Friday, May 18, 2007

  • GREAT SILK PATH, to antiquities and Middle Ages karavannaja road from China in countries Compare and Forward Asia.
  • The GREAT BRITAIN, the largest island in structure of the British islands. The area ok. 230 thousand êì2. See. The Great Britain (state).
  • The GREAT BRITAIN, Britain, United Kingdom Great Britain and Boreal Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the state in Severo-Zap. To Europe, on the British islands (about. The Great Britain and a north-east part about. Ireland, about. Maine and Norman islands). 244,1 thousand êì2. The population 58,1 million person (1993), including 80 % - Englishmen, 15 % - Scots, uelstsy (or vallijtsy) and Irish. A urban population of 91 % (1985). The official language - English. The majority of believers - protesters. The Great Britain will consist of 4 administrative - political parts (historical provinces): England (39 counties, 6 metropolitenskih counties and B.Londona), Wales (8 counties), Scotland (9 areas and island terrain) and the Sowing. Ireland (26 districts). The special mode is established for about. Maine and Norman islands. Capital - the London. The Great Britain - the constitutional monarchy. The chief of state - king (queen). The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament (a House of Commons and a House of Lords). The Great Britain heads Commonwealth. The Great Britain is washed against Atlantic ok. And his seas. In a north and the west the mountain relief - Northern highlands (up to 1343 ì), Penninskie both Cambrian mountains prevails; in the south and a southeast - hilly plains. A climate moderate, oceanic, the wet. Mean temperatures of January from 3 up to 7 °S, July 11-17 °S. A rainfall up to 3000 mm in the west and 600-750 mm in a southeast annually. The main rivers - Thames, Severn, Trent, Mersi, Clyde, in a north is a lot of lakes (the Elaeagnus - Ness, Loch Lomond, the Elaeagnus - her, etc.). In mountains - peat bogs; moorlands. Woods (the oak, a beech, a birch) take 9 % of terrain of the Great Britain. Numerous national wildlife reserves of a nature and parks for recreations (Peak - Distrikt, Snoudonija, etc.) . In 1-st thousand up to n. e. Terrain of the modern Great Britain colonized kelty. In 1 century n. e. The large part of the British islands is conquered by Romans, and after their maintenance in 5-6 centuries - anglo-saxons. After Norman seizure of England 1066 the process of feudalization accompanied with political association of country and a centralization of the government was finished. In 2-nd floor. 13 century there was an English parliament, the class monarchy was issued. Centenary war 1337-1453 with France has reduced in loss of the terrains conquered in France in 12 century. Development of commodity-money attitudes and class struggle of peasantry (revolt 1381, etc.) have reduced Uota Tyler (in 15 century) in almost full liquidation of personal relation of peasants. During Scarlet and the Cottage rose of war (1455-85) it has been largely deleted aged to know. Elevation of new nobility (dzhentri), the bound with the market, development of capitalist elements have discovered a path to establishment absoljutizma (kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries) . In 16 century process of initial accumulation of capital which basis has constituted obezzemelivanie peasantry (see has deployed. A fencing.). In season Reformatsii (1530th) the anglican church is built. The English revolution of 17 century has supplied the statement of a capitalism. In kon. 17 century were issued political parties - tori and vigi (in it is grey. 19 century were transformed accordingly to Conservative and Liberal consignments). Capture of colonys (seizure of Ireland began in 12 century) kept . The long-lived extirpation with France for trade and colonial hegemony was finished in 18 century by victory of the Great Britain; huge possessions in India and the Sowing have been seized. To America. As a result of War for independence in the Sowing. To America 1775-8313 North American colonys were separated from the parent state and have formed an independent state - the USA. In kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries. The Great Britain - the main organizer of coalitions against revolutionary, and then napoleonic France. In kon. 18 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries there was an industrial tumble, in 1830th the factory system of manufacture was affirmed, the industrial bourgeoisie has become a ruling