Sunday, April 8, 2007

ABBAS Hodge Ahmad (1914-87), the indian writer, the film director. Wrote on a urda and the English tongue. Social novels from indian life " " (1945), "Revolution" (1954), " the Bloody path{route} " (1980) Tomorrow belongs to us; scripts: "Wanderer" (1951), " Mister 420 " (1955), etc. Films: "Ganges" (1954), " Boating for three starving " (1957, with Soviet producer V.M.Proninym).
ABBASIDY, a dynasty of Arabian caliphs in 750 - 1258. Descends from Abbasa, uncle Mohammed. Bloom at caliphs al-Mansure (754 - 775), al-Mahdi (775 - 785), Harun are - Rashide (786 - 809), al-Mamune (813 - 833). Intensifying of feudal press Abbasidov has called popular uprisings (under guiding Babeka, Mukanny, etc.). With kon. 8 century from Halifata Abbasidov, plugging originally countries Short-range and Compare. The orient, the Sowing. Africa, have started to pass separate ranges. In 945 Buidy, having trapped capital Abbasidov bagdad, have deprived Abbasidov with temporal power. The last caliph from dynasty Abbasidov is executed by Hulagu-khan (see. Hulaguidy).
ABBAS-MIRZA (1789 - 1833), the state and military figure of Iran. The viceroy of a check in the Iranian Azerbaijan. Commanded a troops during the russko-Iranian wars 1804-13 and 1826-28, irano-turkish war 1821-23.
ABBASOV Azad Zinnatovich (r. 1925), the tatar singer (the lyrical tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1977). With 1950 at the Tatar theatre of opera and ballet.
ABBASOV SHurhat Salihovich (r. 1931), the Uzbek film director and the scripter, the national actor of the USSR (1981). Works at studio " Узбекфильм ". Films: " all speaks About it mahallja " (1960), " Tashkent - city grain " (1968), " Abu Rajhan Beruni " (1975), " Igneous roads " (16 series, 1977-85), etc.
ABBE (an armour. abbas, from aramejsk. abo - father), 1) the prior of a roman catholic monastery - abbeys (the abbess - abbatisa); 2) a title of the French Catholic priest.
ABBE (Abbe) Ernest (1840 - 1905), german physics - optician. The writer of the theory of a microscope, the designer of many optical devices. Has created technology of many operations of the optical-mechanical manufacture. The chief of optical factories K.Tsejsa in Jena.
ABBOT (Abbot) George (1562-1633), archbishop Kenterberijsky (1611), one of translators of the Bible on the English tongue
ABBOT (Abbot) CHarlz Grills (1872 - 1973), the American astronomer. Transactionses on physics of the Sun, measurement of a sunshine and a luminosity of asters.
ABBREVIATION (ital. abbreviatura - reduction), 1) the word derivated by reduction of a word-combination and readable under the alphabetic title of initial characters (air force) or on initial notes (the United Nations, high school) the words, included in him{it}. 2) See. Slozhnosokrashchennye words. 3) Marks of reduction and simplification of record in the musical letter.
ABVER (a nem. Abwehr), an organ of military investigation and counterintelligence of Germany in 1919-44. In 1944 organs Abvera were part of Headquarters of imperial safety.
ABGARJAN Karlen Aramovich (1928-95), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses under the theory of automatic control systems.
ABD AL-KADIR (Abd an al-message frame) (1808-1883), the leader of revolt against the French conquerors in Algeria in 1832-47. Under guiding Abd al-Kadira rising nations have plotted to the French troops a number{series} of defeats and in 1832 on a large part. Zap. Algeria have created the state (emirat). After depressing{supression} revolt Abd al-Kadir has been taken in a film.
ABD AL-KRIM (Abd al-Kerim) (1882-1963), the leader of revolt rifskih nations of Morocco and the chapter of republic Rifskoj (1921-1926). After depressing{supression} revolt it is banished. In 1948-56 in Cairo headed Committee of discharging the Sowing. Africa.
