Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GEODESIC DATES INITIAL, geodetic coordinates of a starting point of reference geodetic network, a geodetic azimuth of a direction of one of adjacent points, fixed an astronomical way, and an altitude of a geoid in this point above a surface of an adopted earth ellipsoid. In the Russian Federation for a starting point the centre of circular hall Pulkovskoj of an astronomical observatory, here an altitude of a geoid above an ellipsoid is adopted is considered equal to zero.
  • GEODETIC BEACONS, terraneous structures (by the way piles, pyramids, etc.) and underground devices (concrete monoliths) by which geodetic stations are meant and fixed on location.
  • GEODETIC INSTRUMENTS (surveying instruments), mechanic, optical-mechanical, electrooptic and radio electronic devices for measurement of lengths of lines, angles, excesses at building reference geodetic networks, realization of a mapping, etc.
  • GEODETIC COORDINATES, latitude and longitude of a point of a surface, fixed by geodesic distance measurements and a direction from a point with known geographical coordinates, and an altitude of a point be relative t. n. A reference ellipsoid (see. Krasovsky an ellipsoid).
  • GEODETIC STATION, point above ground which rule in known system of plane coordinates is determined by geodesic methods (triangulations, a survey traverse, etc.) and it monumented by a geodetic beacon.
  • GEODESY (from geo.. And grech. daio - I separate), system of sciences about definition of the form and the dimensions of the Earth and about measurements above ground for its map to plans and maps. It is sectioned on astronomogeodeziju, investigator figure and a gravitational field of the Earth, and also the theory and methods of construction of reference geodetic network, topography, an applied geodesy, etc. The Geodesy is connected to astronomy, geophysics, astronautics, cartography, etc. Has arisen in an extreme antiquity. It is widely used at designing and construction of structures, shipping canals, roads.
  • GEODEKJAN Artem Aramovich (r. 1914), the Russian geologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1979). The main transactionses on petroleum geology and a geochemistry.
  • GEODYNAMICS, the branch of geology investigator forces and processes over bark, mantles and a nucleus of the Earth, stipulating depth and surface motions of masses in time and the space. Geodynamics uses magnetometric, seismometric, gravimetric and other data, and also geologic simulation and geochemical performances. Geodynamics bases a tectonics litosfernyh slabs (see " the New global tectonics "). Nonlinear geodynamics studies the phenomena and processes, the bound as with irregular, random and other pulses in earth depths, and with influences of extra-terrestrial factors (motion of comets, fall of meteorites, etc.).
  • GEOID (from geo... And grech. eidos - a kind), a figure of the Earth, restricted a vertical control datum prolonged under continents. The geoid surface differs from a physical surface of the Earth on which mountains and oceanic hollows are sharply expressed.
  • GEOKRATICHESKIE the SEASONS (from geo... And grech. kratos - force, an authority) in histories of the Earth, the seasons of the considerable expansion of the area of a dry matter; geokraticheskie the seasons coincide second half tectonic cycles when raisings of earth crust inherent to them deduce the considerable surface segments of the Earth from under a sea level; are contrasted talassokraticheskim to the seasons.
  • GEOKRIOLOGIJA (from geo... And kriologija) (permafrostology), the science investigator a structure, structure, properties, an origin, distribution and a history of development of frozen stratas in earth crust, and also processes, the bound with their freezing and thawing.
  • GEOKSJURSKOE the SETTLEMENT eneoliticheskoj crops Anau (4 - nach. 3-rd thousand up to n. e.), for an item. Geoksjur (Turkmenija). Residues gum-state it is dry-rot, ceramics, figurines, funeral structures.
  • GEOKCHAJ, city (with 1916) in Azerbaijan, in 18 kms from zh.-d. An item. Udzhary. 32 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry; a clothing factory, etc.
  • GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS INSTITUTE (IGG), the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Science, is organized in 1957 in Novosibirsk. Probes on problems magmatizma and sedimental porodoobrazovanija, biostratigraphies, evolution tectonic structures, petroleum geology, to geophysical methods of investigation.
  • GEOLOGY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY of the PRE-CAMBRIAN INSTITUTE (IGGD) the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1967 in Saint Petersburg. Probes of regularities of education of earth crust and disposition of mineral wealths, the bound with the most ancient adjournments of the Earth.
  • GEOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT of COMBUSTIBLE MINERALS INSTITUTE (IGiRGI), is built in 1958 in Moscow on the basis Institute of petroleum AN the USSR. Probes of regularities of education petroleum and gas fields.
  • GEOLOGY of ORE DEPOSITS, PETROGRAPHIES, MINERALOGY AND the GEOCHEMISTRY INSTITUTE (IGEM) the Russian Academy of Science, conducts the beginning about 1930 (Leningrad), the modern title with 1956 (Moscow). Probes under the theory of education and disposition of ore deposits.
  • GEOLOGIC SURVEY, method of study of a geologic structure of terrain and detection of its perspectives concerning mineral wealths. Actuates study and a mapping of natural outputs of rocks, mining outputs and chinks with a sampling of breeds, minerals and petrifications. Geologic survey is accompanied shlihovymi and geochemical searches. As a result of geologic survey the geological map is compounded.
  • GEOLOGICAL MAPS, map a geologic structure of any plot of a top of earth crust. Are sectioned into naturally geological maps showing age, structure of rocks and conditions of their burial; engineering - geological maps; maps of mineral wealths. To geological maps concern also tectonic, lithologic-and-facies, metallogenicheskie, etc.
  • No comments: