Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ABASINS (the self-title - an abaze), people in the Russian Federation, in Karachaevo - Circassia (27 thousand person). In total in the Russian Federation 33 thousand person (1992). Live also in Turkey (10 thousand person) and Arabian countries. An aggregate number of 44 thousand person (1992). Tongue Abasin. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ABAJ (up to 1961 settlements. CHurubaj-Nura), city in Kazakhstan, the Karaganda region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Karabas. 47,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A coal mining. Wood-working combine and other enterprises. It is called by name Abaja Kunanbaeva.
  • ABAJ KUNANBAEV (1845-1904), the Kazakh poet - educator, an ancestor of the new written Kazakh literature, the composer. In lyrical and satirical verses opposed social evil and ignorance. Poems "Masgud" (1887), " the Legend about Azime ", "Iskander". In prosaic "Edifications" has stated ethical, philosophical and religious views. The propagandist of the Russian literature, transferred{translated} I.A.Krylov, M.J.Lermontov, A.S.Pushkin's products{creations}.
  • STEPPE ABAJSKAJA, intermountain hollow between hr. Terektinsky and Holzun, on Altai. Length of 25 kms, an altitude ok. 1100 m. The large part ploughed up.
  • ABACAS (from grech. abax - board), 1) board, disjointed on strips where travelled kameshki, bones (as in Russian accounts{invoices}), for arithmetical calculations in Other. Greeces, Rome, then in Zap. To Europe till 18 century 2) In architectural orders a top plate of a column cap, an engaged column, a pilaster; has square lineaments{outlines} with direct (doric, ionichesky warrants) or concave (the corinthian warrant) edges{boundarice}.
  • ABACA, 1) (abaca banana), perennial herbaceous plant of a stem a banana. Rhodinum - the Philippine islands; it is cultivated in tropics. 2) the Same, that an abaca.
  • ABAKAN (in 1925-31 Hakassk), city in the Russian Federation, adm. ts. Khakassias. Landing stage on r. Abakan, for its{her} lockin to Yenisei. A railway junction. 158,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). An industry: mild, alimentary, a building materials. Software "Abakanvagonmash", factory " Легмаш ", etc. Pedagogical institute. 3 theatres. Has arisen in 1823 as seconds. Ust-Abakanskoe.
  • ABAKAN, the river to Khakassias, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Yenisei (runs in Krasnoyarsk vdhr.). 514 kms, the area of basin of 32 thousand км2. Average discharge of water 381 m2 / with. Driveable. In Minusinskoj to a hollow of water are used for an irrigation.
  • STEPPE ABAKANSKAJA, plain on a left bank rr. Abakan and Yenisei. An altitude of 200-500 m. It in part ploughed up.
  • ABAKANSKY the BACKBONE, in southeast Zap. Siberia. Length of 300 kms, the Altitude up to 1984 m. On downslopes - a taiga.
  • ABAKANSKOE the DEPOSIT iron-ore, in the Russian Federation, in the south of Krasnoyarsk kr. It is known with 1856. Kontaktovoe a deposit (skarny) magnetite ores. Known reserves over 140 million t ore with content Fe of 41,7 %. Center of production-. An abaze.
  • ABAKELIJA Tamara Grigorjevna (1905-53), the Georgian sculptor and the schedule{chart}, the honored worker of arts of Georgia (1942). A sculptural frieze on an administrative - public building in Tbilisi (1936-37); case histories.
  • ABAKUMOV Gleb Arsentjevich (r. 1937), the Russian chemist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on chemistry of free radicals, organometallic and complexes. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • ABALAKIN Victor Kuzmich (r. 1930), the Russian astronomer, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on a stellar dynamics, ephemerical astronomy and a gravitational astronomy. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • ABALAKOVY, the Russian climbers, brothers: 1) Vitaly Mihajlovich (1905/06-86), the engineer, the deserved master of the mountaineering (1935), the deserved master of the sport (1941), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1961). Pervovoshozhdenie to Lenin peak (Pamir, 1934). 2) Eugeny Mihajlovich (1907-48), the sculptor, the deserved master of mountaineering (1934). Pervovoshozhdenie to Communism peak (Pamir, 1933); named Eugeny Mihajlovicha the peak Abalakov on Pamir is called.
