Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • BISSAU (Bissau), capital Guinea - Bissau, an administrative centre of independent sector of Bissau. 125 thousand inhabitants (1988). A port on Atlantic ok. An international airport. Flavoring, sawing, furniture, a light industry. Repair workshops. It is based in 17 century. An Istoriko-art museum.
  • BEAD (from the arab. busra - a glass bead), small-sized motley glass beads with the apertures, used primarily for embroidery (on subjects of a household activities, women wear, etc.).
  • BI-SKAJ-BI (B-Sky-B), see " British skaj brodkasting ".
  • BAY OF BISCAY (frants. Golfe de Gascogne, isp. Golfo de Vizcaya) Atlantic ok., for coasts of France and Spain. 200 thousand êì2. Length of 400 kms. Depth up to 5100 m. Run rr. Loire and Garonne. Strong gales are often. Inflows up to 6,7 m. Fishery (sardines, a flounder), an oyster fishery. Primary ports - Bordeaux, Brest, San Sebastian, Bilbao.
  • BISCUIT (frants. biscuit).. 1) porcelain not coated with glaze. With it is grey. 18 century from a biscuit executed desktop sculptural figures and groups... 2) the Confectionery semifinished item. It is baked of the paste received by commixing of a flour with a frothed eggs and Saccharum. Ministers for preparation of cookies, pies, pastries.
  • BISKRA, city on north-east of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Biskra. 100 thousand inhabitants (1980). A thorough revision of agricultural raw material. A cotton-mill.
  • BISKUPINSKOE GORODISHCHE, the monument luzhitskoj crops is grey. 1-st thousand up to n. e. On island on Biskupinskom an eskar., bliz Poznan (Poland). Residues of wooden strengthening, it is dry-rot, boats, etc.
  • BISMARCK (Bismarck) Otto background SHenhauzen (Schonhausen) (1815-98), prince, the statesman of Germany, 1-st rejhskantsler the German empire in 1871-90. Has executed association of Germany on the prussko-militarist basis; strengthened domination in country of the junkersko-bourgeois unit, combated against klerikalno-partikuljaristskoj oppositions ("Kulturkampf"), has entered the Exclusive law against socialists, has proclaimed some social reforms. One of main organizers of the Tripartite alliance 1882, directed against France and Russia; thus considered, that war with Russia would be the extremely dangerous for Germany. BISMARCK Otto Edward Leopold background SHenhauzen (Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold von Schonhausen) (on April, 1 1815, SHenhauzen - on July, 30 1898, Fridrihsru). The Prussko-German statesman, first rejhskantsler the German empire. The beginning karjeryVyhodets from pomeranskogo junkerstva. Studied jurisprudence in Goettingen and Berlin. In 1847-48 - the deputy 1 and 2 Coherent landtagov Prussia, during revolution 1848 supported armed depressing agitations. One of organizers of a Prussian consignment of conservators. In 1851-59 representative of Prussia to the Bundestag to Frankfurt - na-Majne. In 1859-1862 salting of Prussia in Russia, in 1862 salting of Prussia in France. In September 1862 during the constitutional conflict between the Prussian Crown and the liberal majority Prussian landtaga Bismarck has been invoked by king Wilhelm I on a post of the Prussian minister - president; persistently settled rights of a corona and has achieved the resolution of conflict in its favour. Association of Germany Under a guiding of Bismarck has been carried out association of Germany by " revolutions from above " - as a result of three victorious wars of Prussia: in 1864 together with Austria against Denmark, in 1866 against Austria, in 1870-71 against France. Saving adherence junkerstvu and the accuracy of a Prussian monarchy, Bismarck have been compelled in this season to link the actions to the German national - liberal motion. He managed to embody hopes of raising bourgeoisie and national expectations of german people, to supply outbreak of Germany on ways to an industrial society. Internal policy After education of the Severo-German union to 1867 Bismarck has become bundeskantslerom. In 1871 German empires professed on January, 18 he has received the maximum state post of the imperial chancellor, and according to the constitution 1871 - practically the unlimited authority. In the first years after education of empire Bismarck it was necessary to reckon with the liberals making the parliamentary majority. But tendency to supply Prussia a prevailing rule in empire, to consolidate traditional public both political hierarchy and a natural authority invoked stationary values of abrasion concerning the chancellor and parliament. The system built and carefully guarded by Bismarck - the strong executive authority personified by him, and weak parliament, repressive policy in relation to working and socialist motion - did not correspond to problems of fast developing industrial society. It has become the depth cause of a weakening in positions of Bismarck to the extremity 80. In 1872-1875 under the initiative and under pressure Bismarck laws on forfeiting clergy of the supervisory authority behind schools, about ban of jesuitical order in Germany, about a mandatory common law marriage, about cancellation of points of the constitution providing an autonomy of church, etc. have been adopted directed against a latin church. These measures - t. n. " kulturkampf ", dictated especially to political reasons of extirpation against partikuljaristsko-clerical opposition, seriously have limited rights of roman catholic clergy; attempts of recusancy invoked reprisals. It has reduced in distance from the state of a roman catholic part of the population. To 1878 Bismarck has conducted through rejhstag " the exclusive law " against the socialists, prohibiting activity of social-democratic organizations. To 1879 Bismarck has achieved acceptance