Friday, May 18, 2007

  • VENEZUELA, Republic Venezuela (Republica de Venezuela), the state in north JUzh. America. 916,4 thousand êì2. The population 20,7 million person (1993), primarily venesueltsy. A urban population of 84 % (1990). The official language - spanish. A large part of believers - roman catholics. Venezuela - federation in structure 21 staffs, 1 federal terrain, a federal district and federal possessions. Capital - Caracas. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - a two-chamber National congress (chamber of deputies and a senate). In a central part - lowland r. Orinoco, in a north and northwest - the Caribbean Andes, hr. Kordiljera-de-Merida (an altitude up to 5007 m, pico Bolivar), Sierra - de-Periha, in a southeast - a part of Guiana highlands. A climate subequatorial. Monthly mean temperatures 25-29 °S. A rainfall from 280 in northwest up to 3000 mm annually on downslopes Cordilleras - de-Merida. The rivers bass. Orinoco. Large a lake - lagoon of Maracaibo. The wet and peremenno the wet tropical forest, savannahs, dry a thin forest. Under a wood of 53 % of terrain of Venezuela. National parks Kanajma, Serranija-la-Neblina, Haua-Sarisarinama, etc. In an antiquity the terrain of Venezuela was populated by Indians. In 16 century. Venezuela is conquered spanish konkistadorami, spreading feodalno-krepostnicheskie attitudes with use of a slave labour of Negros imported from Africa. In 1821 as a result of War for independence of spanish colonys in America 1810-26 spanish domination has been liquidated, cancelled servitude (finally in 1854). In 1819-30 Venezuela was part of republic Great Columbia. In 1830 the republic Venezuela has been derivated. With development in 20 century an oil industry began penetration into Venezuela of the capital the USA which within 2-nd world war almost completely monopolized production and petroleum refining in Venezuela. With kon. 40 up to kon. 60th for an authority were dictatorial regimes. With kon. 60th. There was a transition to the democratic form of government in conditions of actually usual bipartisanship: consignments - Democratic action (it is built in 1941) and the Sotsial-Christian consignment - KOPEJ (is built in 1946). The basis of economy of Venezuela - an oil industry (a crude production 770 million t in 1990). A lobe in a runway (1991, %) a mineral industry 18 treating 22, agriculture 5. The main areas of oil extracting - an eskar. Maracaibo, a shelf of the Caribbean m. Get also a natural gas (17,8 billion in m3, 1990), iron oxide (19,9 million t, 1991), mineral coal, gold, diamonds. Manufacture of the electric power 61 billion kVt.ch (1990), over 1/2 on a river plant. Are most developed oil refining, chemical and a petrochemical industry, iron and steel industry, an autostructure. A large flavoring, textile industry. In an agriculture the large landholding prevails. The main agricultural crops: Corn, pod-bearing plants, coffee, cocoa, cane. In animal husbandry - cultivation of a large horned stock, ovets and she-goats. Preparations of tropical wood. Fishery. Length (1991) railways of 336 kms, motorways of 101 thousand in km. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet of 970 thousand register gross tons (1986). Main petroleum ports - Ac - Salina, Puerto Cabello, Maracaibo, Amuaj, the Punta-cardoon. St. 9/10 export - petroleum and petroleum. The main foreign trade partners: the USA, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan. Monetary unit - a bolivar.
  • The VENEZUELAN BAY (Maracaibo), bay of the Caribbean m., for coasts of Venezuela. Length of 231 kms, width for an orifice of 98 kms, depth of 18-71 m. In the south by a channel it is bridged about an eskar. Maracaibo. A port - Punto-Fiho.
  • VENESUELTSY, people, the main population of Venezuela (17,3 million person). An aggregate number 17,4 million person (1992). Ok. 80 % - mongrels, mulattoes, sambo-wrestling, ok. 5 % - Negros. Tongue spanish. Roman catholics believing main.
  • VENETSKY the TONGUE, a separate branch indoevropejkoj families of tongues. Monuments of writing (ok. 250) - posvjatitelnye and gravestone inscriptions a part on adapted severoetrusskom the alphabet with add-on of the Grecian marks, a part the latin letter (6-1 centuries up to n. e.).
