Monday, June 18, 2007

  • VIZHNITSA, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, Chernovtsy region. A depot. 5,7 thousand inhabitants (1989). Wood-working combine, etc. Art crafts (machining of a tree, metal, a carpet weaving). It is known with kon. 15 century.
  • The VISA (from an armour. visus - seen, browsed through{looken up}), 1) an inscription on any document or the certificate{act}, authenticity certifying it{him} or attaching to him force. 2) the Official mark in the passport{certificate} about the entry permit in the given state, passage or exit road from him{it}.
  • VIZANTY, ancient city on european coast of prol. Bosporus. In 324-330 on his{its} place it is based Constantinople (about 1453 Istanbul).
  • The BYZANTIAN RIGHT, legal system of Byzantium (6-15 centuries) which basis{fundamentals} was codification JUstiniana. It was defined by dualism of the church and society right (norms{standards} of them were contained in special collections - "Nomocanons"). The byzantian right has been borrowed by the feudal law of Armenia, Georgia, some countries of Europe and Asia.
  • BYZANTIUM (Eastern Roman empire, the Byzantian empire), the state of 4-15 centuries derivated at disintegration of Roman empire in its{her} eastern part (Balkan p-ov, M.Azija, the southeast Mediterranean). Capital - Constantinople. The population - Greeks, sirijtsy, copts, Armenians, etc. Prevailing tongue - Grecian. In 4 - nach. 7 centuries in Byzantium has become to develop feudalism (at conservation till 7 century rabovladenija). Features of the byzantian feudalism: cities kept in an early Middle Ages as the centres of handcraft and trade; centralized state machinery and tax system; absence of a class closure of the ruling class developed vassalno-lennoj of system; fragility of trading - craft corporations, a rural community, urban communes. Byzantium has reached{achieved} the greatest territorial expansion in 6 century at JUstiniane I, having turned into Mediterranean powerful the mandatory power. Seizures 7 - it is grey. 9 centuries. Arabs, slavs, langobardov have reduced its{her} terrain basically to a part Balkan p-ova and M.Azii. Capture in 1204 participants of 4-th crusade of Constantinople has reduced in fall of the Byzantian empire, the grounding of Latin empire, and in the terrain not conquered by crusaders - the Grecian states (Nicaean, empires Trapezundskoj, the state Epirskogo). The byzantian empire recovered{restored} by Michael VIII in 1261. Taking to 1453 Constantinoples a turkish troops has put an end to Byzantium.
  • " VIZVOLENNJA ÂIÒ×ÈÇÍÈ " (" Discharging of Fatherland "), underground anti-fascist organization in Great Domestic war on Ukraine, the Lvov region (1942-44). Acted together with " National guards ".
  • To the VISA Vladimir Juljevich (1886-1954), the Russian scientist, the explorer of Arctic regions, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The participant of expedition G.J.Sedova (1912-1914), expeditions on "Tajmyre" (1921-22), "Malygin" (1924, 1928, 1931); the supervisor of studies of expedition on "Georgii Sedove" (1930), "Sibirjakove" (1932), "Feodor Litke" (1943), etc. The Writer of transactionses on oceanology, meteorologies, ledovitosti arctic seas and to ice forecasts, a history of probe of Arctic regions. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • To the VISA the ISLAND, a low island in Karskom m., in structure of the Russian Federation. 288 êì2. Tundra vegetation. It is open{discovered} in 1930 expedition on "Georgii Sedove" and J.Vize, in 1924 these islands which have theoretically predicted existence is called by name Â. . Polar station (with 1945).
  • VIZEL (Visel) (Wiesel) Torsten Nils (r. 1924), the American doctor, nejrofiziolog. Was born in Sweden, with 1955 in the USA. Together with D.H.Hjubelom has uncovered principles of a thorough revision of the information in the neuronic structures of a brain accepting external signals. The Nobel Prize (1981, together with Hjubelom).
  • VIZEL (Wiesel) Ales (r. 1928), the American writer, the public figure. Writes in French. Was born in Romania; with 1956 lives in the USA. In novels (" And the world was silent ", 1956, on a yiddish, autobiographical; " the Beggar from Jerusalem ", 1968; " gospels rasterzannogo the jewish poet ", 1980; "Twilights", 1987), Chassidic traditions noted by influence and folklore, existentialism, one of essentials - genocide of Jews in 2-nd world war ("Holocaust"), understanding of spiritual nature of the person, his{its} ability to assassination and moral opposition of mors. The Nobel Prize of the world (1986).
  • VIZER (Wieser) Fridrih (1851-1926), the Austrian economist, the representative of the Austrian school. One of writers of limiting{marginal} utility of the theory and imputation of the theory.
  • VIZIGA, foodstuff of acceptable back structure (chord) of large (predominary sturgeon) fishes (sevrjugi, sterlets, etc.). Viziga it is dryed up on air and it is interweaved in a bunch. Contains kleevidnye substances, it is used in a boiled kind{view} for preparation of a stuffing of cakes, rasstegaev, kulebjak and so forth.
  • VIZIGOTY, see. Vestgoty.
  • SIGHT (a nem. Visier, from an armour. viso - I look), 1) in a photo - an optical system in the cine camera, the employee for selection of borders{limits} of the removed space (layout of staff{frame}). The analogous optical system in the camera routinely calls as the range finder. 2) In a geodesy, astronomy, military science - the adaptation, the device for a visual guidance of the goniometric, ranging or observation device on a fixed point in the space.
  • VIZIR, see. Vezir.
  • VISIT (frants. visite), visitation, predominary official.
  • MORNING COAT, single-breasted frock coat with radiused floors missing in front.
  • The CARD, card with a name, a patronymic, a surname, the indicating of the official position, the address, the earphone and other cramps on a face handing or abandoning her{it} at official acquaintance, visitation somebody, etc.
  • VIZNER (Visner) (Wiesner) JUlius (1861-1928), Austrian botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Transactionses on physiology and a plant anatomy. Probeed an ontogenesis of plants, a transpiration, education of chlorophyll and the phenomena of a heliotropism. Has found a tropism in plants under influence red and an invisible heat, has explained it the phenomena reaction to a thermal irritation. Studied a structure of cell walls.
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