the laws which are operational during consideration of an affair, committing of separate proceedings or performances{fulfillments} of the solution suda.------Article 4. The right on the circulation in arbitration court------1. The interested person has the right to address to arbitration court behind protection of the disturbed or challenged rights and legitimate interests in the order, content hereby Kodeksom.------Disclaimer on the circulation in court nedejstvitelen.------2. In events, foreseen the present Code, the right on the circulation in arbitration court in protection of state and public interests the public prosecutor, state organs, institutions of local government and have others organy.------3. If by the federal act it is established{installed} for a fixed grade of chaffers pre-trial (pretenzionnyj) the order of settlement or he is stipulated by the agreement, spores can be transferred{handed} on consideration of arbitration court only after observance{holding} of such order. Thus the faces indicated regarding 2 true articles, have the right to the circulation in arbitration court without observance{holding} pre-trial (pretenzionnogo) about settlement sporov.------Article 5. Independence of judges of arbitration court------1. At implementation of justice of the judge of arbitration court are independent, Constitutions of the Russian Federation and federal zakonu.------Any ectogenic{stranger} influence on judges, interference in their activity of any state organs, institutions of local government and other organs, organizations are subject only, officials or citizens are invalid and entail statutory otvetstvennost.------2. Warranties of independence of judges of arbitration court are established{set} federal zakonom.------Article 6. Equality before the law and court------Justice in arbitration court implements on the basis of equality before the law and court of organizations irrespective of location, subordination, a pattern of ownership, and citizens - irrespective of a floor, strain, a nationality, tongue, an origin, a property and official rule{situation;position}, a residence, attitude{relation} to religion, inclinings, a fitting to public associations, and also other obstojatelstv.------Article 7. Competitiveness and legal equality of the parties------Legal proceedings in arbitration court implements on the basis of competitiveness and legal equality storon.------Article 8. Tongue of legal proceedings------1. Legal proceedings in arbitration court is conducted on Russian jazyke.------2. To the faces participating in business which are not knowing Russian, the right of full familiarization with materials of an affair, sharing{participations} in judicial actions through a translator and the right to act in arbitration court on native jazyke.------Article 9 is ensured. Publicity of trial------1. Trial in arbitration courts otkrytoe.------the Hearing of the case in executive session is supposed in events, foreseen by the federal act about the state secret, and also at satisfaction court of the petition of the face participating in business referring on necessity of conservation of commercial and other secret, and in other events, content federal zakonom.------About trial in executive session is born opredelenie.------2. Trial in executive session is conducted with observance{holding} of rules of practice in arbitration sude.------Article 10. A spontaneity of proceeding------the Arbitration court at trial is obliged to probe directly all proofs on delu.------Article 11. The normative legal acts used at the resolution of disputes------1. The arbitration court resolves disputes ground Constitutions of the Russian Federation, federal acts, normative decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and the governmental orders of the Russian Federation, normative legal acts of federal enforcement authorities, normative legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation and international treaties Russian Federatsii.------2. The arbitration court, having placed{installed} at consideration of an affair misfit of the certificate{act} of a state organ, an institution of local government, other organ to the law, including his{its} issuing with excess of power, makes a decision according to zakonom.------3. If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes{installs} other rules, than statutory rules international dogovora.------4 are applied. In an event of absence of the rules of law regulating disputable attitude{relation}, arbitration court applies the rules of law regulating similar attitudes{relations}, and for want of such norms{standards} decides the difference, proceeding from general principles and sense zakonov.------5. Arbitration court according to the law or the international treaty of the Russian Federation Article 12 applies rules of law other gosudarstv.------. Application of the foreign right------1. In an event of application of the foreign right the arbitration court establishes{sets} existence and the content of his{its} norms{standards} according to their explanation and practice of application in conforming foreign gosudarstve.------2. With the purposes of establishment of existence and the content of norms{standards} foreign it is right arbitration court can to address when due hereunder behind assistance and explanations to competent authorities and organizations in the Russian Federation and abroad or to involve{attract} spetsialistov.------3. If existence or the content of norms{standards} of the foreign right, despite of adopted measures, is not established{installed}, arbitration court Article 13 applies the conforming rules of law Russian Federatsii.------. Compulsion of judicial certificates{acts}------1. The arbitration court makes judicial certificates{acts} in the form of the solution, definition, postanovlenija.------2. The judicial certificate{act} which has entered the enforceability is obligatory for all state organs, institutions of local government and other organs, organizations, officials and citizens and is carried out executed in all terrain Russian Federatsii.------3. Default of judicial certificates{acts} of arbitration court attracts the responsibility, content the present Code and other federal zakonami.------Chapter 2. Structure of arbitration court------Article 14. Structure of arbitration court------1. In arbitration courts of an affair in the first instance are considered by the judge edinolichno.------Affairs about confession invalid certificates{acts} of state organs, institutions of local government and other organs and affairs about insolvency (bankruptcy) are considered by court kollegialno.------Under the solution of the Chief Justice any business can be considered kollegialno.------2. All affairs in appeal, cassation and supervising instances are considered by arbitration court kollegialno.------3. By collegiate consideration of an affair in a composition proceedings should enter{include} three or other odd quantity sudej.------4. All of the judge at disposal of legal proceeding use equal pravami.------5. In an event when the present Code to the judge gives the right privately-owned to allow affairs and separate problems, he acts on behalf arbitration suda.------Article 15. The order of the sanction of problems arbitration court------1. The problems originating by consideration of an affair by arbitration court in collegiate structure, are allowed by judges by a majority. Anybody from judges has no right to abstain from vote. Presiding in meeting votes poslednim.------2. The judge, not agree with the solution of the majority, is obliged to sign this solution and have the right to state in written form the separate opinion which is entered upon the record, but is not declared. The faces participating in business, with separate opinion not znakomjat.------Article 16. Offtake of the judge------1. The judge cannot participate in consideration of an affair and is subject отводу:.. 1) if he is the relative of the faces participating in business, or their representatives;.. 2) if he by the previous consideration of the given affair participat in the capacity of the expert, a translator, the public prosecutor, the representative or the witness;.. 3) if he personally, endways or indirectly, is interested in issue of a suit or there are other circumstances which are raising the doubts of it{him} bespristrastnosti.------2. In structure of the arbitration court, construing put, the faces consisting in an alliance between soboj.------Article 17 cannot enter{include}. Offtake of the expert and a translator------1. The expert and a translator cannot participate in consideration of an affair and are subject to offtake on the groundings indicated in article 16 true Kodeksa.------Besides grounds for disqualification of the expert являются:.. 1) his{its} service or other relation at the moment of trial or in past from faces, participating in business, or their representatives;.. 2) manufacture of revision by him{it} which materials have formed the grounding or a halter for the circulation in arbitration court or are used by consideration dela.------2. Sharing{participation} of the expert or a translator in the previous consideration of the given affair in the capacity of accordingly the expert or a translator is not the grounding for them otvoda.------Article 18. Impermissibility of repeated sharing{participation} of the judge in consideration of an affair------1. The judge shared in consideration of an affair, cannot participate in consideration of this affair in court other instantsii.------2. The judge shared in consideration of an affair in any instance, cannot participate in re-examination of this affair in the same instance, except for events of disposal of legal proceeding on again unblocking obstojatelstvam.------Article 19. The application for a refusal to accept nomination and for offtake------1. If there is the circumstances indicated in articles 16 and 17 true Codes, the judge, the expert, a translator are obliged declare samootvod.------On the same groundings offtake can to be stated------the ARBITRATION CODE OF PRACTICE of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION------Is adopted by the State Duma on April, 5 1995 years------approved by Council of Federation------Section I. General provisions------Chapter 1. Original positions------Article 1. Implementation of justice by arbitration court------Arbitration court executes justice by the sanction of economic chaffers and other businesses referred to his{its} competence by the present Code and other federal zakonami.------Article 2. Problems of legal proceedings in arbitration court------Problems of legal proceedings in arbitration court are: protection of disturbed or challenged rights and legitimate interests of the enterprises, establishments, organizations and citizens in an orb of enterprise and other economic activities; assistance to consolidation of legality and the warning of offences in an orb enterprise and other economic dejatelnosti.------Article 3. The legislation on legal proceedings in arbitration courts------1. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation the legislation on legal proceedings in arbitration courts in the Russian Federation is in management Russian Federatsii.------2. The order of legal proceedings in arbitration courts in the Russian Federation is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the federal constitutional law about arbitration courts, the present Code and received according to them other federal zakonami.------3. If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes{installs} other rules of practice, than what are stipulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation rules international dogovora.------4 are applied. Legal proceedings in arbitration courts is conducted under the laws which are operational during consideration of an affair, committing of separate proceedings or performances{fulfillments} of the solution suda.------Article 4. The right on the circulation in arbitration court------1. The interested person has the right to address to arbitration court behind protection of the disturbed or challenged rights and legitimate interests in the order, content hereby Kodeksom.------Disclaimer on the circulation in court nedejstvitelen.