Friday, May 25, 2007

  • BAKSTER (Baxter) Richard (1615-92), the English puritan ecclesiast and the seminary student. The participant of the English revolution of 17 century. Has based a recent trend in calvinism - t. n. baksterianizm (with less stringent treatment of a tenet about predetermining).
  • BAKT (รก), off-system unit of germizidal activity of a ultraviolet radiation. 1 1 W of energy flow of radiance is peer at a wavelength 255,5 nm.
  • BACTERIAL LEACHING, method of intensification of process of extraction of valuable components from rocks with the help of microorganisms (napr., U, Cu, Au from deposits, dumps, etc.).
  • BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS, preparty (nitragin - crop of nodule bacteria, etc.), keeping useful soil microorganisms for agricultural crops. Introduce to soil together with seeds.
  • BACTERIEMIA (from a bacterium and grech. haima - blood), presence at blood of bacteria. It is characteristic for the acute season{term} of many communicable diseases.
  • BACTERIA (from grech. bakterion - a bacillus), group microscopic, predominary unicells. Fall into "dojadernym" to forms - prokariotam. In the basis{fundamentals} of the modern grading bacteria on which all bacteria divide on eubaktery (gram-negative bacteriums and gram-positive bacteriums, mycoplasmas) and arhebaktery, the structure of their cell wall is necessary. Under the form of cells of a bacterium there can be ball-shaped (coccus), rhabdoid (bacillus, klostridii, pseudo-monads), gyrose (a vibrio, spirillas, spirochetes); a diameter 0,1-10 microns, length 1-20 microns, and filamentous multicellular bacteria - 50-100 microns. Some bacteria will derivate spores. Many are mobile, have flagellums. Eat, using different organicheskiee substances (heterotrophs) or creating organic substances of cells from inorganic (autotrophic plants). Are formative both at the presence of atmospheric oxygen (aerobes), and for want of (anaerobes). Participate in a cycle in a nature, structure formation and fertility of soils, in education and destruction of mineral wealths; sustain reserves of a carbonic gas in an atmosphere. Are used in alimentary, microbialogic, chemical and other industries. Pathogenic (pathogenic) bacteria - causal organisms of blights, animal and the person. Suppose, that bacteria - the first organisms which have appeared on the Earth.
  • BACTERIOLYSIS (from a bacterium and... liz), destruction of an environment of bacteria and an output of their cytoplasm in an environment. Can be called by physical and chemical agents, bacteriophages, anti-bodies (bacteriolysins), some ferments, napr., a lysozyme.
  • The BACTERIOLOGICAL WEAPONS, biological weapons (weapon of mass destruction) - bacteria, viruses, rikketsii, mushrooms and the toxic products of their vital activity used with the help of alive contaminated carriers of diseases (hexapods, rodents, etc.) or by the way suspensions and powders in an ammunition, devices with the purpose to call mass disease of people, animal and plants. It is forbidden by Geneva minutes 1925 and the Convention of the United Nations 1972.
  • BACTERIOLOGY (from a bacterium and... logija), the section of a microbiology investigator bacteria.
  • BAKTERIONOSITELSTVO AND the CARRIAGE OF VIRUS, stay of causal organisms of communicable diseases in an organism of the person or animal for want of attributes of disease. Bakterionositelstvo and the carriage of virus with secretion of the causal organism is quite often supervised for people which have had been ill, napr., a cholera, a diphtheria. At some infections (napr., a typhoid) promotes distribution{propagation} of disease.
  • BAKTERIOULOVITELI, adaptations for an air sampling with the purpose of definition of a degree and character of bacterial pollution.
  • BACTERIOPHAGES (from a bacterium and grech. phagos - the devourer) (phages), viruses of bacteria; are capable to strike a bacterial cell, to be reproduced in her and to invoke{produce} its{her} lysis. Classical object of probes in a molecular genetics. Are used for fagoprofilaktiki and phagotherapies of communicable diseases.
  • BACKTERIOCHLOROPHYLLS, pigments capable of a photosynthesis green and purple bacteria. On chemical constitution are close to chlorophylls of green plants.
  • BACTERIOCINES, the antibacterial substances produced by many kinds{views} of bacteria and suppressing bacterial activity of other strains of the same kind{view} or an allied species. Are meant according to the latin title of a producer, napr. The coliform bacillus will derivate colicines.
  • STERILIZING POWER (from a bacterium and an armour. caedo - I kill), property of chemicals (bactericides), physical and biological factors (temperature, an ionizing radiation, a ferment a lysozyme, etc.) to invoke{produce} death of bacteria.
  • BACTEROIDS (from a bacterium and grech. eidos - a kind{view}), 1) the large forms of nodule bacteria which are generatrix at their penetration into roots of legumes (in nodules). Participate in a nitrogen fixation of an atmosphere... 2) the Fixed anaerobic bacteria (bacilluses) which are not generatrix spores. Dwell{live} in an oral cavity, in an intestines and sexual organs of the person. Pathogenic kinds{views} invoke{produce} acute inflammatory processes.
  • BACTRA, city (6 century up to n. e. - 16 century n. e.), capital of Bactria, then Kushanskogo kingdoms. Nowadays gorodishche Balh for like city in the Sowing. Afghanistan.
  • BACTRIAN CAMEL (Bactrian camel), mammalian a stem of camels. Length of 2,5-3,6 m. In a feral{natural} condition it is extremely rare, in deserts Sintszjana and JUgo-Zap. Mongolia (N.M.Przhevalskim in 1877 is open{discovered}). In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources. It tame in an extreme antiquity.
  • PLAIN BAKTRIJSKAJA, in a north of Afghanistan. Length ok. 400 kms, width up to 140 kms, an altitude of 250-500 m. Sandy and argillaceous deserts; along Amu Darya - riparian forests, meadows. Oases.
  • BACTRIA (Bactrian camel), historical range in Compare. Asia on mean and headwaters of Amu Darya (nowadays terrain of Afghanistan and in part Uzbekistan and Turkmenii). About 1-st floor. 1-st thousand up to n. e. A slaveholding society. Capital - Bactra. In 6-4 centuries up to n. e. In the state Ahemenidov, then in empire Alexander the Great. With it is grey. 3 century up to n. e. Greko-Baktrijskoe a kingdom. In 2 century up to n. e. It is conquered toharami; has become to call Toharistan.
  • No comments: