Thursday, May 10, 2007

  • The LIBYAN WAR, see. Italo-turkish war 1911-12.
  • The LIBYAN DESERT, north-east part of Sahara, within the limits of Libya, Egypt and Sudan. 1934 thousand êì2. Large oases: Siva, Fajjum, Dzhalu, Dakhla, Cufra, Farafra.
  • The LIBYAN TONGUE, tongue of nations, naseljavshih the Sowing. Africa (Libya) in epoch of antiquity. Falls into to the berbero-Libyan tongues. The most ancient inscriptions of 2-1 centuries up to n. e. (Libyan konsonantnyj the alphabet).
  • LIVIJTSY (the Libyan arabs), people, the main population of Libya (4,16 million person). An aggregate number 4,18 million person (1992). Speak on the Libyan dialect of an Arabian language. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • LIVINGSTONE (Livingstone), city in Zambia, on r. Zambezi, in 11 kms from Victoria falls, an administrative centre prov. Austral. 95 thousand inhabitants (1987). A railway junction. An international airport. Machine-building, wood-working, mild, a tobacco industry. Cultural centre Maramba. Tourism. It is called named D.Livingstona.
  • LIVINGSTONE (Livingstone) David (1813-73), the explorer of Africa. Has committed a number of the long-lived travelings on JUzh. And Center to Africa (with 1840). Probeed hollow Kalahari, r. Cubango, bass. r. Zambezi, an eskar. Njasa, has discovered Victoria falls, an eskar. SHirva, Bangveulu and r. Lualaba, together with G.Stenli the eskar probeed. Tanganyika.
  • LIVINGSTONE CATARACTS, thresholds and cataracts (ok. 32) in the lower flow r. Congo (Zaire), between Kinshasa and Matadi. Length of 360 kms; fall of 220 m. Large river plants Inga. Around of cataracts of Livingstone the railway is constructed. Are called named D.Livingstona.
  • LIVITT (Leavitt) Genrietta Suon (1868-1921), the American astronomer. Has discovered 2400 variable stars, the majority - in Magellanovyh Clouds. Has found (1912) relation between a luminosity and the season of its change for variable stars - the cepheids, permitted to measure galactic and anagalactic distances.
  • LIBYA (Libija), in the Grecian mythology daughter Epafa who has given birth from Posejdona of twins Agenora also Is white - tsars of Phoenicia and Egypt. To its name Greeks erected the title of country of Libya.
  • LIBYA, the ancient greek title of terrain the Sowing. Africa, accumbent to Mediterranean m. (to the west from delta of Nile).
  • LIVNEV Sergey Davidovich (r. 1964), the Russian scripter, the film director and the producer. With 1995 director of a film studio him. M.Gorkogo. The writer of scripts to films: "Assa" (together with S.A.Solovjevym), "Body", etc. Has delivered films: "Kiks" (1991), " the Sickle and a tup " (1994).
  • LIVNY, city in the Russian Federation, the Oryol region, on r. A pine. A depot. 53 thousand inhabitants (1992). The machine-building alimentary enterprises. It is based in 1586.
  • LIVONIA (an armour. Livonia), 1) range of moving livov in a lower reaches rr. Daugava and Gauja in 12 - nach. 13 centuries 2) All terrain of the modern of Latvia and Estonia with 2-nd chetv. 13 century, conquered by german knights; the confederated states of 5 states (Livonsky order, the Riga archepiscopacy, Kurljandskoe, Derptskoe and Ezelskoe bishoprics). 3) Terrain Zadvinskogo of duchy in 1561-1629.
  • LIVONSKAJA WAR 1558-83 Russias against Livonskogo orders, Sweden, Poland and the Great principality Lithuanian (with 1569 - Speeches Pospolitoj) for an output to Baltic m. 1-st stage (up to 1561) was finished by rout Livonskogo of order. At 2-nd stage (up to 1578) Russian troops combated variable success, having taken in the summer 1577 number of Baltic strengths. At 3-rd stage (with 1579) Russian troops led defensive crocked eggs (the defence of Pskov 1581-82, etc.) against army of Stefan Batorija and the Swedish troops. It was finished by signing of unprofitable Holes - Zapolskogo for Russia and Pljusskogo armistices.
  • LIVONSKIE CHRONICLES, about events in Vost. To Baltic kon. 12 - nach. 18 centuries. Major facts. Apologia of seizures and colonizations by german feudal lords of the Latvian and Estonian grounds. Makers Genrih Latvian, B.Russov, etc.
  • LIVONSKY ORDER, roman catholic state and military organization of german knights - crusaders in Vost. To Baltic on Latvian and the Estonian grounds in 1237-1561. Led wars against Lithuania and Russia. Has sufferred a number of serious defeats from Russian and Lithuanians (Ice slaughter 1242, battle at Durbe 1260, etc.). In Livonskoj to war it is routed by Russian troops, it is liquidated.
  • LIVORNO (Livorno), city and a port in Center of Italy, in region. Tuscany, on Ligurijskom m., an administrative centre prov. Livorno. 171 thousand inhabitants (1990). Shipbuilding, oil refining, a chemical industry. Marine academy. Marine base. Museum Dzh. Fattori. The Renaissance Aged and New strengths (16 century), a cathedral (16-17 centuries).
  • LIVR (frants. livre, from an armour. libra - Roman pound), 1) monetary unit of France before introduction in 1799 francs. Livr reverted also in other countries, including in the Great Britain. 2) the Measure of mass in France up to metrication (1 livr - 489,5 ã).
  • LIVERY, a service dress of footmen, door attendants and so forth - the lengthy caftan, dinging galloons.
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