------2. In events, foreseen the present Code, the right on the circulation in arbitration court in protection of state and public interests the public prosecutor, state organs, institutions of local government and have others organy.------3. If by the federal act it is established{installed} for a fixed grade of chaffers pre-trial (pretenzionnyj) the order of settlement or he is stipulated by the agreement, spores can be transferred{handed} on consideration of arbitration court only after observance{holding} of such order. Thus the faces indicated regarding 2 true articles, have the right to the circulation in arbitration court without observance{holding} pre-trial (pretenzionnogo) about settlement sporov.------Article 5. Independence of judges of arbitration court------1. At implementation of justice of the judge of arbitration court are independent, Constitutions of the Russian Federation and federal zakonu.------Any ectogenic{stranger} influence on judges, interference in their activity of any state organs, institutions of local government and other organs, organizations are subject only, officials or citizens are invalid and entail statutory otvetstvennost.------2. Warranties of independence of judges of arbitration court are established{set} federal zakonom.------Article 6. Equality before the law and court------Justice in arbitration court implements on the basis of equality before the law and court of organizations irrespective of location, subordination, a pattern of ownership, and citizens - irrespective of a floor, strain, a nationality, tongue, an origin, a property and official rule{situation;position}, a residence, attitude{relation} to religion, inclinings, a fitting to public associations, and also other obstojatelstv.------Article 7. Competitiveness and legal equality of the parties------Legal proceedings in arbitration court implements on the basis of competitiveness and legal equality storon.------Article 8. Tongue of legal proceedings------1. Legal proceedings in arbitration court is conducted on Russian jazyke.------2. To the faces participating in business which are not knowing Russian, the right of full familiarization with materials of an affair, sharing{participations} in judicial actions through a translator and the right to act in arbitration court on native jazyke.------Article 9 is ensured. Publicity of trial------1. Trial in arbitration courts otkrytoe.------the Hearing of the case in executive session is supposed in events, foreseen by the federal act about the state secret, and also at satisfaction court of the petition of the face participating in business referring on necessity of conservation of commercial and other secret, and in other events, content federal zakonom.------About trial in executive session is born opredelenie.------2. Trial in executive session is conducted with observance{holding} of rules of practice in arbitration sude.------Article 10. A spontaneity of proceeding------the Arbitration court at trial is obliged to probe directly all proofs on delu.------Article 11. The normative legal acts used at the sanction withporov------1. The arbitration court resolves disputes ground Constitutions of the Russian Federation, federal acts, normative decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and the governmental orders of the Russian Federation, normative legal acts of federal enforcement authorities, normative legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation and international treaties Russian Federatsii.------2. The arbitration court, having placed{installed} at consideration of an affair misfit of the certificate{act} of a state organ, an institution of local government, other organ to the law, including his{its} issuing with excess of power, makes a decision according to zakonom.------3. If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes{installs} other rules, than statutory rules international dogovora.------4 are applied. In an event of absence of the rules of law regulating disputable attitude{relation}, arbitration court applies the rules of law regulating similar attitudes{relations}, and for want of such norms{standards} decides the difference, proceeding from general principles and sense zakonov.------5. Arbitration court according to the law or the international treaty of the Russian Federation Article 12 applies rules of law other gosudarstv.------. Application of the foreign right------1. In an event of application of the foreign right the arbitration court establishes{sets} existence and the content of his{its} norms{standards} according to their explanation and practice of application in conforming foreign gosudarstve.------2. With the purposes of establishment of existence and the content of norms{standards} foreign it is right arbitration court can to address when due hereunder behind assistance and explanations to competent authorities and organizations in the Russian Federation and abroad or to involve{attract} spetsialistov.------3. If existence or the content of norms{standards} of the foreign right, despite of adopted measures, is not established{installed}, arbitration court Article 13 applies the conforming rules of law Russian Federatsii.------. Compulsion of judicial certificates{acts}------1. The arbitration court makes judicial certificates{acts} in the form of the solution, definition, postanovlenija.------2. The judicial certificate{act} which has entered the enforceability is obligatory for all state organs, institutions of local government and other organs, organizations, officials and citizens and is carried out executed in all terrain Russian Federatsii.------3. Default of judicial certificates{acts} of arbitration court attracts the responsibility, content the present Code and other federal zakonami.------Chapter 2. Structure of arbitration court------Article 14. Structure of arbitration court------1. In arbitration courts of an affair in the first instance are considered by the judge edinolichno.------Affairs about confession invalid certificates{acts} of state organs, institutions of local government and other organs and affairs about insolvency (bankruptcy) are considered by court kollegialno.------Under the solution of the Chief Justice any business can be considered kollegialno.