Thursday, May 10, 2007

  • LIVSKY TONGUE, tongue livov. Falls into to the pribaltijsko-Finnish tongues.
  • LIVSHITS Alexander Jakovlevich (r. 1947), the Russian statesman, the economist, the doctor of economic sciences. In 1993-96 mate of the president on economic problems. With 1996-97 vice-premier, Minister of Finance of government of the Russian Federation. The writer of tutorials on problems of market economy.
  • LIVSHITS Benedikt Konstantinovich (1886-1939), the Russian poet. In 1912 bordered on to group Russian kubofuturistov (see. Futurism). Collections of verses: " Flute Marsija " (1911), " the Wolf heart " (1914), " From bog protection " (1922), "Patmos" (1926). In memories " Polutoraglazyj strelets " (1933) reconstructs literary life started eyelid, a history of Russian futurism. In 1937 it is repressed.
  • LIVY, finnojazychnyj people living in an antiquity in boreal and western parts of the modern Latvia. Gradually assimilated kurshami and latgalami. In 9-12 centuries took a shore Riga a hall. And part Kurzemskogo of a beach. Descendants livov is the small ethnic group (135 person) in Ventspilsskom r-not Latvia and in the Russian Federation (64 chel., 1992). Tongue livsky. Believers - christians (lutherans).
  • LEAGUE, see. The musical letter.
  • LEAGUE (frants. ligue, from an armour. ligo - I catenate), the union, association (faces, organizations, the states).
  • The LEAGUE of the ARABIAN STATES (LAG), League of Arabian countries, is based in 1945 with the purpose of protection of the sovereignty of its members. Members the LAG: Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrein, Oman, Consolidated Arab Emirates, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Mauritania, Somalia, Djibouti, the Palestine Liberation Organization. The authority - Advice of League. Headquarter - Cairo.
  • LEAGUE LAY, see. Lezhskaja league.
  • LEAGUE of the NATIONS, international organization (it is established in 1919), had for an object development of cooperation between peoples and the warranty of the world and safety. A residence - Geneva. To 1934 USSR has accepted an offer 30 states - members of League of the nations about the introduction into this organization. In December 1939, after the beginning of the sovetsko-finnish war 1939-40, Advice of League has excluded from League of the nations of the USSR (from League of the nations there was Brazil (1928), Japan, Germany (1935), in 1937 Italy is eliminated. It formally dissolved in 1946.
  • LIGASES (synthetase), a class of the ferments catalyzing apposition to each other of two different molecules with use of power ATF.
  • LIGANDS (from an armour. ligo - I catenate), in complexes of a molecule or ions, the bound to central atom (kompleksoobrazovatelem), napr. In connection [Co (NH3) 6] Cl3 central atom - With, and ligands - molecules NH3.
  • LIGATURE (pozdnelat. ligatura - communication), 1) the character or the mark of a phonetic transcriptional derivated from connection of elements of two characters or transkriptsionnyh of marks. 2) the Combination of the characters relaying one note (compare. Digraf), or one mark relaying combination of characters, a syllable or the word. 3) (in polygraphy) the letter keeping two combined marks, used in some tongues for notation of one note.
  • LIGATURE, in medicine - a filament for perevjazyvanija blood vessels.
  • LIGATURE, in metallurgy - the auxiliary alloys used for introduction in molten metal of alloying elements (see. Doping). A ligature call also metals (Cu, Hg, etc.), introduced in noble metals for collimating of the necessary properties by him (napr., hardness) or price reduction of items.
  • LIGACHYOV Egor Kuzmich (r. 1920), the Russian political figure. With 1959 secretary Novosibirsk obkoma, with 1961 assistant manager a department of a Central Committee, with 1965 1-st secretary Tomsk obkoma, with 1983 assistant manager a department of a Central Committee of the CPSU, it is simultaneous in 1983-90 secretary of a Central Committee of the CPSU. The member of a Central Committee in 1976-90, the member of the Political bureau of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1985-90.
  • LIGETI (Ligeti) Djerd (r. 1923), the Hungarian composer. With 1956 (with a rest) lives in Austria. In kon. 1950th has developed technique static sonoriki. In compositions of 1980th it is close to neo-romanticism. Scenic products spirit of theatre of nonsense. Opera " Great deadman " (1978); the Requiem mass (1965); products for an orchestra, including "Visions" (1959), "Atmosphere" (1961), "Far" (1967); chamber bands, etc. Musicological transactionses.
  • The LIGNIN, the organic polymeric compound keeping in cell walls of vascular plants; invokes their lignification. Deciduous woods contain 20-30 % of the lignin, conifers - up to 50 %. The valuable chemical raw material used in many manufactures.
  • LIGNITE (from an armour. lignum - a tree, wood), a combustible mineral, slaboobuglennaja wood in layers of the brown coal, keeping a structure of tissues; in the USA and some european countries - slabouglefitsirovannyj brown coal.
  • LIGO, the ancient Latvian holiday, day of a summer solstice, has been connected to a cult of the sun and fertility, similarly to a holiday of Ivan Kupaly for slavs.
  • LIGOVO, up to 1918 title of a settlement (from 1925 cities) Uritsk (with 1963 in feature of Leningrad - Saint Petersburg).
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