  • ABALKIN Leonid Ivanovich (r. 1930), the Russian economist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). The main{basic} transactionses on theoretical and methodological problems of political economy. On scientific and pedagogical activity with 1956. With 1986 director of Institute of economy of the Russian Academy of Science. In 1989-91 vice-president of Council of Ministers of the USSR.
  • ABARBANEL Ieguda (Leon the Jew) (1470-1521), the ispano-jewish religious writer and the thinker - neoplatonik (see. Neoplatonizm). The writer " Dialogues about love ", exerted influence on spanish mistikov.
  • ABARIS, in the Grecian mythology inhabitant Giperborei, the divinator and sacrificer Apollo. Did without nutrition and flied on the magic boom presented to him by Apollo.
  • ABASOV Mitat Tejmur ogly (r. 1926), the scientist, academician AN of Azerbaijan (1980), corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on development of petroleum and gas condensate deposits.
  • ABASTUMANI, a urban settlement in Georgia, in 28 kms from zh.-d. An item. Ahaltsihe. 2,6 t.. (1991). Gornoklimatichesky a health resort. Bliz Abastumani - an astrophysical observatory.
  • ABASTUMANSKAJA ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY AN of Georgia. It is based in 1932, with 1937 on. Kanobili (an altitude 1650 м). Telescopes: 70-cм meniscus, 125-cм a reflector, 40-cм a refractor, 44-cм the Schmidt telescope. Probes of the Galaxy, asters and the Suns, interstellar medium, the upper Earth's atmosphere.
  • ABASYJANYK (Abasiyanik) Sait Faik (1907-54), the turkish writer. Realistic stories (in the collection " the Superfluous person ", 1948, "Company", 1951, "not so sweet", 1954) and novels have exerted influence the modern turkish prose.
  • ABACHA (Abacha) Sledge (r. 1933), the chief of state Nigeria, the chairman of Temporary ruling advice{council}, the chairman of federal executive advice{council} (government) since November 1993 and Minister of Defence since November 1990. The general - lieutenant (1987).
  • ABASHA, city (1964) in Georgia. A depot. 7,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Hlopchatotkatskaja, tea factories; factories of mixed foods, efirnomaslichnyj, mechanic.
  • ABASHEVSKAJA the TOY, the Russian art craft formed in district Spasskom, nowadays area Bednodemjanovskom of the Penza range. Originating promyslaProizvodstvo toys has arisen in 19 century on the basis an aboriginal earthenware craft. Replacement{expulsion} in the beginning of 20 century of handicraft items factory ware has caused a gradual extinction of pottery and secretion of a toy in a do-it-yourself craft. As against the majority of the toy centres predominary men here worked. Master Larion ZotkinIzvestnost which acquires a craft at the end of 1920th, it is connected to name Lariona Zotkina, the talented master from village Abashevo, the writer of many interesting toys: fantastic lions, bizarre dogs, amusing bears. At this time there are characteristic for abashevskih masters sculptural methods and features of paintings. Features abashevskoj igrushkiAbashevskaja a toy are the penny whistles figuring animal, quite often accepting phantasmagoric fantastic appearance. Figures have the elongated trunk with the short, widely placed legs and the lengthy refined neck. On the small, carefully moulded head penetrating harrowed eyes are secreted. Heads of a bench, deers, rams are topped curved, sometimes with pluristratal horns. The rank forelocks, curly beards and a mane are legiblly simulated, their circuits, delineated stekoj, have stringent drawing and a high relief. Paintings igrushekSvistulki are colored by bright enamel colours - blue, green, red, in the most unexpected combinations. Separate component parts, for example, horns, can be painted by silver or gold. Occasionally parts of figures remain unpainted and sharply enamels contrast with bright spots. Routine domestic animals at hand masters turn in fantastic entities. The modern masters Handcraft abashevskoj toys prolong the modern masters - T.N.Zotkin, I.L.Zjuzenkov, A.I.Eskin. Some artists become to cover the penny whistles colourless a polyhowl that does{makes} figures more streamlined and less bright. Литература:Динцес L.A.Russkaja a clay toy. М.; L.: AN the USSR, 1936. Boguslavskaja I.J.Russkaja a clay toy. M.: Art, 1975. A fundamentals of art handcraft / the Baking plate red. V.A.Baradulina. M.: Enlightenment, 1979. Dajn G.L.Russkaja a national toy. M.: the Light industry, 1981. N.V.GaevskajaA. L.Iordansky
  • ABASHEVSKAJA CROP, a bronze age (2-n a floor. 2-nd thousand up to n. e.), in Compare. The Volga region and Priuralje; the title on a seconds. Abashevo in Chuvashia. Residues of settlements and tumuluses. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, a hunt, fishery.