------2. All affairs in appeal, cassation and supervising instances are considered by arbitration court kollegialno.------3. By collegiate consideration of an affair in a composition proceedings should enter{include} three or other odd quantity sudej.------4. All of the judge at disposal of legal proceeding use equal pravami.------5. In an event when the present Code to the judge gives the right privately-owned to allow affairs and separate problems, he acts on behalf arbitration suda.------Article 15. The order of the sanction of problems arbitration court------1. The problems originating by consideration of an affair by arbitration court in collegiate structure, are allowed by judges by a majority. Anybody from judges has no right to abstain from vote. Presiding in meeting votes poslednim.------2. The judge, not agree with the solution of the majority, is obliged to sign this solution and have the right to state in written form the separate opinion which is entered upon the record, but is not declared. The faces participating in business, with separate opinion not znakomjat.------Article 16. Offtake of the judge------1. The judge cannot participate in consideration of an affair and is subject отводу:.. 1) if he is the relative of the faces participating in business, or their representatives;.. 2) if he by the previous consideration of the given affair participat in the capacity of the expert, a translator, the public prosecutor, the representative or the witness;.. 3) if he personally, endways or indirectly, is interested in issue of a suit or there are other circumstances which are raising the doubts of it{him} bespristrastnosti.------2. In structure of the arbitration court, construing put, the faces consisting in an alliance between soboj.------Article 17 cannot enter{include}. Offtake of the expert and a translator------1. The expert and a translator cannot participate in consideration of an affair and are subject to offtake on the groundings indicated in article 16 true Kodeksa.------Besides grounds for disqualification of the expert являются:.. 1) his{its} service or other relation at the moment of trial or in past from faces, participating in business, or their representatives;.. 2) manufacture of revision by him{it} which materials have formed the grounding or a halter for the circulation in arbitration court or are used by consideration dela.------2. Sharing{participation} of the expert or a translator in the previous consideration of the given affair in the capacity of accordingly the expert or a translator is not the grounding for them otvoda.------Article 18. Impermissibility of repeated sharing{participation} of the judge in consideration of an affair------1. The judge shared in consideration of an affair, cannot participate in consideration of this affair in court other instantsii.------2. The judge shared in consideration of an affair in any instance, cannot participate in re-examination of this affair in the same instance, except for events of disposal of legal proceeding on again unblocking obstojatelstvam.------Article 19. The application for a refusal to accept nomination and for offtake------1. If there is the circumstances indicated in articles 16 and 17 true Codes, the judge, the expert, a translator are obliged declare samootvod.------On the same groundings offtake can to be stated------by the faces participating in dele.------2. A refusal to accept nomination and offtake should be motived and stated prior to the beginning of consideration of an affair in essence. During consideration of an affair the application for a refusal to accept nomination and for offtake is supposed only in events when the grounding of a refusal to accept nomination and offtake has become it is known to arbitration court or a face declaring a refusal to accept nomination or offtake, after the beginning of consideration dela.------Article 20. The order of the sanction of the stated offtake------1. In an event of the filing objection the arbitration court should listen to judgement of the faces participating in business, and also to hear a face to which offtake if assigned wishes to give objasnenija.------2 is stated. A problem on offtake of the judge, construing put privately-owned, it is authorized by the chairman of arbitration court or the chairman judicial kollegii.------3. The problem on offtake of the judge by collegiate consideration of an affair is authorized by structure of arbitration court in absence of the judge to which offtake is stated. At the equal poll, conveyed{fed} for offtake and against offtake, the judge is considered otvedennym.------the Problem on the offtake, stated to several judges or all composition proceedings, construing put, it is authorized by the chairman of arbitration court or the chairman judicial kollegii.------4. The problem on offtake of the expert and a translator is authorized by the structure of arbitration court construing delo.------5. By results of consideration of a problem on offtake Article 21 is born opredelenie.------. Consequences of satisfaction of the application for offtake------1. In an event of offtake of the judge either several judges, or all structure of arbitration court business is considered in the same court, but in other sostave.------2. If as a result of satisfaction of offtakes it is impossible to form a new composition proceedings for consideration of the given affair in the same arbitration court, business should be transferred{handed} to other arbitration court of the same urovnja.------Chapter 3. Jurisdiction and jurisdiction------Article 22. Jurisdiction of businesses------1. To arbitration court affairs on the economic spores originating from civil, administrative and other правоотношений:.. 1) between legal persons (further - organizations), the citizens executing enterprise activity without education of the legal person and having the status of the personal businessman, bought in the statutory order (further - citizens) are subordinated;.. 2) between the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation, between subjects Russian Federatsii.