rejhstagom the protectionist customs tariff. Liberals have been extruded from major policy. The new course economic and a financial policy corresponded to interests of large industrialists and large landowners. Their union has taken dominant positions in a political life and in administration of government. To 1881-89 Bismarck has conducted " social laws " (about insurance of workers on an event of disease and on an event of a mutilation, about old-age pensions and physical inability), the put in pawn fundamentalses of social insurance of workers. At the same time he demanded a hardening of antiworking policy and within 80th successfully achieved extension of " the exclusive law ". The straddle in relation to workers and socialists has hindered their integration in public and the state structure of empire. Foreign policy Bismarck plotted the foreign policy, proceeding from the situation which have been usual in 1871 after defeat of France in ex - Prussian war and capture by Germany of Alsace and Lorraine, becoming the constant-voltage source. With the help of the composite system of the unions supplying isolation of France, rendezvous of Germany with Austria-Hungary and maintenance of good relations with Russia (the union of three emperors - Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia 1873 and 1881; the austro-german union 1879; the Tripartite alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy 1882; Mediterranean agreement 1887 between Austria-Hungary, Italy and England and " the agreement of reinsurance " with Russia 1887) to Bismarck was possible to sustain the world in Europe; The German empire has become one of leaders of a world policy. A lap pits However at the end of 80 this system began to give cracks. Rendezvous of Russia with France was planned. The colonial expansion of Germany initiated in 80, has aggravated the anglo-German attitudes. Failure of Russia of resumption of " the agreement of reinsurance " in the beginning 1890 was serious failure of the chancellor. Failure of Bismarck in internal policy the fall of his plan of metamorphosis of " the exclusive law " against socialists in permanent has become. In January 1890 rejhstag has refused to reinstate it. As a result of contraventions with new emperor Wilhelm II and with a military command on external and a colonial policy and on a working problem Bismarck has been retired in March 1890 and the last 8 flying of life has conducted in manor Fridrihsru. Ñî÷èíåíèÿ:Ìûñëè and memories. Ì., 1940-1941. T. 1-3. Die gesammelten Werke. Bd. 1-15. Berlin, 1924-1935. Ëèòåðàòóðà:Åðóñàëèìñêèé A.S.Bismark: Diplomacy and militarism. Ì., 1968. CHubinsky V.V.Bismark: the political biography. Ì., 1988. Obolenskaja Seconds. Century Policy of Bismarck and extirpation of consignments in Germany at the end of 70 years of XIX century. Ì., 1992. Gall L. Bismarck: der weisse Revolution³r. Frankfurt am M., 1980. Engelberg E. Bismarck: Urpreusse und Reichsgr¿nder. Berlin, 1985. Engelberg E. Bismarck: Das Reich in der Mitte Europas. Berlin, 1990. Herre F. Bismarck: Der preussischer Deutsche. Munchen, 1993. S.V.Obolenskaja
  • BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO, group of islands in the west Quiet ok., to north-east from It is new. Guinea; in structure Papua-new Guinea. Ok. 50,5 thousand êì2. The population of 399 thousand person (1990). Large islands - It is new. Britain also It is new. Ireland. An altitude up to 2300 m; there are active volcanoes. The wet tropical forests. Tropical agriculture. Main city - Rabaul (on about. It is new. Britain).
  • BISNOVAT Matus Ruvimovich (1905-77), the aircraft designer, Dr.Sci.Tech., the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1975). Under guiding Bisnovat high-speed experimental airplanes are built. The lenin premium (1966), the State premium of the USSR (1973).
  • BISSA (karetta), kowtowing sets of marine turtles. In tropical and subtropical seas. Horn shchitki, coating an armour (length up to 90 sm), are thought much. Number bissy is sharply reduced, in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection.
  • BISECTRIX (from an armour. bis - doubly and seco - I dissect) an angle, a ray (ray), coming from quoins and dividing it in halves.
  • BYSSINOSIS (from grech. byssos - a cotton), a pneumokoniosi stipulated by influence of a cotton dust. An acute byssinosis call also as a fever of cottonmills.
  • BYSSUS, 1) a secret bissusovoj glands (available in a leg for beach clams), solidifying at secretion in strong filaments by which the mollusk is attached to substrate. From byssuses of a mollusk pinny and other in an antiquity produced a special tissue - visson... 2) Mushroom disease of fish roe, at which filament of hyphas of a fungus envelop solid bed each ovum.
  • BISSER (Bissierå) to the Erysipelas (1888-1964), the French painter, the founder tashizma. Early cloths - monumental landscapes. With 1919 cooperated in the log-book " Espri nuvo " (Esprit Nouveau) together with Le Corbusier and Ozanfanom. With 1925 taught in Academy Ranson. In 1940th creates compositions from a shards of a gobelin tapestry, etc. materials.
  • BISTI Dmitry Spiridonovich (1925-90), the Russian schedule, the national artist of Russia (1984), the vice-president AH (with 1988). Ostrovyrazitelnye, emotional book case histories, heavy the schedule. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • BISTER (frants. bistre), a paint from wood carbon black, blended with a water soluble gum; it was used by european artists of 15-18 centuries at drawing by a feather and a paintbrush.
  • BISTRITSA, city in the Sowing. Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Bistritsa - Neseud. 75 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, a wood-working, textile industry.
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