Tuesday, July 3, 2007

  • "TIME", monthly literary and a political magazine. It was emitted in Saint Petersburg in 1861-63 M.M.Dostoevskim; the actual editor - F.M.Dostoevsky. An organ t. n. pochvennikov.
  • TIME OF RESPONSE of the person, time slice from the moment of receipt{entry} of a signal before response of an organism. The time of response is one of criteria on which it is possible to judge suitability of the person to such trades, as the operator, the traffic controller, the driver, an astronaut, and is taken into account at calculations of automatic guidance systems, etc. Mean time of reaction 0,15-0,4 seconds.
  • VREMJAIMPULSNYJ the SENSOR, a transducer of a physical quantity in electric pulse, which duration (or an interval of repetition) it is proportional to an operate time of a measurable value. It is applied primarily in telemechanic systems and digital devices of the centralized supervisory control, napr., for measurement of an angle of rotation of the bank, a road clearance time of an audio signal.
  • VRIGT (Wright) George Henrik a background (r. 1916), the Finnish philosopher and logik. In 1968-70 president AN of Finland. With 1945 heir L.Vitgenstein in Cambridge. At the centre of probes Vrigta - problems of induction and probability, deonticheskaja and temporary logic, the analysis of human action and his{its} motives, a logic nature of attitudes{relations} between a determinancy and freedom.
  • VRITRA, in vedijskoj mythologies the demon - snake, olitsetvorenie darkness; has been defeated Indroj a duel.
  • VRK, see. Revolutionary-military committees.
  • VROBLEVSKY (Vrublevsky) Zygmunt Florenty (1845-88), Polish physics. The participant of Polish revolt 1863-64, up to 1869 in the reference in Tomsk. In 1883 together with K.Olshevskim for the first time has received liquid oxygen in mensurable quantities, and then nitrogen and white damp. Has perished at explosion of a pilot unit.
  • INBORN IDEAS, concept of the theory of the knowledge, meaning the ideas initially inherent{intrinsic} in human intellection and not dependent on experience (a postulate of mathematics and logic, moral values, initial{starting} philosophical principles). The doctrine about the inborn ideas, going back to Platonu, has received development in rationalism of 17-18 centuries (R.Dekart, N.Malbransh, G.Lejbnits).
  • WRONSKI (Nadiradze) Vakhtang Ivanovich (1905-88), the Russian and Ukrainian ballet master, the national actor of the USSR (1962). The main ballet master of theatres in Odessa (1940-54) and Kiev (1954-69.1961-73 chief of the Ukrainian troupe of ballet on ice, in 1978-79 - the Moscow ballet on ice. With 1985-86 chief of the Kiev theatre of classical ballet.
  • VRONSKY (an ice-film. fam. Hene, Hoene) JUzef (1776-1853), Polish mathematician and the philosopher - mistik. The determinant, important in theory linear differential equations (Wronskian) is known for injected to them.
  • VROTSLAV (Wroclaw), city on a southwest of Poland, a port on r. Odra, administrative centre Vrotslavskogo voevodstva, 644 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, chemical, mild, wood-working, a food-processing industry. University. A number{series} of research institutes, the library and publishing house Polish AN. Theatre of opera. Silezsky a museum, a museum of the architecture. It is mentioned in 10 century. The main city of Silesia, was (up to 1945) under german domination (a nem. Breslau, in Russian drive Breslau, Breslavl). A town hall of 13-16 centuries, Gothic churches and houses of 12-18 centuries " the Hall of century " (the National dwelling; 1911-1913). A complex of the Exhibition of reunified grounds (with 1948).
  • VRUBEL Mihail Aleksandrovich (1856-1910), the Russian painter. Products{creations} ("Demon", 1890, "Lilac", 1900) are noted by drama intensity of colour, "crystalline" fineness, a constructibility of drawing, gravitation to simvoliko-philosophical obobshchennosti the modes{images} quite often accepting tragical colour. Case histories (to M.J.Lermontov "Demon", 1890-91), paintings (Kirillovskoj churches in Kiev, 1884-89), products{creations} of arts and crafts (sketches for majolikovoj sculptures, etc.), Close to style "modernist style".---* * *---VRUBEL Mihail Aleksandrovich [on March, 5 (17) 1856, Omsk on April,-1 (14) 1910, Saint Petersburg], the Russian artist. Most the considerable and original spokesman of tendencies of symbolism and a modernist style in Russian painting and grafike.---Years of the doctrine---the Native of family of the military lawyer. Studied in the Academy of arts (1880-84) for P.P.Chistjakova; lessons of a water colour took from I.E.Repina. From foreign contemporaries the greatest influence was rendered on him{it} by M.Fortuni; much in common in his{its} art also with creativity prerafaelitov. But even more important for Vrubel were impressions of painting italian Revitalization, and also modes{images} of the literature (V.Shakespeare, I.V.Gete, M.J.Lermontov).---The Kiev season{term}---the Mature manner of the master - with his{its} "crystalline" drawing which is dividing the world on ortamental planes and at the same time emphasizing{pointing out} his{its} space unity, with sparkling magnificence of colour over the range between violet and golden (" extirpation of gold and blueing ", by word A.A.Bloka), - was formed basically in the Kiev season{term} (1884-89). Pozdneromanticheskaja tradition (not without reason I.K.Ayvazovsky belonged to figure of his{its} most favourite masters), no less than presentiments of Russian symbolism and a modernist style for V.M.Vasnetsova and N.N.Ge find prolongation in Vrubel style - extreme emotional and at the same time design. The engaged A.V.Prahovym to restore Kirillovskuju church of 12 century, he has executed a number{series} of compositions (including an icon " the Birth-Giver of God with the baby ", 1884-85) where has bridged a medieval canon to acute psychologism of new time. Culmination of the Kiev season{term} - sketches of paintings of the Vladimirskiy cathedral (1887, a water colour and a graphite core, Predominary Kiev museum of Russian art); from times ancient ikonopisi Russian painting did not know ranges of colours of such force of generalization and influence. Not only the belief and inspiration, but also excruciating doubts have appeared here with confessional sincerity, - it is no wonder, that sketches have confused official church and have remained unfulfilled on a large scale, on stene.---Abramtsevsky the season{term}---the Important role in Vrubel creative searches has played an art circle in Abramtzevo. Here the master writes the best patterns, is engaged in a majolica (sculptures "Egiptjanka", "Kupava", "Mizgir", "Volkhov", 1899-1900, Tretjakovskaja passageway and a museum in Abramtzevo) and the decorative design (ceramic furnaces, vases, benches - a museum in Abramtzevo). Vrubel the thin decorative scent was exhibited also in his{its} scenographic activities for private{individual} opera of Seconds. And. Mamontova (sharing{participation} in registration "Rognedy" of A.N.Serova (1896), and also "Sadko" (1897) and " Fairy tales on tsar Saltane " (1900) N.A.Rimskogo-Korsakova, the composer, especially close to him on spirit).---Traction of the artist to the monumental art which is were beyond a heavy pattern, in the course of time strengthens; a potent splashing of this pull-rod were huge panels " Mikula Seljaninovich " and " Princess the Dream " (1896), ordered Mamontovym for special pavilion of the Nizhniy Novgorod fair (the second panel nowadays remains deposited in Tretjakovskoj to passageway). However easel painting, let and finding character of a panel, has remained a main race course of his{its} searches. The color luxury of such cloths as " the Girl on a background of a Persian carpet " (1886, the Kiev museum of Russian art), "Venice" (1893, Russian museum), "Spain" (about{near} 1894, Tretjakovskaja passageway), does not obscure an alert concealed behind external magnificence. Sometimes zijanie dark chaos it is moderated folklore stihiej: in patterns "Pan" (1899), "Tsarevna - swan", " By the night " (both 1900; all three - Tretjakovskaja passageway) mythological themes are nonseparable from poetry of a native nature. Lyrical revelation of the landscape as though enveloping the spectator by the inking mirage, especially impresses in "Lilac" (1900, in the same place). More analitichny also are nervous - are tense vrubelevskie portraits (To. Ä. and M.I.Artsybushevyh, and also S.I.Mamontova; all three - 1897, in the same place).---the Theme of the Demon---Potent color contrasts and plastic intensity of forms reach a culmination in a theme of the Demon. Embodying, by word the artist, terzanija " mjatushchegosja human spirit ", this cycle is connected to M.J.Lermontov inheritance. In masterly case histories to a like poem (a water colour, whitewash, 1890-91, Tretjakovskaja the passageway and Russian museum) in many respects also has developed the actuarial manner of the master treating the world as " a magic crystal ". In art "chapters" of a cycle the rhythm of tragedy of the lone titanium - ambitious man in succession builds up. In "Demon" (1890) iskusitelno-perfect{iskusitelno-fine} hero is figured in a melancholic stupor among samotsvetno flickering rocks, and in " the Demon poverzhennom " (1902; both - in Tretjakovskoj to passageway) his{its} broken figure broken from transcendental altitudes, already visiblly agonizes, infecting all world around of itself noctilucent beauty of the latter zakata.---the Serotinal{Late} season{term}---With 1902 Vrubel suffers affliction a gross spiritual and physical malaise, but also in a phase of contraction and an infirmity creates activities, inherings to his{its} best creations. These are simple on motive, but noted special structural - rhythmic refinement of a prime of a sketch, and also portraits (N.I.Zabely-Vrubel, wives of the artist, 1904, Russian museum; V.J.Bryusov, 1906, Tretjakovskaja passageway; Both - blended technique) where quivering colour accents or the acute game of lines finely transmit a unique spiritual aura of a model, tender, as for Come-throughs, or stately - imperous, as for Bryusov. In "Pearl" (blended technique, 1904, Tretjakovskaja passageway) the enchantling imagination of the master is almost realized into pointless art - in the patterns of a shell expressing a space pulsation prirody.---Influence---the Strong and resistant influence of Vrubel all large Russian artists of 20 century have tested{experienced} almost. His{its} manner to write " motley small cubes " (by word F.I.Shalyapin) was sometimes treated as a vestibule of a cubism. However Vrubel, proved the creativity, that depth comprehension of a nature regularly reputes transition on the far side its{her} external colours, there are for headstreams not one any direction, and practically all vanguard searches of Russian art 20 century---Ëèòåðàòóðà:---Rakitin V.M.Vrubel. Ì., 1971.---Vrubel: Correspondence. Memories on the artist. Ë., 1978.---Kogan D. Z. M.A.Vrubel. Ì., 1980.---Dmitrieva N. And. M.A.Vrubel. Ë., 1984.---Suzdalev P.K.Vrubel. The personality. World outlook. A method. Ì., 1984.---Allens in M. M.M.Vrubel. Ì., 1996.---M.N.Sokolov
  • VRUBLEVSKY Valery (1836-1908), the Polish revolutionary, the participant of Polish revolt 1863-64, the Commune of Paris 1871. The member of 1-st Internatsionala, one of chiefs (1872-76) organizations " Ljud Polish ".
  • The COAL CUTTER, effects a kerf in a layer of coal, salt also other mineral wealths for facilitation of their breaking ground. The pilot model of a coal cutter is built in the Great Britain (1761).
  • VRUCHY, old russian city (nowadays Ovruch). The first mention in 977. Center Drevljanskoj of ground, in kon. 12 century - the specific principality.
  • VRHLITSKY JAroslav (an ice-film. Emil Fried name, Frida) (1853-1912), the Czech poet. A cycle of poetic collections " the Epopee of mankind " (80 - 90th), " Village ballads " (1885).
  • VRSHATS (Vrsac), city in Yugoslavia (republic Serbia), in an independent{autonomous} edge{boundarouse} Vojvodina. St. 30 thousand inhabitants. A food-processing industry, a machine industry.
  • RIDERS (grech. hippeis, from hippos - a horse; an armour. equites, from equus - a horse), in a number{series} of the antique states (Athenes, Rome, Thessaly, etc.) alongside with aristocracy the privileged estate with a high income qualification; to riders landowners, military, usurers, large dealers belonged, etc.
  • ABSORPTION (rezorbtsija), in physiology - receipt{entry} of different substances through cell-like elements in blood and a lymph. Descends in a digestive tract (basically in an intestines), and also in cavities of lungs, a pleura, a uterus, a urinary bladder, from a surface of a leather, etc.
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