ABDALLAH ibn al-Said Mohammed (1846-99), the governor independent mahdistskogo the Sudanese state with 1885. Headed resistance of Sudaneses to Englishmen in 1896-98 and guerilla extirpation after 1898.
ABDALLAH IBN HUSEJN (1882-1951), king of Jordan in 1946-51 (with 1921 emir of Transjordan). Conducted the proEnglish policy. It is killed by the member of the antiEnglish terrorist organization.
ABDALJAR, the title of city Lachin in Azerbaijan up to 1926.
ABDARRAHMAN I (731-788), the founder (756) Arabian emirata on Pirenejskom p-ove and dynasties kordovskih Omejjadov. Conducted tsentralizatorskuju policy.
ABDARRAHMAN II (792-852), emir Kordovskogo emirata with 822. It is known protection sciences and art.
ABDARRAHMAN III (891-961), emir Kordovskogo emirata with 912, caliph Kordovskogo halifata with 929. Has organized guards from slaves. Has created fleet, the strongest on Mediterranean m. Board Abdarrahmana III - top of power kordovskih Omejjadov.
ABDER, in the Grecian mythology the son of Hermes, favourite Gerakla. Bursted by horses - cannibals of Thracian tsar Diomeda whom has entrusted to him to guard Gerakl. At-sight his{its} death Gerakl has constructed city Abdery.
ABDERGALDEN (Abderhalden) Emil (1877-1950), the Swiss biochemist, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925). In 1904-45 worked in Germany. Probeed structure and functions of proteins. Synthesized (together with E.G.Fisherom) polypeptide from 19 amino asids (1916).
ABDERY, ancient greek city in Thrace. Under the legend, it is constructed Geraklom in memory{remembrance} about Abdere. Nonsense of inhabitants of this city was included in Greeces in a by-word and has become a scene of numerous jokes. Abdery - Rhodinum of philosophers Demokrita and Anaksarha, sophist Protagora, Gekateja Miletskogo.
ABDISHO (Ebed Ieshu) (mind{wit}. 1318), the syrian writer, nestoriansky the seminary student, metropolitan Nisibisa. Has constituted the syrian bibliography of the Scriptus, the Grecian and syrian fathers of Church. The Filosofsko-doctrinal composition "Pearl", " Paradise Edenic ".
ABDO Mohammed (1849-1905), the egyptian reformer of moslem faith, mufti with 1899.
ABDOMINAL (from an armour. abdomen - a belly, an abdomen), in anatomy - belly, relating a belly. See also Ventral.
ABDRASHITOV Vadim Jusupovich (r. 1945), the Russian film director, the national actor of Russia (1992). Films: " the Word for protection " (1977), " the Hunt for foxes " (1980), " the train " (1982), " Parade of planets " (1984), " Pljumbum, or the Dangerous game " (1987), "Servant" (1989) Has stayed. The state premium of the USSR (1991).
ABDUL MUIS (Abdul Muis) (1886-1959), the Indonesian writer. The antiracist novel " Improper education " (1928); the social novel " Meeting suzhenyh " (1933).
ABDULATIPOV Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich (r. 1946), the Russian statesman. In 1975-87 on scientific activity in Dagestan, then in Moscow. In 1990-93 chairman of a Soviet of Nationalities of a Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation. In 1993-1995 vice-president of Council of Federation of Federal assembly. With 1995 deputy of the State Duma of Federal assembly.
ABDUL-DZHABBAR (Abdul-Jabbar) Brown, see. F.L.Alsindor.
ABDULINO, city (with 1923) in the Russian Federation, the Orenburg region. A depot. 22,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises of a railway transport, a food-processing industry.
