Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • BIELEFELD (Bielefeld), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 322,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). The textile centre (since 16 century), a machine industry, textile, a chemical industry. University.
  • BILIBIN Ivan Jakovlevich (1876-1942), the Russian schedule and the theatrical artist. The member of " the World of art ". Case histories to Russian fairy tales and bylinas in a decorative - actuarial ortamental manner, founded on a stylization of motives of Russian national and medieval art.
  • BILIBIN Jury Aleksandrovich (1901-52), the geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on metallogenii and to conditions of education of placer deposits of gold. The participant of discovering of gold-bearing areas on north-east of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • BILIBINO, city (with 1993) in the Russian Federation, Chukchi and. About., at interflow rr. Karalveem and B.Kaperveem. 13,3 thousand inhabitants (1993). Production of gold, manufacture of a building materials, the alimentary enterprises. Atomic power station. It is called named J.A.Bilibina.
  • BILINGVIZM (from bi... And an armour. lingua - tongue) (dvujazychie), possession of two tongues.
  • The BILINEAR FORM, the form of 2-nd degree, i.e. uniform polynomial of 2-nd degree from two groups variable and a kind, where - figures. Napr., axy at n=1, at n=2, etc.
  • BILIRUBIN (from an armour. bilis - a gall and ruber - red), an oranzhevo-brown pigment of a gall; a decay product of a haemoglobin. It will be derivated primarily in a liver, with a gall in an intestines, the minor part in blood whence acts. At some diseases of a liver definition of the content of a bilirubin in blood also it is wetted has diagnostic value.
  • BILL (Bill) Maks (r .1908), the Swiss stylist, the sculptor, the schedule and the painter. Studied at the Zurich school of arts and handcrafts (1924-27), in Bauhauze (1927-29). Since 1930th worked in style of " concrete art ". In 1937 has created group of pullet Swiss artists "Alliance" (Allianz). In 1951 has based the Higher school of a morphogenesis planned as new Bauhauz.
  • BILLINGS (Billings) William (1746-1800), the American composer. The self-educated person. One of the first national composers the USA. Choral hymns "Chester", " Vozradujsja, America ", etc.
  • TRILLION (frants. billion), the same is routinely, that billion, i.e. figure 109; in some countries trillion - figure 1012.
  • The BILL (English bill, from compare - eyelids. An armour. bulla - a seal, the document with a seal), in the USA, the Great Britain and a number of other countries the administration bill, brought in on consideration of parliament, and also the title of separate laws (napr., "Bill of rights").
  • "BILL OF RIGHTS", in the Great Britain, is adopted by parliament in 1689. Sharply having limited an authority of king and having guaranteed rights and freedom of parliament, has put in pawn a fundamentals of the English constitutional monarchy.
  • "BILL OF RIGHTS", in the USA, the first 10 a corrections to of the constitution 1787; are adopted in 1789; has come into force in 1791. Professed freedom of speech, seales, collections, religious confession, disestablishment, the inviolability of person, etc. The BILL OF RIGHTS (Bill of Rights), 1-10-n a corrections to of the Constitution the USA which were coming into effect on December, 15 1791, main legal document, warranting personal political rights and freedom of citizens the USA. Has put an end to the concept of a heavenly origin of an authority of king and government, characteristic for rannesrednevekovoj Europe and epoch absoljutizma. Goes back to the British Great Charter of the freedoms 1215 which have legislatively confined an authority of king. Major of the human right - the inviolability of person - for the first time is legislatively made fast in Habeas the Body the Certificate of the British parliament on May, 27 1679. Other rights are made fast after revolution 1688. With a beginning of war for independence american states have passed the laws totting these norms: Virginsky the bill of rights 1776, bills of rights in structure of constitutions of Pennsylvania (1776), Massachusetts (1780), etc. However, during war of the warranty of rights were not distributed to opponents of independence. The constitution the USA which have built the strong federal authority, did not include the warranty of the personal rights from arbitrariness of the federal authorities. Under pressure protests of antifederalists Dzh. Medison has offered on June, 8 1789 to supplement the Constitution. After Virginia, 11-th of then 14 staffs, ratified the Bill of rights, he has become operative the law. Originally he was considered only as the law shadowing citizens from arbitrariness of the federal authorities. In 1866 for the first time 14-n the correction has forbidden to staffs to grant Negramum smaller rights, than white; The Supreme Court in 1873 has cancelled this solution, having considered invalid interference of the federal authorities in actions of staffs, but in 1925 court decision has actually become invalid, as a result of the decree, that " any staff should not emit or carry into execution the laws limiting the privileges and freedoms of citizens the USA ". A special place in Bill about rights the correction professing freedom of speech takes 1-n, seales and collections. Basic rights of citizens and political associations base on her - consignments, trade unions, associations and êîíôåññèé.2-n the correction recognizes, that with the purposes of the warranty of freedom staffs have the right to contain a home guard, and people - to keep and wear weapons. Around of it there are perennial spores, opponents of a free market weapons achieve her îòìåíû.3-n the correction provides against an accommodation of soldiers in owner-occupied dwellings without the consent of a host in a peace time; she has lost the actual meaning. 4-n the correction guarantees the inviolability of person and property, providing against searches and arrests without presentation of the warrant of arrest which can be given only by judicial authorities at availability of " the substantial causes ". There was a plenty of explanations of 4-th correction. In 1928 Supreme Court has decided, that establishment of listening in instrumentation does not contradict her if thus there is no physical encroachment ectogenic in a living accommodation; in 1967 new decree it is forbidden unauthorized ïîäñëóøèâàíèå.5-n the correction introduces the jury trial, professing, that " anybody is impossible to force to testify at any criminal case against itself or to deprive of life, freedom and the property without the proper action at law ". 6-n, 7-n and 8-n corrections touch a procedure of legal proceedings. Ground 8-th corrections to miscellaneous staffs the execution was supposed or provided against, depending on, whether attributed court of the given staff the execution to " severe or exotic punishment ". 9-n the correction establishes, that rights, " with which people already uses " even if they were not included in the constitution, are cancelled cannot be. This correction is used by adherents of extensive interpretation of all rights. According to 10-th correction, the rights of staffs which were not transferred to a federal government, are inviolable. Adherents of the sovereignty of staffs, in particular, in the season of the Civil war the USA, often rested on 10-¯ the correction. In 1941 Supreme Court has finished with dual explanation of the Bill of rights, having decided, that rights of staffs are recognized only in limits, content as the federal act. The bill of rights was used by development of the Overall Declaration of human rights adopted by the United Nations on December, 10 1948, and analogous documents, operational in many countries of the world. Ëèòåðàòóðà:Ñòàíîâëåíèå The American state / Otv. red. A.A.Fursenko. SPb., 1992. The Bill of Rights: A Documentary History / Ed. by B. Schwartz. New York; London, 1971. V. 1-2. A.A.Fursenko
  • The BILL - BELOTSERKOVSKY Vladimir Naumovich (1884/85-1970), the Russian writer. Plays, including "Strong gale" (1926), about drama events first a flying of revolution, stories.
  • BILONNAJA the COIN (from frants. billon - low-standard silver), the token coin, which nominal value exceeds cost of metal keeping in her and charges on its pinching out. Are now pinched out only bilonnye coins.
  • BIL (a nem. Biel, frants. Bienne), city in northwest of Switzerland. 51 thousand inhabitants (1987, with suburbs of 83 thousand inhabitants). Manufacture of hours, jeweller, a printing industry, a machine industry. Tourism.
  • BILBAO (Bilbao), city and a port in a north of Spain, an administrative centre prov. Biskajja. 369 thousand inhabitants (1991), Major Bilbao over 950 thousand inhabitants. An international airport. Iron and steel industry and a machine industry, chemical, oil refining, textile, alimentary, a paper industry. University. A cathedral (a gothic, 14 century), a town hall (style "modernist style", 1890, architect Rukova). It is based in 1300.
  • BILDT (Bildt) Charles (r. 1949), the prime minister of Sweden with 1991. With 1986 chairman of Moderate coalition party.
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