------2. To the economic spores allowed arbitration court, in particular{personally}, concern споры:------about dissents by agreement which conclusion is statutory or drive of dissents on which on the sanction of arbitration court is agreed by the parties;------about change of conditions or about cancellation of agreements; about default or inadequate discharge of the obligation;------about confession of the property right;------About reclamation by the proprietor or other rightful owner of property from another's pirate possession;------about a violation of rights of the proprietor or other rightful owner, irrelevant with dispossession;------about compensation for damages;------about confession invalid (in full or in part) non-standard certificates{acts} of state organs, institutions of local government and other organs, misfitting to laws and other normative legal acts both infringing rights and legitimate interests of organizations and citizens;------about protection of honour, dignity and business reputation;------about confession not executory executive or other document on which penalty is effected in indisputable (bezaktseptnom) the order;------about the appeal of failure{refusal} in state registration or deflexions from state registration when due hereunder organizations or the citizen and in other events when such registration is statutory;------About penalty from organizations and citizens of fines state organs, institutions of local government and other organs executing monitoring functions if by the federal act it is not stipulated indisputable (bezaktseptnyj) the order of their penalty;------about return from a cash budget, written off by the organs executing monitoring functions, in indisputable (bezaktseptnom) the order with violation{disturbance} of requests of the law or other normative legal akta.------3. The arbitration court considers other affairs, in a volume числе:------about the fact-finding, important for originating, change or the arrest of rights of organizations and citizens in an orb of enterprise and other economic activities (further - about the fact-finding, having the jural significance);------about insolvency (bankruptcy) of organizations and grazhdan.------4. In events, content the present Code and other federal acts, to arbitration court affairs on economic spores and other affairs including the educations which are not being legal persons (further - organizations), and the citizens who are not having the status personal predprinimatelja.------5 are subordinated. By the federal act can be referred to jurisdiction of arbitration court and other dela.------6. The arbitration court considers affairs subordinated to him including organizations and citizens of the Russian Federation, and also foreign organizations, organizations with foreign investments, international organizations, foreign subjects, the stateless persons executing enterprise activity if other is not stipulated by the international treaty Russian Federatsii.------Article 23. Drive of chaffers on the sanction of an arbitration tribunal------Under the agreement of parties arisen or able to arise the spores, escaping of civil matters and subordinated to arbitration court, before acceptance of the solution by him{it} can be transferred{handed} by the parties on consideration arbitration suda.------Article 24. Jurisdiction of businesses------1. The affairs subordinated to arbitration court, are considered by arbitration courts of republics, edges{boundarice}, ranges, cities of federal value, autonomous region, autonomous regions (further - arbitration courts of subjects of the Russian Federation), except for the businesses referred to jurisdiction of the Maximum Arbitration court Russian Federatsii.------2. The maximum Arbitration court of the Russian Federation рассматривает:------economic spores between the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation, between subjects of the Russian Federation;------Affairs about confession invalid (in full or in part) non-standard certificates{acts} of the President of the Russian Federation, Council of Federation and the State Duma of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation, Government of the Russian Federation, misfitting to the law both infringing rights and legitimate interests of organizations and grazhdan.------Article 25. Suing on location of a transponder------1. The claim is presented in arbitration court on location otvetchika.------2. The claim to the legal person, escaping of activity of his{its} isolated subdividing, is presented on location isolated podrazdelenija.------Article 26. Jurisdiction at the choice of the claimant------1. The claim to the transponders located in terrains of miscellaneous subjects of the Russian Federation, is presented in arbitration court at the choice of the claimant on location of one of otvetchikov.------2. The claim to a transponder which location is not known, can be presented in arbitration court on location of his{its} property or on his{its} last known location in Russian Federatsii.------3. The claim to a transponder being organization or the citizen of the Russian Federation and located in terrain of other state, can be presented on location of the claimant or property otvetchika.------4. The claim escaping from the agreement in which the place of performance{fulfillment} is indicated, can be presented on a place of performance{fulfillment} dogovora.------Article 27. Jurisdiction of businesses about the fact-finding, having the jural significance------Affairs about the fact-finding, having the jural significance, are considered on location of the applicant, except for businesses about finding of fact of possession by the building, a structure, the ground area which are considered on location of the building, structures, land uchastka.------Article 28. Jurisdiction of businesses about insolvency (bankruptcy) of organizations and citizens------Affairs about insolvency (bankruptcy) of organizations and citizens are considered on location dolzhnika.------Article 29. Exclusive jurisdiction------1. Bills of peace of the property on buildings, structures, the ground areas, about withdrawal of buildings, structures, the ground areas from an



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