ABDULLA SABIR (an ice-film. A name Abdullaev Sabirdzhan) (1905-72), the Uzbek poet, the national poet of Uzbekistan (1965). Verses, stories, the novel " Mavlono Mukimi " (1965) about the Uzbek poet - democrat, dramas on the modern themes, the musical dramas on scenes of national legends (" Tahir and Zuhra ", 1943, "Alpamysh", 1958).
ABDULLADZHANOV ABDUMALIK (r. 1949), the prime minister of Tadjikistan since November 1992. With 1971 on technical-engineer activity. With 1980 deputy minister of preparations Tadjik SSR. With 1986 1-st deputy, with 1987 minister for bakeries Tadjik SSR.
ABDULLAEV Abdulhak Aksakalovich (r. 1918), the Uzbek painter, the national artist of Uzbekistan (1968). National on colour realistic portraits ("Niece Shahla", 1960; "A.Navoi", 1968).
ABDULLAEV Gasan Mamed Bagir ogly (1918-93), Azerbaijan physics, the academician (1967) and the president (1970-83) AN Azerbaijan, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1970). The main{basic} transactionses on physics of semiconductors and the semiconductor element.
ABDULLAEV Mikail Gusejn ogly (r. 1921), the Azerbaijan painter and the schedule{chart}, the national artist of the USSR (1963), the full member AH (1988). The writer of patterns (" Fires Mingechaura ", 1948, "Girls Hachmasa", 1982), drawings.
ABDULLAEV Habib Muhammedovich (1912-62), the Uzbek geologist, the academician (1947) and the president (1956-61) AN Uzbekistan. The main{basic} transactionses on petrology and ore deposits. The lenin premium (1959).
Abdullas BIN ABDULKADIR MUNSHI (Abdullah bin Abdulkadir Munsji) (1796-1854), the malayan writer - educator. Memuarno-publicistic compositions " the Story about Abdulla " (1849). Has preformed and has emited the historical chronicle of 15 century " Malayan genealogies " (1840).
ABDULLA-KHAN II (1534-98), the Uzbek khan from dynasty SHejbanidov with 1583, in the season{term} of the greatest power of the state Shejbanidov; has trapped Bukhara (1557), Tashkent, Balh, Fergana, etc. At a nem it was formed Bukhara hanstvo.
ABDULLIN Rishat Mukimovich (1916-88), the Kazakh singer (baritone), the national actor of the USSR (1967). In 1939-85 at the Kazakh theatre of opera and ballet.
ABDULOV Alexander Gavrilovich (r. 1953), the Russian actor, the national actor of Russia (1991). With 1975 in Moskovsk theatre him{it}. Lenin Komsomol (about 1990 Moscow theatre " Ленком "). It is vested explosive temperament, a plasticity, scenic charm. Roles: Pluzhnikov (" In lists did not appear " on B.L.Vasiljevu, 1975); the Glowing heretic, Fernando Lopez and the Person from theatre ("JUnona" and "Perhaps" A.A.Voznesenskogo, composer A.L.Rybnikov, 1981); Menahem-Mendl ("Prayer for the dead" on SHolom-Alejhemu, 1989), etc. It was taken out in films: " To kill a dragon ", " the Prison novel ", a TV movie " the Dace miracle ", etc.
ABDULOV Osip Naumovich (1900-53), the Russian actor, the producer, the national actor of Russia (1944). On the scene with 1918. With 1943 at Theatre him{it}. Mossoveta. With 1924 worked on a wireless, with 1933 also at kino. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
ABDUL-HAMID II (Abdulhamit) (1842-1918), the turkish anthurus in 1876-1909. Has placed{installed} a despotic mode. Turkey at a nem turned into semi-colonial territory of the West-European mandatory powers. After Mladoturetskoj revolutions 1908 it is decrowned. In the literature has received a nickname of " the bloody anthurus ".
ABDURAHMANOV Fuad Gasan ogly (1915-71), the Azerbaijan sculptor, the national artist of Azerbaijan (1955), corresponding member AH the USSR (1949). The sculptor of monuments (monuments Bottoms in Gandzha, 1946, Rudaki in Dushanbe, 1964). The state premium of the USSR (1947, 1951).
ABDURAHMANOVA Dilbar Guljamovna (r. 1936), the Uzbek conductor, the national actress of the USSR (1977). With 1960 conductor, with 1974 artistic administrator and the main conductor of the Uzbek theatre of opera and ballet.
ABDURRAHMAN MOMAND (1632-1707), the Afghani poet - sufy (see. Sufizm). Gazelles and kasydy Abdurrahmana Momanda are popular in Afghans.
ABEGJAN Manuk Hachaturovich (1865-1944), the Armenian philologist, academician AN of Armenia (1943). Transactionses on a history drevnearmjanskoj literatures, to folklore.
ABEGJAN Mger Manukovich (r. 1909), the Armenian painter and the schedule{chart}, the national artist of Armenia (1960). Lyrical inking landscapes, still-lifes, portraits, pejzazhno-conversations.
ABEDIN Zejnul (r. 1917), bangladeshsky the schedule{chart} and the painter. Realistic products{creations} on themes of national life (an actuarial series " Famine in Bengal in 1943 ").
ABELAM (self-title), Papuan people in Papua - New Guinea. Number of 70 thousand person (1992). Tongue abelam. Believers - roman catholics, protesters, the part holds on to traditional convictions.
ABELIAN Harry Izrajlevich (r. 1928), the Russian immunologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Has discovered synthesis embrionalnogo protein (-фетопротеина) tumours. Probes on development of fundamental theory of an immunodiagnosis in an oncology. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
ABELS, the official title of. Objaljaj in Lithuania up to 1917.
ABELL (Abell) Kjell (1901-61), the danish playwright. Filosofsko-symbolical anti-fascist plays: a comedy " the Lost melody " (1935), "Anna Sofi Hedvig" (1939), "Silkeborg" (1946). Proniknutye pessimism of a drama " Lady with camellias " (1959), "Cry" (1961).
ABEL (Abel) Nils Henrik (1802-29), the Norwegian mathematician. Has proved, that algebraic equations of a degree are higher than 4-th generally are insoluble in radicals. Studied integrals from algebraic functions (Abelian integrals). One of creators of the theory of elliptic functions. The writer of the first activity on integral equations. Transactionses on a number theory and numbers{series}.
ABEL Otenio (1875-1946), the Austrian paleontologist, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1927). Transactionses on a technique of paleontologic probes, zoopaleontology.
ABEL Rudolf Ivanovich (an ice-film. fam. And a name Fisher William Genrihovich) (1903-71), the scout, the colonel. With 1927 in organs of a state security of the USSR. In 1957 it arrested in the USA and it is sentenced by the American court to 30 years of convict prison. In 1962 has returned to the USSR as a result of an exchange on American pilot F.Powers, slewed 1.05.1960 in the Soviet airspace.
ABEL F.O., see. F.O.Ejbel.
ABELJAN Ovanes Artemjevich (1865-1936), the Armenian actor, the national actor of Armenia and Azerbaijan (1932), the Hero of Transactionses (1932). On the scene with 1882, with 1925 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana.
ABAILARD (Abelard, Abailard) Pierre (1079-1142), the French philosopher, the theologian and the poet. In spore on a nature universaly has advanced the doctrine called later as conceptualism. Developed scholastic dialectic (the composition " And no "). A rationalistic directivity of ideas of Abailard (" I perceive to believe ") has called the protest of orthodox church circles: the doctrine of Abailard has been convicted by cathedrals 1121 and 1140. The tragical history of love of Abailard to Eloize is described in the autobiography of " the History of my disasters ".
ABENDROT (Abendroth) Hermann (1883-1956), the german conductor. In 1934-45 chief of orchestra Gevandhauza in Leipzig, then symphonic orchestras in Weimar, etc. Went on tour in Russia (with 1925). It is known as the interpretive program of music of L.Beethoven, I.Brams, A.Bruknera.
ABEOKUTA (Abeokuta), city on a southwest of Nigeria, an administrative centre pieces. Ogun. 396 thousand inhabitants (1993) Thorough revision of vegetables and fruits. A handicraft work of tissues, paints.
ABERDEEN (Aberdeen), city in the Great Britain, in Scotland, an administrative centre to Grampian. A port and the organizational centre of area of oil fields on Boreal m. of 217 thousand inhabitants (1988). Fish-processing, chemical, a shipbuilding industry. University. Construction from granite and marble (t. n. " Granite city "), including a Gothic cathedral (1336-1522). In 12-14 centuries a residence of the Scottish kings.
ABERDEEN (Aberdeen) (Abedeen) George Gamilton Gordon (1784-1860), the prime minister of the Great Britain in 1852-55; one of leaders tori, with 1850 - pilitov. In 1854 government of Aberdeen has declared war Russia.
ABERRATION (an armour. aberratio - deflexion), 1) deviance... 2) the Optical aberrations, the image errors called neidealnostju of an optical system: the plotting not quite clearly, inaccurately corresponds{meets} to object or is painted{pigmented}. Distinguish geometrical (a spherical aberration, a coma, an astigmatism, curvature of an image field, a distortion), a chromatic and diffraction aberration. 3) Light aberrations in astronomy - a veering of a light ray because of motion of a source and the light detector from each other. Light aberrations invokes{produces} offset of a visible rule{situation;position} of a heavenly body on celestial sphere. 4) Electron-optical aberration, the same, that election-optical aberrations. 5) Aberrations chromosome, the same, that chromosome rearrangements.
ABERT (Abert) Hermann (1871-1927), the german musicologist. Probes on antique and medieval music, a history of opera; the monography about V.A.Mozart.
ABZHALILOV Halil Galeevich (1896-1963), the tatar actor, the national actor of the USSR (1957). On the scene with 1916, with 1928 at the Tatar theatre him{it}. Kamal (Kazan).
The PARAGRAPH (a nem. Absatz), 1) an indent in an initial line of the text. 2) the Part of the text (the composite syntactical whole), representing semantic unity and secreted with an indent in 1-st line.
OVERBURDEN STRIPPER (a nem. Absetzer), a chain chain-bucket excavator for pereukladki mild and scalls in dumps.
ABZU (Apsu), in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies world ocean of the fresh waters ambient ground; in the babylonian cosmogonic epos " Enuma elish " Abzu it is represented as chaos from which there was a ground and the root.
ABIDJAN (Abidjan), city and a main port of the state the Cat - d'Ivuar, an administrative centre dep. Abidjan. Ok. 2 million inhabitants (1985, with suburbs). An international airport. Alimentary, oil refining (the largest in Zap. To Africa petroleum refinery), a light industry. University. It is based by the Frenchmen in 1880-90-Х. With 1934 adm. ts. The French colony Ivory coast (BSK). In 1960-83 capital of the state BSK.
ABYDOS (grech., sovr. Arabet-el-Madfunah, the ARE), drevneegipetsky city, the religious centre, a place of honoring of gods of a next world, especially Osirisa. The necropolis and temples were saved.
ABINSK, city (with 1963) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr. ZHeleznorozhnaja station. 30 thousand inhabitants (1992). A flavoring industry, lesomebelnyj combine, manufacture of a building materials. Bliz Abinska - a crude production.
ABIOGENES (from and - a negative prefix, a biot... And... A genesis), education of the organic compounds distributed in wildlife, outside of an organism without sharing{participation} ferments. In a broad sense an abiogenes - originating alive from nonliving, i.e. an initial{a starting} hypothesis of the modern theory of an origin of life. In it is grey. 20 century abiogenous synthesis belkovopodobnyh and other organic substances in the conditions replicating conditions of the virgin Earth experimentally is carried out.