  • VENETY, 1) group of nations, naseljavshih in an antiquity boreal shore of the Adriatic m., to north-east from r. On; the problem on an origin is not decided. 2) the Celtic nation, pokorennoe Caesar during gallic marchings 58-51 up to n. e. 3) Venety (is more often venedy, vendy) - a western branch of slavonic nations.
  • VENETY AND PRASINY, peculiar political "consignments" in the byzantian cities of 5-7 centuries (primarily in Constantinople). Occurrence of "consignments" is connected to the right of town-dwellers intonements to voice in a circus the attitude to governmental decrees. Were assorted around of sporting circus organizations (faktsy), vedavshih by the device of circus and sporting shows. Are called on I blossom clothes of chariot drivers setting by chariots (venety - "light-blue", prasiny - "green"). Representatives of merchant and landowning aristocracy, private soldiers venety headed also those and other and prasiny were from urban bottoms. Venety and prasiny, as a rule struggling among themselves, were sometimes integrated and in unison opposed governments (revolt 532 "Nika", etc.). To 8 century have lost political value.
  • The WREATH, 1) an arcaded headgear, often has ceremonial value (see. Wedding ceremony). 2) In wooden construction - logs or beams, components one horizontal number of a crib. In angles of a crib are bound by a cutting - to the prominent cleaning cloth (" in oblo ") or without them (" in a pad ", " in a thorn ").
  • The VENETIAN SCHOOL, one of art schools of Italy. The greatest bloom experienced in Renaissance in 2-nd floor. 15-16 centuries (family of the Bellini, V.Karpachcho, Dzhordzhone, Titsian, P.Veroneze, J.Tintoretto) and in 18 century (Dzh. B.Tjepolo, A.Kanaletto, P.Longi, F.Gvardi). The venetian school the society, life-asserting beginning, poetic perception of the world, the person and a nature defines, the thin kolorizm.
  • The VENETIAN SCHOOL, 1) a direction in the musical art, usual in Italy in 16-17 centuries. The founder - A.Villart, representatives - K.Merulo, À. and Dzh. Gabriels. They have created monumental and decoration style of vokalno-tool polyphony in masses, developed a madrigal, a canzone, organnye richerkar, a toccata, etc. 2) Opera school 17 - nach. 18 centuries, the bound with a pioneering stage of development of opera. The largest representatives - K.Monteverdi, F.Kavalli, M.A.Chesti, Dzh. Legrentsi, A.Kaldara, A.Vivaldi.
  • The VENETIAN STATUSES, in Middle Ages collections trade and the maritime usages reacting in the Venetian republic.
  • The VENETIAN BAY of the Adriatic m., for coasts of Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. Depth up to 34 m. On north-east passes in Triestsky a hall. Primary ports - Venice, Trieste.
  • The VENETIAN GLASS, art vessels, primarily the blow-out, a glass bead, mirrors, are effected with kon. 13 century in Venice. The thin, orderly wine glasses or vases of 16 century, colour and colourless, with filigranju or krakelazhem (see are well-known. Krakle).
  • VENICE (Veneto) (Veneto), range on north-east of Italy for the Adriatic m. of 18,4 thousand êì2. The population 4,4 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Venice. Actuates provinces: Belluno, Venice, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Rovigo, Trevizo.
  • MONOGRAM (from polsk. wezel - a unit), initial characters of a name and a surname or a name and the patronymics which are routinely tangled and generatrix a pattern.
  • BENJAMIN Sinaisky (5 century), the Christian outlet box - ascetic, podvizalsja in Syrian desert. It is killed during irruption of arabs. Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 14 (27).
  • BENJAMIN Suzsky (Persian) (mind. 421 or 424), the martyr, the deacon in Susa (in Persia), damaged in persecution of tsar Jezdegerda I. Memory in the Orthodox church on March, 31 (on April, 13) and on October, 13, in Roman catholic - on March, 31.
  • BENJAMINS Ivan Evseevich (1797-1879), the Russian ethnographer and the scientist. Being the missionary in possessions of the Russian-American company (1824-39), studied aleuts and Indians Severo-Zap. America, in particular forms of spoilage and family attitudes.
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