Thursday, May 17, 2007

  • BULGAR (up to 1926 Spassk, up to 1935 Spassk-tatar, up to 1991 Kuibyshev), city in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, on coast of Volga (water reservoir Kujbyshevskoe), in 100 kms from zh.-d. An item. CHerdakly. 8,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). A meat-packing factory. It is based in 1781. To the south from the modern Bulgara - gorodishche Bolgar (10-14 centuries) - architectonic - archeologic museum - reservation.
  • BULGARIN Faddej Venediktovich (1789-1859), the Russian journalist, the writer. Emitted the newspaper " Boreal bee " (1825-59, with 1831 together with N.I.Grechem), the log-book " the Son of fatherland " (1825-39, together with Grotzsch), etc. The Writer nravoopisatelnogo, with elements of adventurousness of the novel "Ivan Vyzhigin" (1829).
  • BULGARIJA (Bulgaria) VOLZHSKO-KAMSKAJA, the state bulgar volzhsko-kamskih, Finno-Ugric peoples and other in Compare. The Volga region and Prikamye in 10 - nach. 15 centuries. Capitals: ã. Bulgar, since 12 century of. Biljar. Trade with Arabian halifatom, Byzantium, eastern slavs, etc. Military and trade contest with the Kiev Russia, later - the Vladimiro-Suzdal principality. Pokorena mongolo-tartars to 1240. To 2-nd floor. 14 century has broken up on Bulgarian and ZHukotinskoe principalities. BULGARIJA (Bulgaria) VOLZHSKO-KAMSKAJA, the medieval state in terrain Compare. The Volga region and Prikamye. Has played the important role during an ethnogenesis of the modern Kazan the tartar, Chuvashs, mordvy, Udmurts, the goosefoot and Komi. Has received the title from breeding association tjurkojazychnyh the nomads who have moved in locale Volzhsko-Kamsky from steppes Priazovskih in 7-8 centuries. Under influence of aboriginal agricultural Finno-Ugric nations bulgary (bolgary) pass to a nonmigratory mode of life. Originating of the state the First written informations about Bulgarii fall into nach. 10 century - time of a becoming bulgarskogo the states which centre the city Bulgar (nowadays seconds Bolgary Bulgarian r-on Tatarii) has become. The pullet state has hitted in relation from powerful Hazarskogo kaganata. For strengthening of the rule bulgarsky tsar Almas has appealed for support to Arabian halifatu therefore Bulgarija has accepted moslem faith in the capacity of state religion. Disintegration Hazarskogo kaganata after his rout by the Kiev prince Svjatoslavom I Igorevichem in 965 has consolidated actual independence Bulgarii. The bloom domongolskoj BulgariiBulgarija becomes the most strong state in Compare and Nizh. The Volga region, which welfare was ensured at the expense of its advantageous geographical location on traverse of water and overland trade ways, and also due to abundance of fertile chernozem soils. Bulgarija has become the centre of manufacture and export of wheat, furs, cattle, a fish, honey, walnuts and items of different handcrafts (a cap, the boots known on the Orient as "bulgari", metal wares, leathers). However the main revolution bulgarskih merchants compounded trade transit between the Orient and the West besides Bulgar was known the market of slaves which were brought from Russian grounds and boreal Volga region. For implementation of trading operations in Bulgarii with nach. 10 century the natural coin - dirhem was pinched out. Brisk trade promoted development of cities. Besides Bulgara, other cities, such, as Suvar, Biljar (Buljar), Oshel were known also, etc. To 12 century the grounding on riverbank Kazanki of city Claims Kazan (Aged Kazan) concerns, at the end of 14 century transferred on the modern place. Cities were not only administrative and shopping centers, but also potent strengths. Necessity of protection against incursions of nomads from adjacent steppes caused bulgar to erect defensive shafts and pits which quite often reached in length of several kilometres. In the defence of the state the considerable role was played also with numerous reinforced farms bulgarskoj znati. Acceptance of moslem faith promoted attaching Bulgarii with crop of the Muslim world. Drevnetjurkskoe runicheskoe the letter was replaced Arabian, elementary schools and medrese were unclosed. Archeological finds of subjects of a household activities with inscriptions testify to a wide circulation of literacy among bulgarskogo the populations. In Bulgarii there are natural scientists: lawyers, seminary students, physicians, historians, astronomers. In 1212 poet Kul-Gali the poem " Kyssa and Jusuf ", widely known in the Turkic literature of the time has been built on bulgarskom tongue. Realizing itself an outpost of moslem faith, Bulgarija promoted his penetration into adjacent grounds. So, under the legend, in 986 bulgarskie ecclesiasts after the arrival to Kiev offered grand duke Vladimir I Svjatoslavichu to accept moslem faith. Oof Bulgarii, its tendency to monitor trade with the Orient have reduced in crowded offences of neighbours. If extirpation bulgar with nomads - polovtsami was enough successful crashes with Russian knjazjami caused Bulgarii the much greater damage. Already in 985 prince Vladimir has committed a successful marching on Bulgariju, and in 12 century with elevation of the Vladimiro-Suzdal principality, aspiring to distribute the influence in the Volga region, extirpation between two neighbours has become aggravated. The stationary value military threat has forced bulgar to transfer the capital into the depth countries - to city Biljar (nowadays seconds Biljarsk Alekseevskogo r-on Tatarii), received in Russian sources a name of " Great city ". In spite of the fact that bulgaram it was possible in 1219 to trap and plunder Ustyug, as a whole the superiority was on the party Russian. Especially severe injury Bulgarija has sufferred in 1220 when by Russian teams has been taken Oshel, etc. kamskie cities. Only affluent payoff has allowed bulgaram to shun ruin of capital. After that the world, affirmed in 1229 exchange voennoplennyh was placed. Occurrence in vostochnoevropejskih steppes of mongolo-tatar hordes has forced to reconcile old rivals. In 1223 Mongols have routed russko-polovetskoe army in battle on Kalka, but on a return path have been hardly shabby bulgarami. In 1229 and 1232 bulgaram it is possible to reflect incursions of Mongols. In 1236 Batyj, having collected great strengths, starts the largest marching to the West. His first victim has become Bulgarija., etc. cities have been seized and destroyed by autumn of same year Biljar, then Mongols have moved to Russia. However resistance has not been broken yet finally, and in 1240 Bulgarija has again undergone to ruin of nomads. Bulgarija under an authority of Golden Horde In 1243 Batyj has based in borders of the Mongolian empire the state Golden Horde, one of which provinces has become Bulgarija. Despite of loss of the independence, she used some autonomy, its governors become vassals zolotoordynskogo khan, paid to him a tribute and delivered soldiers in ordynskoe army. High crop Bulgarii has become the major constituent part of crop of Golden Horde. The arrest of ruinous incursions of nomads, restoration of business relations has helped to revive economy Bulgarii. She has reached the best bloom in the first half of 14 century that was promoted also by the statement of moslem faith in the capacity of to state religion of Golden Horde. Bulgarija in this season acts an explorer of Moslem for adjacent peoples - mordvy, votjakov, the Bashkir. Besides the city Bulgar becomes a temporary residence zolotoordynskogo khan. The city involved bricky and belokamennymi with structures. The flock of palaces, mosques, caravans - sheds, and also public baths, paved streets, the underground water-pipe testified to oof and prosperity Bulgara. Bulgary first in Europe have run in a smelt of cast iron from which moulded boilers. Their metal goods, dressings, ceramics have received a wide circulation in medieval Europe and Asia. Disintegration of the state With is grey. 14 century internal political conditions in Golden Horde are complicated, starts severe extirpation for hansky a holy table, separative tendencies strengthen. In 1361 prince the Damascene - Temir has torn away from Golden Horde extensive terrain in the Volga region, switching on Bulgariju. Zolotoordynskim khans only on short time manage to aggregate again the state where everywhere there is a process of cleavage and isolation of separate terrains. Bulgarija disintegrates on two actually do-it-yourself principalities - Bulgarskoe and ZHukotinskoe with the centre in city Zhukotin (Dzhuketau) .Vo second half 14 - nach. 15 century. These principalities test for to themselves permanent military pressure of Russia. Its protege in 1370 takes bulgarsky a holy table, and in 1376 in Bulgare there are Russian officers which responsibilities included the supervisory control of trade. The greater loss bulgaram crowded offences ushkujnikov, plundering put their cities. The hard blow on Bulgarii has been marked in 1431 Moscow army of prince Feodor Pestrogo then Bulgarija has deprived austral grounds which went in subordination of Moscow. Independence was saved only with boreal terrains which centre was Kazan. On the basis these grounds began formation in Compare. The Volga region the new state - Kazan hanstva and a new ethnos - Kazan the tartar. Ëèòåðàòóðà:Ñìèðíîâ A.P.Volzhskie bulgary. Ì., 1951. Fahrutdinov R.G.Ocherki on a history Volga Bulgarii. Ì., 1984. Davletshin. M. Volga Bulgarija. Spiritual crop. Domongolsky season X - nach. XVII century. Kazan., 1990. Cossacks E. And. Crop of early Volga Bulgaria. Stages of an ethnocultural history. Ì., 1992. N.V.Samover
  • BULDAKOV Gennady Nikanorovich (1924-90), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1984), the full member AH the USSR (1988). The chief architect of Leningrad (1971-87). The main activities (with collective of writers); a master plan of Leningrad (1960), the design of renovation of embankment Sinopskoj (1980th), station of underground railway " Civil circular " (1978) - in Leningrad.