ABYSS (from grech. abyssos - bottomless), the abyssal zone of a seabed conforming to an ocean floor (depth over 3000 м), with rather weak motility of water, a constant temperature (is lower 2 °S), almost full absence of light. The fauna is hardly depauperated compared with other zones (see also the Litoral, the Sublittoral, the Bathyal).
ABYSSAL ADJOURNMENTS, the most abyssal modern marine and oceanic rainfall (predominary calcareous and siliceous oozes, an abyssal red clay), depositing in a zone of an abyss.
ABYSSAL PLAINS, abyssal flat or hilly plains of oceanic hollows and hollows of marginal seas.
ABYSSINIA, the informal title of Ethiopia used in past and sometimes meeting in modern foreign literature.
ABISSINIAN MOUNTAINS, the obsolete title of Ethiopian highlands.
The ENTRANT (from novolat. abituriens - going to leave), in the majority of countries - ending a mean educational institution. In Russia (it is conventional) - acting{going} in higher educational establishment.
ABIH (Abich) Wilhelm German (Hermann Vilgelmovich) (1806-86), the geologist. By origin the German. In 1841-76 the academician (1853), the honorary member (1866) Petersburg AN worked in Russia. Studied icehouses, a geologic structure and mineral wealths of Caucasus and Iran.
ABKAJK, an oil deposit in Saudi Arabia (see. Persian gulf oil-and-gas-bearing basin.) It Is open{discovered} in 1940. Beginning inventories 1,21 billion t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,88 g / sm3. The main{basic} centre of production-. Abkajk. An oil pipeline up to the Coalfish and Ras Tanura.
ABKIN Abram Davydovich (1903-83), Russian fizikohimik, the Doctor of Chemistry (1952). The honored worker of science of Russia (1974). The main{basic} transactionses are dedicated study of the mechanism of polymerizating processes. Has developed the quantitative theory of copolymerisation (1951). Has created an original method of obtaining of polyacrylamide. Has discovered (1980) photosensitized polymerization. The lenin premium (1980).
ABLAJ (? - 1781), the Kazakh khan of Mean zhuza (with 1771). Has subordinated a part of the Higher zhuza and some stems of Kirghizia. In 1740 has was naturalized Russian citizenship.
ABLACTATION (from an armour. ablacto - I take away the child from a breast), a way of an inoculation; merging it is shoot plants growing by a number{series} (apple trees, pears, a grape); after full knitting a scion abjoint from a female plant.
ABLAUT (a nem. Ablaut) (apofonija), alternations{sequences} vocal in structure of one morpheme, quite often prominent in the capacity of an internal flexion. Napr., English sing - sang - sung, rus. "To collect" - "tax".
ABLESIMOV Alexander Onisimovich (1742-83), the Russian writer. The libretto of comic opera " the Miller - the sorcerer, the deceiver and the matchmaker " (1779; M.M.Sokolovsky music), a fable, satirical verses.
ABLATION (from pozdnelat. ablatio - otnjatie), 1) ablation of substances from a solid surface a torrent of hot gas (by erosion, melting away, a sublimation). Protection of space vehicles and nose cones of launchers can be based on ablations at atmospheric entry, and also refrigerating of chambers of jet engines. 2) the Degrowth of an icehouse or a snow mantle as a result of melting and the vaporizations, dependent primarily from climatic factors.
ABO (Abo), the Swedish title of the Finnish Turku.
ABOV Jury Georgievich (r. 1922), the Russian physics - experimenter, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Probes in range of a nuclear physics: has discovered weak coupling of nucleones in nucleus. The lenin premium (1974).
ABOVJAN (up to 1963 seconds. Elar), city in Armenia. A depot. 58,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). Factories: biochemical drugs, reinforced concrete constructions, etc.; furniture factory. It is called named H.Abovjana. Bliz Abovjana - health resort Arzni.

No comments: