Friday, May 11, 2007

  • LITRE (frants. litre), a unit volume and containers in a metrical measurement; the l is meant. 1 l - 1 dm3 - 0,001 m3.
  • DISPLACEMENT VOLUME of a reciprocating engine of the internal combustion, not recommended title of a total working volume of the engine.
  • LITT (Litt) Teodor (1880-1962), the german philosopher and the teacher, the representative neogegeljanstva, partly - philosophy of life. Probeed historical forms of education and his feature in conditions of the modern technical civilization.
  • LITTORINY, a stem of Castropoda of mollusks of subclass perednezhabernyh. A shell ovalnokonicheskaja an altitude 1-4,5 see. Ok. 20 kinds, in intertidal region of seas, primarily in moderate latitudes of Boreal hemisphere. Are edible.
  • LITTRE Emil (1801-81), the French philosopher and the philologist, the representative of a positivism. Has supplemented O.Kont doctrine about three stages of development of mankind (religious, metaphysical and scientific.) concept of the fourth stage - technical. The maker of " the Dictionary of the French tongue " (t. 1-4, 1863-72).
  • LITURGICAL DRAMA, kind of medieval, predominary Western-European, religious submission. Was part of paschal or christmas church service (liturgy). Staging of separate sequences of gospels, later - the Old Testament, etc.
  • LITURGY, (grech. - " a public service "). 1) In an orthodox church - the Heavenly liturgy - main worship service of a daily cycle, is committed in doobedennoe time (from here other title - obednja). The order of a service goes back to 4 century. Are committed 2 evharisticheskie (see. Partaking) liturgies - over. John Zlatousta (daily) and over. Vasily Velikogo (with more vast prays; 10 yearly). A mass of the Presanctified over. Grigory Dvoeslova without the Eucharist it is committed in fixed. Days of quadragesima. The heavenly liturgy actuates 3 parts: proskomidija (grech. - "adjuration") - symbolical sacred preparation of the Holy Elements (bread - prosfor - and a red wine), is effected on a table of oblation, as a rule, at the closed altar; a liturgy disclosed (i.e. plotting for acceptance of epiphany) - utterance ekteny, choral singing psalmov, reading of Apostle and gospels, etc.; Liturgy - valid - sanctification of the Holy Elements (their metabole in the Body and Blood of Jesus of the Christ), partaking of clergymen and believers, utterance ekteny, choral performance of canticles (main - evharistichesky a canon). Till 17 century of canticle have been based on different singsongs, with kon. 17 century were affirmed mnogogolosnoe partesnoe singing. Cycles of liturgical canticles are built by many Russian composers (among them P.I.Chajkovsky, S.V.Rakhmaninov). In a catholicism and protestantizme to the Heavenly liturgy typologically there corresponds a mass. 2) From 16 century in the roman catholic theological literature the term "liturgy" means all set of official worship services and ceremonies.
  • LITURGY (grech. leiturgia), in ancient greek policies the state duty which was born by solvent citizens and meteki (napr., the content of participants of gym contest). As an extraordinary liturgy was considered trierarhija - equipment grain graders. It has been distributed in ellinisticheskom Egypt, Other. Rome, Byzantium.
  • CASTING, obtaining of castings by a filling up of routinely melted materials (metals, rocks, etc.) in a foundry core. It is applied more than 50 kinds of a casting of metals.
  • LIOUVILLE (Liouville) ZHozef (1809-82), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1840). Transactionses on a function theory, differential equations, mechanics.
  • LIFAR (Lifar) Serzh (Sergey Mihajlovich) (1905-86), the French ballet dancer, the choreographer, the teacher. The native of Russia. In 1923-29 in troupe " Dyagilev Russian ballet " (Paris). In 1930-77 (with rests) the ballet master, the soloist (up to 1956) and the teacher "Grandee - opera". Has delivered over 200 ballets, many of which are saved in repertoir of theatres of the world. Has played the considerable role in revitalization of art of ballet in France. Has based in Paris Institute of a choreography (1947). Transactionses on a history and theories of classical dance.
  • LIFLJANDIJA (a nem. Livland), 1) the german title of Livonia in 13-16 centuries 2) the Official title of terrains the Sowing. Latvia and JUzh. Estonia in 17 - nach. 20 centuries (the Latvian. Vidzeme, est. Liivimaa).
  • LIFLJANDSKAJA the RHYMED CHRONICLE (12017 lines), on srednenemetskom tongue, is constituted in kon. 13 century member Livonskogo of order, the apologist of seizure Vost. Baltics.
  • The LIFT (from English lift - to hoist), a stationary hoist of routinely cyclical action with vertical motion of a cabin or a ramp on rigid guides, content in shaft. Carrying capacity of goods lifts up to 10 t, speed up to 1,5 ms, capacity of cabins of a passenger lift up to 30 chel., speed up to 7 ms. A lifting height up to 150 m.
  • LIFSHITS Eugeny Mihajlovich (1915-85), the Russian physics - theorist, academician AN the USSR (1979). Brother I.M.Lifshits. The main transactionses on a ferromagnetism, intermolecular interactions, a relativistic cosmology. The writer (together with L.D.Landau) a classical course of theoretical physics. The lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1954).
  • LIFSHITS Ilya Mihajlovich (1916/17-82), the Russian physics - theorist, the founder of scientific school on solid-state physics, academician AN the USSR (1970) and AN Ukraine (1967). Brother E.M.Lifshits. The main transactionses on a quantum theory of a solid, the electronic theory of metals, a physical kinetics, physics of polymers, etc. The Lenin premium. (1967).
  • LIFSHITS Mihail Aleksandrovich (1905-83), the Russian literary critic the philosopher the full member AH the USSR (1975). Transactionses on an aesthetics (the book " Charles Marks. Art and a public ideal ", 1972; " Art and the modern world ", 2 izd., 1978), criticism of a modernism Polemic publicism.
  • LIHANOV Albert Anatoljevich (r. 1935), the Russian writer, the public figure. Problems of a becoming of character and moral education of the adolescent in stories " Asters in September " (1967), " Abrupt mountains " (1971), trilogies " Family circumstances " (1970-73); the story " the Maximum measure " (1982); the book " Drama pedagogics " (1983). The chairman of the Russian nursery fund (with 1991; the Soviet nursery fund him. V.I.Lenina in 1987-91).
  • LIHACHEV Dmitry Sergeevich (r. 1906), the Russian scientist - literary critic and the public figure, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1970), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1986). In 1928-32 has been repressed. Basic researches " Words about shelf Igoreve ", literatures and crops Other. Russia, problems of textual criticism. Books " Poetics of the old russian literature " (3 issuing, 1979). An essay " Notes about Russian " (1981). Activities on Russian crop and succession of its traditions (the collection " Past - to the future ", 1985). The chairman of board of the Russian international fund of crop (1991-93; the chairman of board of the Soviet fund of crop in 1986-91). The state premium of the USSR (1952, 1969), the State premium of the Russian Federation (1993).
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