class (parliamentary reform 1832). In 30th the servitude in the English colonys in Center is legislatively cancelled. To America. To it is grey. 19 century. The Great Britain has achieved world industrial monopoly. In 1830-40-Ñ the first mass revolutionary movement of proletariat - chartizm has deployed. In 1868 the British congress of trade-unions is built. In 19 century. The Great Britain was the largest colonial power of the world, having executed colonization of Australia, Is new. Zealand, having conquered extensive terrains in Asia and Africa, having finished capture of India, Egypt, conducting wars against China (1840-42, 1856-1860), having suppressed national-liberation motion in India (1857-59), revolts in Ireland (1848, 1867, etc.). Intensifying of liberation movement in pereselencheskih colonys (revolt in Canada 1837-38, etc.) has forced the Great Britain to go on building of system of dominions (1-st - Canada, with 1867). From the extremity of 19 century. The Great Britain has lost world industrial monopoly. The Great Britain has played an active role in building Antanty and in preparation of 1-st world war. The Great Britain - one of main participants of 1-st world war as a result of whom she has received a considerable proportion of former German possessions in Africa and a large part of the terrains which have been taken away from Turkey. Policy of "reconciliation" of fascist aggressors (Munich agreement 1938, etc.), Carried out by governments of the Conservative party (in 20-30-Ñ almost permanently for an authority), has facilitated Germany a unloosening of 2-nd world war which the Great Britain has entered on September, 3 1939. After an offence of Germany to the USSR, in conditions of an immediate threat of encroachment of a fascist troops to the Great Britain, U.Churchill government went on the military union from the USSR. Together with the USSR and the USA the Great Britain was one of main participants of an antihitlerite coalition. During disintegration of the British colonial empire independence have received to it is grey. 1970th almost all English colonys. After 2-nd world war of government of the Great Britain labourists (1945-51, 1964-70, 1974-1979) and conservators (1951-64, 1970-74, with 1979) alternately formed. The Great Britain - economically developed industrial country. A lobe in a runway (1992, %): an industry 24,1, an agriculture 1,8. Production (1992, one million ò) petroleum 94,3, a natural gas 55,2 billion. M3, mineral coal 80,8. Manufacture of the electric power 304,5 billion kVt.ch (1985), primarily on TES. Black and nonferrous machine industry (14,9 million t steel and 252 thousand t secondary aluminium in 1992). A master industry - a machine industry, including electrotechnical and radio electronic, transport (an airrocket manufacturing, avto-and shipbuilding), traktoro-and machine-tool construction. It is developed oil refining, chemical (manufacture of plastics materials and synthetic resins, chemical fibers, synthetic rubber, sulfuric acid, fertilizers), textile, a flavoring industry. Large boot, sewing, etc. branches of a light industry. The agriculture high-intensitily, ensures 3/4 requirements of country for the foodstuffs. Main branch of an agriculture - meat-and-milk and a dairy husbandry. A livestock (1992, one million) Large horned stock 11,6, pigs 75, ovets 28,9, a poultry 131. In a plant growing the grain husbandry (14,2 million t wheat and 7,4 million t barley in 1992) prevails; cultivation of sugar-beet, a potato growing. Fishery. Length (1992, one thousand in km) railways 37,8, motorways 358. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 4,3 million t. Deadweight. Main ports: the London, Liverpool, Manchester, Milford-Hejven, Hull, Sauthempton, Immingem. Export: machines and the equipment, petroleum and petroleum, production of a chemical industry. The main foreign trade partners: countries of EU, the USA, Japan. The Great Britain - the big exporter of the capital. Foreign tourism (ok. 12 million person annually). Monetary unit - pound sterling.
  • VELIKOVSKY Samarias Izrailevich (1931-90), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1977). The main activities are dedicated the French literature of 19 century, the French poetry, filosofsko-literary flows of 20 century, first of all existentialism. Books: " Poets of the French revolutions. 1789-1848 " (1963), "Edges" of unfortunate consciousness " (1979), " Odissej. Probes on a social history and a history of crop " (1989), etc.
