Monday, May 14, 2007

  • BERARDIUSY, the same, that plavuny.
  • BERBANK (Burbank) Luther (1849-1926), the American selector. The writer of many grades of fruit, vegetable, field and decorative crops.
  • BERBEDZH (Burbage) Richard (ok. 1567-1619), the English actor. The representative of theatre of Renaissance. Friend U.Shakespeare who for Berbedzha has created roles of Hamlet, Otello, Makbeta, etc.
  • BERBERA, city and port in Somalia, on coast Adenos a hall. 65 thousand inhabitants (1981). Fishery. Cement plant.
  • BERBERINE, the alkaloid keeping in leaves of a barberry and other plants of different sets. A sulphate of a berberine - a cholagogue means.
  • BERBEROVA Nina Nikolaevna (1901-93), the Russian writer. In 1922 has emigrated. A cycle of stories " Bijankurskie holidays " (1928-40) about destinies Russian in emigration. The autobiographical book " the Italic type wash " (in English - 1969, in Russian - 1972). Roman " Iron woman " (1981) about adventures Russian emigrantki. Probe " People and lie. Russian masons of 20 centuries " (1986).
  • The BERBERO-LIBYAN TONGUES, branch afrazijskoj families of tongues. Genealogical grading largely gipotetichna. Monuments of writing are recorded by versions konsonantnogo the Libyan letter, the kept alphabet going back to it tifinag and a latin graphics.
  • BERBERA (the self-title - amahag), group of peoples (tamazight, a reef, shilh, tuaregi, kabily, shaujja, etc.), an aboriginal population the Sowing. Africa, Central and Zap. Sudan. 11,52 million person (1992). Speak in the berbero-Libyan tongues. On religion - basically moslems - sunnity.
  • BERBIDZH (Burbidge), family of the American astronomers: Dzhefri (1925) and his wife Elinor Margerit (1919). One of creators of the theory of a structure and evolution of asters and theories of an origin of chemical elements in the Universe (1957).
  • BERVALD (Berwald) Frants Adolf (1796-1868), the Swedish composer, the violinist, the conductor. One of the first Swedish symphonists. Opera " the Estrella de Soria " (1841, production in 1862), cantatas, concordances, concerts. The professor of Royal academy of music (later a conservatory) in Stockholm.
  • BERVI-FLEROVSKY Vasily Vasiljevich (1829-1918), the Russian sociologist, the publicist, the economist and the fiction writer, the participant of social movement 1860-90-Õ. In nach. 1870th it is close to "chajkovtsam" and "dolgushintsam". In 1862-87 in the reference, the employee of log-books "Business", "Word", " Domestic a note ". Compositions: " the Rule of working class in Russia " (1869), " the Alphabet of social sciences " (1871), memories of " the Note of the revolutionary - dreamer " (1929), the novel " On life and mors. The plotting of idealists " (Geneva, 1877, in Russia - 1907).
  • BERG Aksel Ivanovich (1893-1979), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1946), engineer - admiral (1955), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1963). Transactionses on radio engineering. The active participant of the solution of the main problems of development of radio electronics in the USSR. The initiator and the chief of probes on cybernetics and its appendices.
  • BERG (Berg) Alban (1885-1935), the Austrian composer. The representative of new austrian school. Evolved from the musical romanticism to ekspressionizmu. One of creators of the production technique (see. Dodekafonija). Humanism and social krititsizm were reflected in opera " Âîööåê " (1921). Opera " Ëóëó " (1935), kamerno-tool compositions (including " the Lyrical suite ", 1926), vocal cycles, etc.; literary compositions.
  • BERG Lev Semenovich (1876-1950), fizikogeograf and the biologist, academician AN the USSR (1946). Has developed the doctrine about landscapes and has advanced V.V.Dokuchayev ideas about native zones. First has executed a zonal physiographic zoning of the USSR. Capital transactionses on an ichthyology (anatomy, a taxonomist and to distribution of fishes), climatologies, ozerovedeniju, and also histories of geography. In 1922 has put forward the evolutionary concept of a nomogenesis. The president of the Geographycal society of the USSR (1940-50). The state premium of the USSR (1951) .BERG Lion Semenovich (Simonovich) [2 (14) March 1876, Bendery - on December, 24 1950, Leningrad, nowadays Saint Petersburg], the Russian scientist - entsiklopedist, the zoologist, the geographer, the evolutionist, the historian of science. Was born in the jewish family, father was the notary. Studying in the Kishinev grammar school (1885-94), had a fancy natural sciences - collected herbariums, dressed fishes, read the scientific literature. In 1894 it was baptized and has acted in the Moscow university. Already the student has become it is known experiences on cultivation of fishes. Degree activity on an embryology of a pike was Berg 6-th printed activity. After the terminal of university (1898, a golden medal) worked in a Ministry of Agriculture the inspector of fisher on Aral sea and Volga, probeed steppe lakes, the rivers, deserts. In 1902-1903 Berg studies hydrology in Bergen (Norway), in 1904-13 works in the Zoological museum Petersburg AN, in 1913 moves to Moscow where receives a place of the professor in Moskovsk an agricultural institute. In 1916 Berg has been engaged on stand of physical geography of the Petersburg university where worked up to the extremity of life. Berg first large scientific activities - " Pisces of Turkestan " (1905) and magisterskaja a thesis "Aral sea" (1908) for which Berg has received at once a degree of the doctor of geography. In 1909-16 Berg has emited 5 monographies on fishes of Russia, but the geography becomes a main subject of his scientific interests. He has developed the theory of an origin of a loess, has offered the first grading native zones of the Asian part of Russia. To this time there was a scientific style and methods of activity of Berg amazing with unusual efficiency (he posesses from above 800 activities). It distinguished an iron self-discipline, flail memory, skill to work without draft copies and in any conditions, clearness and fineness of an exposition (the text started with definition of concepts) and breedings, a perfect literary language. Berg stood away from policy, but is acute experienced horrors of war and revolution, treating them as a brief celebration of a principle of extirpation above principle of cooperation. Not having in this season of conditions for field activity, Berg has expanded pedagogical activity (in 1916-18 - in Moscow and Petrograd in bridge) and has written (" preheating solidifying ink on fire koptilki ") 3 transactionses under the theory of evolution (1922). In them the analysis of the main concepts is given (evolution, advance, expediency, a contingency, occurrence new, singleness of the theory, a directivity), is disallowed the role of a struggle for life as factor of evolution (both in a nature, and in a society), is sharply limited a role of a natural selection (he only guards the norm) and the original theory of evolution - a nomogenesis, i.e. evolution is pushed on the basis of regularities. The theory had a number of weak places, which colleagues (A.A.Ljubishchev, D.N.Sobolev, J.A.Filipchenko) at once have marked, but basically the criticism has accepted ideological character, especially after an output of the English issuing of "Nomogenesis" (1926.) N.I.Vavilov shadowing Berg from persecution, wrote to him (1927): " We from a post shall not release you. The ship should be conducted, what monsters rose on ways ". Berg about mechanisms of evolution is more did not write. In 1928 he has been selected corresponding member AN the USSR (in 1946 - the academician) as the geographer. In geography Berg is known as the creator domestic ozerovedenija and theories of a landscape (" the geography is science about landscapes "). In a climatology Berg has given grading climates in interrelation with landscapes, explained a desertification a human activity, and a glaciation - " factors of the space order ". Berg negated drift of mainlands; after V.I.Vernadskim he removed originating life to the beginning of a geologic history. In a zoogeography Berg has offered the treatments of distribution of fishes and other water animal, napr., has shown an aboriginal origin of a fauna of Baikal, and the structure of the Caspian fauna, to the contrary, explained postglacial migration across Volga. In an ichthyology Berg main transactionses: " System ryboobraznyh and fishes, extant and minerals " (1940) and a classical three-volume edition " Pisces of fresh waters of the USSR and adjacent countries " (1949, the State premium 1951), keeping the scientific value and until now, and also numerous activities on cultivation and a craft of fishes. Berg interest to a history and the ethnography, engendered in a youth (" Uraltsy on the Cheese - Darje ", 1900), was not lost in the course of time. In this range of his activity are dedicated discoverings Russian in Asia, Antarctic Region, on Alaska (" Sketches on a history of Russian geographycal discoverings ", 1949), to arcaded maps, a household activities of small peoples (gagauzy, manholes, etc.), To biographies of scientists. Due to Berg the flock of forgot names and the facts of Russian priority recovered. As ethnographer Berg used in scientific activity knowledge of tongues and zoology (napr., " Titles of fishes and ethnic relations of slavs ", 1948) .Ñî÷èíåíèÿ:Èçáðàííûå transactionses. Ì.; Ë., 1956-62. Ò.1-5. Transactionses under the theory of evolution. Ë., 1976. Ëèòåðàòóðà:Êðóïåííèêîâ I.A.Berg of L.S.Kishinev, 1976. J.V.Chajkovsky
  • BERG (Berg) the Floor (r. 1926), the American biochemist. Studied a role acceptor RNA in a biosynthesis of proteins. Has received rekombinantnye molecules DNK of two miscellaneous viruses on which probeed structure of personal genes. The Nobel Prize (1980).
  • BERG Feodor Fedorovich (Fridrih Wilhelm Rembert) (1793-1874), columns (1856), Russian general - field marshal (1865). The participant of Domestic war 1812, oversea marchings of Russian army 1813-14, russko-turkish war 1828-29. In 1863-66 viceroy executing the position and the commander-in-chief a troops in Poland, supervised over depressing of Polish revolt 1863-64.
  • BERGAMOT, 1) an evergreen tree of a stem an orange of a set of a rue family. In the Mediterranean, India, Sri Lanka, and also in Georgia. In fruits, flowers, leaves - an essential oil... 2) Grades of a pear (Bergamot autumnal, Bergamot summer, etc.) with ball-shaped, a little spljusnutymi, vinnosladkimi fruits. Productivity up to 130-200 kg from a tree.
  • BERGAMOT.. 1) an evergreen tree of a stem an orange of a set of a rue family. In the Mediterranean, India, Sri Lanka, and also in Georgia. In fruits, flowers, leaves - an essential oil... 2) Grades of a pear (Bergamot autumnal, Bergamot summer, etc.) with ball-shaped, a little spljusnutymi, vinnosladkimi fruits. Productivity up to 130-200 kg from a tree.
  • BERGGOLTS Olga Fedorovna (1910-75), the Russian writer. Lyrical products about the heroic defence of Leningrad. Poems " the February diary ", " the Leningrad poem " (both 1942), "Pervorossijsk" (1950), the autobiographical book " Day time asters " (1959). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • No comments: