Friday, May 11, 2007

  • LOYOLA (Loyola) the Ignatius (1491?-1556), spanish nobleman, the founder of order of jesuits. Has produced organizational and intellectual principles of order.
  • LOJTSJANSKY Lion Gerasimovich (1900-91), the Russian scientist, the expert in range of mechanics, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences (1935), the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1968). Transactionses in range of dynamics of viscous fluids and gases, theories of a laminar boundary layer, the theory of turbulence. One of writers of the tutorial " the Course of theoretical mechanics " (1937), withstanding a number of reissuings. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • LOKA, in indian mythology the world as a part of the Universe; on presentation of ancient indijtsev, the Universe comprised from 3 loka: the ground, the root, a underground kingdom (hell), therefore she often calls triloka (" three worlds ").
  • LOKAJSKAJA BREED of horses, verhovovjuchnaja, is introduced in 17 century to terrains of Uzbekistan by nation lokaj. Animal mean growth, hardy, serviceable, adapted to all-season tabunnomu to the content. Cultivate in Tadjikistan.
  • LOCALIZATION (from an armour. localis - aboriginal, locus - a place), reference something to a fixed place; limitation of a scene, distribution any the phenomena, process, napr., fire isolation.
  • LOCAL WAR (from an armour. localis - aboriginal), the war enveloping rather a small number of the states and restricted natural region.
  • The LOCAL ANALYSIS, definition of chemical composition of microvolumes or flakes of solids. Carry out methods of a submicroscopy (in combination to x-ray spectral analysis), electron diffraction studies, mass spectrometries of secondary ions, etc.
  • LOKAPALY, in induistskoj and Buddhist mythology sentinels of the parties of light (the main - Indra, the Hole, Varuna and Kubera).
  • LOCARNO (Locarno), city in Switzerland, on an eskar. Lago-Madzhore. 14 thousand inhabitants (1985), with suburbs of 42 thousand inhabitants. A hour industry. Manufacture of jewels. Cloth, engine-building, flavoring (including wine-making) an industry. A climatic health resort. Tourism.
  • LOKARNSKAJA the CONFERENCE 1925, see in an item. Lokarnskie contracts 1925.
  • LOKARNSKIE CONTRACTS 1925, are initialled 16 okt. In Locarno after discussion on Lokarnskoj conferences. (5-16.10.1925; the Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Poland) participat; are signed 1 decks. In the London. The main document - encased by Germany, France, Belgium, the Great Britain and Italy the Rhine guarantee pact about inviolability of the germano-French both germano-Belgian borders and conservation of demilitarization of the Rhine zone; guarantors of the pact the Great Britain and Italy acted. Concerning eastern borders Germany of obligations did not give. In 1936 Germany has canceled lokarnskie contracts and remilitarizovala the Rhine zone.
  • RADAR, the device for radiolocations (radar), an optical detection and ranging (optical radars, including laser) or a sound detection and ranging (the sonar, a sonar).
  • LOCK-OUT (English lock out, it it is literally - to latch a door before somebody), closure of the enterprises and lay-off of workers with the purpose of rendering on them of economic pressure, an avoidance and depressing of strikes.
  • DETECTION AND RANGING ACOUSTICAL, position finding of object by means of the analysis of a note, reflected from object or released by this object. On a sound detection and ranging the hydrolocation is based. Ability to a sound detection and ranging many have animal.
  • LOKAJATA (charvaka), old indian philosophical doctrine; it is considered, that is based in is grey. 1-st thousand up to n. e. polulegendarnym wise man Brihaspati. Denying authority ved and principles preached by them (existence of the god - absoljuta, showers, etc.), lokajata considers true comprehended as only direct perception existing - only this world (loka), a unique reality - a matter, the purpose of human existence - achievement of enjoying.
  • LOKI, in the Scandinavian mythology the god from among aces, assisting to gods, impairing and scoffing above them (" the Higher Edda ", " Squabble Loki "). It agrees to " the Junior Edda ", during the last battle of gods Loki will act on the party htonicheskih forces and will participate in destruction of the world.
  • LOCK (Locke) John (1632-1704), the English philosopher, the founder of liberalism. In " Experience about human understanding " (1689) has developed the empirical theory of knowledge. Denying existence of inborn ideas, asserted: all human knowledge results from experience. Has advanced the doctrine about primary both a secondary qualities and the theory of education of general ideas (abstraction). Lock social-political concept rests on the natural death and the theory of the public agreement. In pedagogics started with a decisive environmental effect on education. The founder of the associative psychology.
  • LOCK (Locke) John (on August, 29 1632, Rington - on October, 28 1704, Ots), the English philosopher. Stakes of life and creativity Descended from family of the small-sized justiciary. Has received philosophical and medical education at the Oxford university. In 60 years was engaged in an experimentation in laboratory of well-known chemist Robert Bojlja, later - the tutor and the doctor in family first column SHeftsberi, one time of the lord - chancellor of England taken the position. Experience of educational activity has underlain Lock stated afterwards in the tract the pedagogical theory " Idea about education " (1693). Together with SHeftsberi he was in emigration in France (where it is detailed has acquainted with carthusian philosophy) and in Holland (where it was pulled together to Wilhelm Oranskim who in 1688 in outcome of " nice revolution " has become the English monarch). Having returned in 1689 home, Lock used major honour and took a number of state positions, but the main time gave philosophical creativity. Has died in the dwelling of lady the Mesh, daughters Cambridge platonika Ralfa Kedvorta. The main product - " Experience about human understanding " - the beginnings to write in 1671, has published it only in 1689. Besides he writes " the Message about toleration " (1689), " Two tracts about board " (1690), " the Reasonableness of christianity " (1695), etc. Lock is considered Social-political views by the father of western liberalism, the theorist of the constitutional monarchy and separation of powers on legislative, executive (including judicial) and federative (external relations) which are in an active state of plastic equilibrium in correctly arranged state. As against Thomas Gobbsa treating "state of nature" of a society as " war of all against all ", Lock considered as those a condition of freedom and equality of people, living the transactionses. However he supposed, that the main natural death of people - the right on the property - should be made fast with the help of reasonable laws to exclude originating conflicts. For this purpose, according to Lock, by the public agreement there is the political society forming government, responsible before people. Lock was the decisive opponent of theories of a heavenly origin of the Crown. Elements of his political philosophy have underlain philosophy and practice American and Great French revolutions. Headstreams and the content of knowledge Lock denies the theory of inborn ideas, in particular the facts of a history and geography, the doctrine of innateness of fundamental principles of moral and religion (including idea of the God). Lock shows, that a consensus of people concerning " the first principles " (even fundamental laws of logic) never it happens, self-evidence of some trues (for example, trues of arithmetic) does not testify yet to their innateness. In the basis of any knowledge, on Lock, two kinds of sensual experience lay: external and internal. External subjects, influencing on sense bodys, generate " simple ideas "; a shower thus it is passive, it " clear board " on which experience writes the pismena by the way sensations or sensual modes prophetic and their qualities. Internal experience is based on a reflection above natural activity showers. The assumption of a reflection in the capacity of a special source of knowledge was considered Lock by some continuers in 18 century (for example, E.Kondiljakom) as main his inconsistency sensualisticheskoj theories. After R.Bojlem Lock develops the theory primary and a secondary qualities. He perceives force "quality" (or ability) a subject to invoke in mind the idea. Primary qualities - the firmness, an expansion, the form, motion, dormancy, volume, figure is " substantial natures ", properties is objective inherent in things; they are studied by exact sciences. A secondary qualities - colours, tastes, odors, notes, temperature qualities is " nominal natures "; ideas called by them have no direct looking alike bodies. These qualities depend from primary and will be realized if there is lines of conditions (for example, for perception of colour of some subject are necessary this subject with fixed primary qualities, sufficient illuminating intensity of a room and normal operation of the visual apparatus of the person). Thickening of experience. The role of tongue and a problem of a substance By means of associations " simple ideas " internal and external experience combine in the composite. So there are three types of the composite ideas: Ideas of substances, modes and attitudes (temporary, causative, samenesses and distinctions). At education of the composite ideas of a shower, according to Lock, it is awake. Any "fixed" idea should be connected with is familiar. Words are the sensual marks of ideas necessary for dialogue and drive of thoughts; in philosophy of tongue of Lock of idea operate as a word meaning. Being a moderate nominalist, he considered, that general terms (concepts) are marks of general ideas, " for which circumstances of a place and time are unbound ". Lokkovskaja the theory of education of abstraction has received the title "traditional" and hereinafter was repeatedly criticized. Lock in Western-European philosophy has delivered one of the first scientists a problem of personal sameness, distinguishing thus " sameness of the person " (sameness continuously smenjajushchihsja the particles bridging to the same organism) and " sameness of the personality " as the reasonable entity vested a self-consciousness (the latter approachs for Lock with memory); In this sense the personality can be saved and at vicissitude of a solid substance. Kinds of knowledge and confidence figure Lock distinguished three kinds of knowledge on a degree of their certainty: sensual knowledge of separate things; demonstrative (evidential), i.e. knowledge of correspondence or misfit of ideas one another, achievable by a mediate way (i.e. by reasonings, including and syllogistic conclusions); intuitive, most reliable knowledge - direct perception mind of correspondence or misfit of several ideas. The treatment of intuition, however, has for Lock abbreviated character; its outcome appear trivial judgments such as " white there are no black ", " three more than two ", " the whole is more than part ", etc. Lock Philosophy has rendered the strong influence on all consequent development of Anglo-Saxon philosophical tradition (including development of analytical philosophy in 20 century), on a becoming of ideas of Western-European Enlightenment, in particular, deizma.
  • LOKKARTA the PLOT 1918 (the plot of " three ambassadors "), is organized in Petrograd by diplomatic representatives: R.Lokkartom, the Great Britain; the organizer, in Russia with 1912), Z.Nulansom (France) and D.Frensisom (USA) in contact piece to Russian counter-revolutionarys with the purpose of overthrow cîâåòñêîé authorities. It is disclosed VCHK.
  • LOCOMOBILE (frants. locomobile, from an armour. locus - a place and mobilis - mobile), a movable or fixed steam power plant from consolidated in one unit of a steam engine and the boiler. In the USSR manufacture of locomobiles has been terminated in 60th (because of small profitability).
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