  • ABASHIDZE Vasily Alekseevich (1854-1926), the Georgian actor, the national actor of Republic (1922). With 1879 in Tiflisskoj to drama troupe. The founder of realistic Georgian actor's school.
  • ABASHIDZE Grigol Grigorjevich (1914-94), the Georgian writer, academician AN of Georgia (1979), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). In poetry - historical (a poem "George Shestoj", 1942); (a cycle of verses " Lenin in Samgori ", 1950; the State premium of the USSR, 1951) and the modern themes (the collection " the Golden vineyard ", 1966). Novels from life of Georgia 13 century.
  • ABASHIDZE Irakly Vissarionovich (1909-92), the Georgian poet, academician AN of Georgia (1960), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Main themes - destiny of Georgia in past and true, a humanistic debt of the poet. Collections of verses "Approaching" (1966), " And these songs - my Georgia " (1971); cycles of verses " Palestine, Palestine ", " On tracks Rustaveli " about the great Georgian poet.
  • "ABBA" (ABBA - on the first characters of names of participants of group), the Swedish pop group, has arisen in 1973. Structure: Benny Andersson (keyboard, the synthesizer, a vocal), Bjorn Ulveus (the gear quadrant, a vocal), Agneta Feltskog (vocal), Anni-Fried Lingstad Frederiks (vocal). In 1970 and nach. 80th went on tour in many foreign countries and has conquered world popularity. Texts of songs in English. The most popular songs "Waterloo" (Waterloo) (1974), "Fernando" (Fernando), " Money, Money, Money " (Money, money, money) (both 1976), " Knowing Me Knowing You " (1977), etc., have a beautiful melody and differ emotional performance{fulfillment}. The most known discs - "Waterloo" (1974), "ABBA" (1975), "Voulez-Vous" (1979). In 1983 has broken up.
  • ABBADO (Abbado) Klaudio (r. 1933), the italian conductor. With 1968 conductor of theatre " A\c the Rock " (in 1971-86 artistic administrator), with 1971 main conductor Austrian philharmonic, with 1979 - London symphonic orchestras, with 1986 artistic administrator of the Austrian state opera, it is simultaneous with 1989 main conductor of the Berlin philarmonic society. 1-n the premium at competitions of conductors in the USA him{it}. S.A.Kusevitskogo (1958) and D.Mitropulosa (1963). Goes on tour in many countries, including in 1974 in Moscow, with theatre " A\c the Rock ".
  • ABBAJ, the title of headwaters r. Light-blue Nile limits of Ethiopia. ABBANJANO (Abbagnano) Nikola (1901-90), the italian philosopher, the adherent t. n. The positive existentialism, seek to overcome subjectivity and pessimism of other representatives of this doctrine (Heidegger, Sartr).
  • ABBAS I (1571 - 1629), a check of Iran with 1587. At Abbase I the state Sefevidov has reached{achieved} the greatest power.
  • ABBAS Ferhat (1899-1985), the chairman of ministerial council of the Providing government of Algerian Republic in 1958-61. One of chiefs of Front of national discharging Algeria in 1956-63.


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