Thursday, May 17, 2007

  • BUTAKOV Grigory Ivanovich (1820-82), the Russian admiral (1878), the marine theorist. Brother A.I.Butakova. In 1867-77 Baltic fleets commanding by a squadron. Has developed a fundamentals of tactics of a steamer fleet. The writer of some proceedings.
  • BUTANE (the Kingdom Bhutan), the state in JUzh. Asia, in hard-to-reach part Vost. The Himalayas. 47 thousand êì2. The population 1,55 million person (1993); predominary bhotija. A urban population of 13 % (1985). The official language - bhotija (dzong-ke, it is close to Tibetan). State religion - the Buddhism (lamaistskogo sense). Capital - Thimphu. The chief of state - king. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly (tsongdu). Vost. A Himalaya (an altitude up to 7554 ì) are dismembered by deans of the rivers a bass. Brahmaputra. A climate monsoon (in valleys - tropical, is higher - more cool). In valleys mean temperatures of January? 4,5 °S, July 17 °S. A rainfall from 1000 up to 5000 mm annually. Woods prevail (deciduous, evergreen, deciduous, conifers), are higher than 3500 m - a meadow, a rock, perpetually snow. Reservations Dzhigmi-Dordzhi, Gaza, Manas. Since 19 century on 1947 Bhutan - the English protectorate. In 1949 king of Bhutan has concluded with India the agreement for special attitudes between two countries. Bhutan - agrarian country. A lobe in a gross internal product (1991, %): an agriculture 42,7, an industry 9,6. Alpine husbandry (grain, a mango, pineapples, citrous); mountain - pascual animal husbandry (a yak, including a musc-ox), a mountain logging. The enterprises on a thorough revision of agricultural raw material and mining. Domestic manufacture of tissues, carpets, a cold steel; art machining of metals, a tree. Manufacture of the electric power 1,5 billion in kw of a h (1990). Length of motorways of 2,5 thousand in km. Export: wood, canned fruit, coal, a musk, a varnish, wax, black lead, an ivory. Foreign tourism, sale of postage stamps. The main foreign trade partner - India (ok. 95 % of the foreign trade turnover). Monetary unit - ngultrum.
  • BUTANES, colourless gases: normal butane CH3 (CH2) 3CH3 (têèï? 0,5 °S) and isobutane (CH3) 2CHCH3 (têèï? 11,7 °S). Are contained in petroleum and natural gases and in oil-refinery gases. From normal butane receive a butadien, from isobutane - isobutylene. In a mix with propyl hydride are applied as fuel.
  • BUTASHEVICH-PETRASHEVSKY M. Â., see Petrashevskij M.V.
  • BUTENANDT (Butenandt) Adolf (r. 1903), german chemists - organics and the biochemist. For the first time has secured in the pure state and synthesized a number of sexual hormones (Estronum, Testosteron-Depotum, Progesteronum, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1939).
  • BUTENKO Raisa Georgievna (r. 1920), the Russian biologist and the biochemist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1974), the full member of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (1988). The main transactionses on crop of solitary cells and plant tissues, including an experimental morphgenesis and a differentiation. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • BUTENES (butylenes), colourless gases: 1-butene (CH2=CHCH2CH3, têèï? 6,25 °S), 2-butene [CH3CH=CHCH3, têèï 3,72 °S (cis-) and 0,88 °S (trance)] and isobutylene. Are contained in oil-refinery gases. 1-butene is applied to obtaining a butadien.
  • BOUTIQUE (frants. âoutique), small shop in which the firm cool clothes and every possible accessories is sold.
  • BUTYL ACETIC ETHERS, butyls of acetic acid. The greatest value have butyl acetic ether CH3COO (CH2) 3CH3 (têèï 126 °S) and isobutyl acetate CH3COOCH2CH (CH3) 2 (têèï 116,5 °S). Solvents in manufacture of coating compositions, napr. Pyroxylin, the alkyd, hlorkauchukovyh.
  • BUTYLENES, the same, that butenes.
  • BUTYL RUBBER, [-Ñ (ÑÍ3) 2ÑÍ2-] n - (-ÑÍ2-æ (ÑÍ3) =ÑÍ-ÑÍ2-] m, a product of a polymerization of isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene. Gums on the basis of butyl rubber atmosferostojki, are resistant against chemical reactants, have low gas permeability, good electrical-insulating properties (manufacture of chambers of auto tires, a wire insulation and cables).
  • BUTANOLS (butanols): CH3CH2CH2CH2OH (1-butanol), têèï 117,4 °S; CH3CH2CH (OH) CH3 (2-butanol), têèï 99,5 °S; (CH3) 2CHCH2OH (izobutanol), têèï 108,1 °S; (CH3) 3COH (tret-butanol), têèï 82,5 °S. Solvents, napr. Nitrate dopes and ethylcellulose, extragents for fats, raw material for obtaining plastifiers (dibutyl phthalate), etc.
  • BUTYRALDEHYDE, the same, that butyraldehyde.
  • BUTYROMETER (from grech. butyron - oil and... Meter), the device for definition of fatness of milk.
  • BUTIJA (Boothia), peninsula on Far North the Sowing. America, in Canada. Plateau, an altitude up to 573 m. Tundra vegetation. On Butii - cape Murchison, the most boreal point the Sowing. America.
  • BUTKEVICH Vladimir Stepanovich (1872-1942), the Russian biochemist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). The main transactionses on physiology of respiration and a metabolism of plants.
  • BUTKOV Vladimir Petrovich (ok. 1814-81), the Russian statesman, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1863). In 1853-65 state secretary. The participant of preparation of country reform 1861, promoted realization of the judiciary reform 1864.
  • BUTKOV Peter Grigorjevich (1775-1857), the Russian historian, the academician Petersburg AN (1841). Polemic with " Skeptical school ". Transactionses on a history of Russia, Caucasus, the old russian annals.
  • BUTKOV Jacob Petrovich (ok. 1821-1856), the Russian writer. Sketches and stories (the collection " the Petersburg tops ", kn. 1-2, 1845-46), stories " New year ", " the Dark person " (both 1848), " the Strange history " (1849), etc., close traditions of natural school (a theme of " the small person ", etc.).
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