  • "VELIKOGERMANTSY", a political trend in Germany 19 century, aspiring (as against "malogermantsev") to association of the German states under hegemony of Austria.
  • The GREAT-POWER CHAUVINISM, the marginal form of nationalism of representatives of the prevailing nations, shows in depressing other peoples in multinational states, racism.
  • The GREAT PRINCIPALITY the FINNISH, official title of Finland in structure of Russian empire (1809-1917).
  • GREAT ASSOCIATION, theoretical models of a quantum theory of a field in which attempts of the description on the unified basis of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions are done. Association of interactions descends at powers (in system of a centre of mass of particles)? 1014 GeV (or on distances? 10-28 sm). A number of models forecasts instability of a proton in due course life 1032 flying.
  • GREAT RESETTLEMENT of PEOPLES, name title of set of ethnic conveyances in Europe in 4-7 centuries of germen, slavs, Sarmatian, etc. nations in terrain of Roman empire. A direct push to Great resettlement of peoples was mass removal gunnov (since 70th of 4 century). Great resettlement of peoples promoted downfall of Roman empire.
  • GREAT OPPOSITION of Mars, opposition of a planet Mars in the season when she is near to a perihelion. Great oppositions descend through 15-17 flying. At Great opposition the distance from Mars up to the Earth compounds ok. 55 million in km.
  • GRAND-DUCAL, the title of Proletarsk of the Rostov region up to 1920.
  • VELIKOMORAVSKAJA the MANDATORY POWER (Velikomoravskoe, the Bohemian principality), the state of western slavs in 9-10 centuries in the south of Moravia. In 906 Velikomoravskaja the mandatory power it is routed by nomads - Hungarians.
  • The GREAT MARTYR, the Christian martyr, preterpevshy especially heavy and continuous travails.
  • LOWLAND VELIKOPOLSKO-KUJAVSKAJA (Nizina Wielkopolsko-Kujawska), in Poland, primarily in basin r. Varta. An altitude up to 227 m. Morainal hills, valleys of a drainage of ancient icehouses, lakes. Piny and mixed forests. Plantings of a potato, vegetables. Large cities - Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Torun.
  • VELIKOROSSIJA, the official title in 19 - nach. 20 centuries of terrain of the European part of Russia including in structure of Russian state up to it is grey. 17 century, with the prevailing Russian population (earlier - Great Russia). 30 provinces.
  • "VELIKORUSS", the first clandestine printed leaflet in Russia (June - October 1861, 3 numbers; 1863, N4). Invoked the derivated society to put pressure upon government with the purpose of vesting peasants by ground, convocation of national representatives for a yield of the constitution, declaration of independence to Poland. Otherwise forecast overall popular uprising in the summer 1863. The writer and the publisher are unknown.
  • VELIKORUSY (velikorossy), the title Russian, distributed in the literature with it is grey. 19 century. In the modern scientific literature it is saved in terms "severovelikorussky", "juzhnovelikorussky" and "srednevelikorussky", for notation of three main adverbs of Russian.
  • It GREAT - TYRNOVO (up to 1965 Tyrnovo), city in Bulgaria, on r. JAntra. 70 thousand inhabitants (1985). A machine industry (including electrotechnical), textile, chemical, wood-working, a flavoring industry. University. An archeologic museum. As a large settlement it is known from 11-12 centuries Capital of the Second Bulgarian kingdom, centre Tyrnovskih of revolts 1598, 1686. Residues of the byzantian strength of 5-6 centuries, strengths, churches and palaces (12-14 centuries). Churches and houses in national style of the season of the Bulgarian revitalization. It great - Tyrnovo - city - reservation.
  • VELIKOUSTJUZHSKOE BLACKENING of a software to SILVER, Russian national art craft, has developed in 18 century in Great Ustyug. Cigarette cases, coasters, etc. stud with the drawings carefully plump chernju. In 1933 the artel (with 1960 factory) " Boreal chern " (artistic administrator E.P.Shilnikovsky, up to 1962) is based.
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