  • BULDAKOV Lyudmila Stepanovna (r. 1938), Russian sportsmenka (volleyball), the deserved master of sport (1960), the trainer. CHempionka Olympic Games (1968, 1972), the world (1956, 1960, 1970), Europe (1958, 1967, 1971), the USSR (repeatedly in 1960-73).
  • BLISTER (grech. bule - advice), in ancient greek policies one of the supreme bodies of the authority, the executed state supervisory control and different administrative functions.
  • BULEZ (Boulez) Pierre (r. 1925), the French composer, the conductor. Experimented in range of concrete music, used puantilizm, sonoriku, the production technique. Headed orchestras in a number of countries, in 1971-75 main conductor of the New York philharmonic orchestra. With 1975 chief of Institute of probes and coordinations of musical - acoustic problems (Paris).
  • BULIDEN (Boliden) (Boliden), ore mining area in Sweden (flux Vesterbotten). Integrates group kolchedanno-polymetallic and zinc-lead deposits. Are developed from 17 century. Known reserves of area over 35 million t ore with content Pb of 4 %. Underground production.
  • BULIMIA (grech. bulimia, characters. - the bovine famine), the unquenchable famine attending with asthenia, a pain in an anticardium; it is supervised at endocrine and some other diseases.
  • The BULL (an armour. bulla - a bead; compare - eyelids. An armour. - a seal, the document with a seal), in Middle Ages the circular metal seal routinely cemented papal, imperial, royal certificates, and also the title of certificates. See. The golden bull 1222, the Golden bull 1356.
  • BULLIT (English bullet, characters. - a bullet), punishment in hockey for rough method against the player possessing a hollow disk in golevoj of a situation, - a dush straight off on a gate protected only by the goalkeeper.
  • BULL (Bull) Ule (1810-80), the Norwegian violinist, the composer, the specialist in folklore. The initiator - virtuoso. One of creators of national musical school. Has based in Bergen 1-st Norwegian national theatre (1850). Compositions for a violin, theatrical music, machining of national melodies. Has exerted influence E.Grieg creativity.
  • BULONSKAJA the HORSE, the oldest tjazhelovoznaja breed, is introduced and (Boulogne) gets divorced in France. Animal large, hardy, unpretentious and serviceable.
  • BOULOGNE (Boulogne - Sjur-Mer, Boulogne-sur-Mer), city and a port in the west France, for prol. Pas de Calais. The passenger report with Dover and Folkestone (Great Britain). Ok. 50 thousand inhabitants. Metallurgy, shipbuilding; ryboobrabotka.
  • BULYGIN Alexander Grigorjevich (1851-1919), the statesman. With 1902 mate of the Moscow general - governor. In January - October 1905 Minister of Internal Affairs. In July 1905 has developed a bill about establishment of the Duma and regulations about elections to it (see. Bulyginskaja a duma). Since October 1905 member of the Council of state.
  • BULYGINSKAJA the DUMA, in the literature the title (named A.G.Bulygin) the maximum zakonosoveshchatelnogo a representative body of Russian empire. On designed in July to 1905 design the majority of the population (workers, servicemen, woman, etc.) had no elective franchise. Convocation Bulyginskoj of a duma is thwarted by revolutionary events in October 1905 (see. October All-Russia political strike 1905).
  • BULYGINSKY Alexander Dmitrievich (1838-1907), the Russian biochemist, the professor (1869), the founder of the first stand in Russia medical chemistry in Moskovsk university. Transactionses are dedicated a metabolism. One of first has executed in 1868 probe of bilious acids and structure wet.
  • BLISTER (Boulle) Andre Charles (1642-1732), the French master of art furniture. The representative of a classicism, studed stringent furniture under forms with the composite tesselated pattern (a marquetry, metal, a bone, etc.).
  • BLISTER (Boole) George (1815-64), the English mathematician and logik, one of founders of a mathematical logic. Has developed a Boolean algebra (" Probe of laws of intellection ", 1854).
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