Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ABOVJAN Hachatur (1809-48), the Armenian writer, the educator - democrat, the founder of the new Armenian literature and a new literary language, the teacher, the ethnographer. The main{basic} product{creation}: " Wounds of Armenia " (1841, it is issued 1858) - the first Armenian society novel dedicated liberation extirpation of Armenian people in the season{term} of the russko-Iranian war 1826 - 28; novels, plays, stories, stories, verses, a fable, pedagogical compositions, products{creations} for children.
  • ABOLITIONISM (from an armour. abolitio - destruction, cancellation), in kon. 18-19 centuries in the USA motion for cancellation of servitude of Negros; in the Great Britain, France and a number{series} of other countries motion for cancellation of servitude in colonys.
  • The SUBSCRIPTION (frants. abonnement), the right of use something on fixed time (a mestome at theatre, a roller, the earphone, etc.), and also the document granting this right. The subscription library - granting to readers of the right of use of products{creations} of a seal{printing} outside of the library during fixed time.
  • The SUBSCRIBER (from frants. abonner - to be signed), the face (establishment, organization), using by the subscription.
  • SUBSCRIBER'S TELEGRAPHY, version of a telegraph communication; ministers for a direct double-end exchange of telegraphic communications between subscribers (organizations and separate persons). Ensures a capability of a night-and-day communication of information. See also the Telex.
  • BOARDING (frants. abordage, from bord - a side of a vessel), a way of a conduct of combat the rowing and sailing ships{spacecrafts} (till 19 century); coupling of the attacking ship{spacecraft} with enemy for his{its} capture in hand-to-hand I fight.
  • NATIVES (from an armour. ab origine - from the beginning), people in Other. Italy. Under the legend, to Italy they were reduced by Saturn. Named tsar the Latina become to call as latinas (latinjanami), their country - Latsiumom. On party Eneja wared against the Tourne. On ground of natives - latinov Rome has been constructed. In more serotinal{later} use native born inhabitants (people, animal, plants) any terrain, country. In biology it is used more often is used the term autochtons.
  • ABORTION (an armour. abortus - a miscarriage) for the person, an abortion in times till 28 weeks (i.e. up to the moment when the birth of a vigorous fruit is possible). The misbirth can arise at a underdevelopment of sexual organs, some diseases of mother or a fruit. A synthetic medical abortion effect in times till 12 weeks at will women; under medical indications{readings} - and in more serotinal{later} times. An abortion outside of medical establishment (t. n. Criminal) quite often results in heavy complications. The Russian government establishes{installs} the criminal liability for an abortion which was carried out by the doctor outside of medical establishment or a face, not having the maximum medical education. An abortion for animal - inquest of inferiority of men's or women sexual cells, some zymotic or parasitic diseases, and also an abuse of regulations of a feeding and operation pregnant animal.
  • ABOSKY the NONPREDATORY TRACT, has finished the russko-Swedish war 1741-43 [is signed on August, 18 1743 in Abo (nowadays Turku), Finland]. Has confirmed conditions Nishtadtskogo of the world (1721), has placed{installed} the russko-Swedish border{limit} on r. Kjumene. To Russia the part of Finland has departed.
  • ABRAAM KRETATSI (? - 1737), the Armenian catholicos (1734-37), the historian. The writer of "Historiography" (the cramp on Armenia 18 century).
  • ABRASIVES (abradants) (from an armour. abrasio - scraping), the substances of heightened hardness used in a solid or ground condition for machining (grind, cutting, a scuffing, sharpening, a burnishing, etc.) other materials. Natural abrasives - a flint, an emery, a pumice, emery, a pomegranate, diamond, etc.; synthetic - alundum, silicon carbide, borazon, elbor, a synthetic diamond, etc.
  • The GRINDING TOOL, ministers for machining (grind, reseat, etc.); it is produced from abrasives and a sheaf. It happens rigid (napr., abrasive wheels, bars) and mild (napr., abrasive papers).
  • ABRASION (from an armour. abrasio - scraping), process of destruction by waves and a surf of coasts of seas, lakes and water reservoirs.
  • ABRAKADABRA (pozdnelat. abracadabra), 1) the magic formula, the mysterious word to which miracle force was attributed. 2) Not clear mere verbiage, nonsense.
  • ABRAMOV Anatoly Mihajlovich (r. 1917), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1970), the professor (1991). The main{basic} orb of interests - the Russian literature of the Soviet season{term}. Books: " Poetic skill Majakovskogo in a poem "Vladimir Iljich Lenin" (1953), " Poem Majakovskogo "Vladimir Iljich Lenin" (1955), " Lyrics and the epos of Great Domestic war " (1972), " In the co-authorship with time " (1982), " On fire of great war. A problematics. Style. Poetics " (1987), etc.
  • ABRAMOV Kuzma Grigorjevich (r. 1914), the Mordovian writer. The novel - trilogy "Nyman" (1957-64); " the burden does not draw novels " (1967), " the Girl from village " (1980) - about social transformations{conversions} to republic, about events of Great Domestic war; the biographic novel "Stepan Erzja" (1977).
  • ABRAMOV Feodor Aleksandrovich (1920-83), the Russian writer. A cycle of novels (trilogy "Prjasliny", 1958-73, the State premium of the USSR, 1975; the novel "Dwelling", 1978), stories, stories: "Pelageja" (1969), " Wooden horses " (1970), " Trip in past " (1974, it is published 1989). Ostrokonfliktnaja prose Abramova gravitating to the social analysis and noted koloritnostju of tongue, draws affairs and destinies of people of boreal village during Great Domestic war and in post-war years. Literary criticism and publicism.
  • ABRAMOV Jacob Vasiljevich (1858-1906), the Russian publicist and statisticians, the liberal populist. In it is grey. 1880th in the newspaper "Week" has acted with the sermon of " small businesses of the theory ".
  • ABRAMOVICH Genrih Naumovich (r. 1911), the Russian scientist in range of theoretical and applied{economic} fluid dynamics and the theory of air-breathing engines. The professor (1939). The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • ABRAMOVICH Dmitry Ivanovich (1873-1955), the Russian literary critic, corresponding member AN the USSR (1921). Scientific editions of monuments of the old russian literature (" Kievo-Pechersky paterik ", " Zhitie Boris and the Gleba ", etc.). Activities under the Russian literature of 19 century, on problems of the russko-Ukrainian literary attitudes{relations}.
  • ABRAMOVICH Nikolay Jakovlevich (psevd. N.Kadmin) (1881-1922), the Russian writer, the critic, the publicist. In verses and the lyrical prose, noted by influence of an aesthetics of a modernism, - autobiographical motives (the novel " Woman on ways ", 1917). Literary - critical essays and reviews{views}. Experience of probe " Woman and the world of men's crop " (1913). The publicistic book " Fall of a dynasty. Dark forces and revolution " (1917).
  • ABRAMOVICH Stella Lazarevna (r. 1927), the Russian literary critic, the historian of the Russian literature of 19 century. The book " Pushkin in 1836 year (the Previous history of the last duel) " (1984) is most known.
  • ABRAMTZEVO, farm in area Sergievo-Posadskom of the Moscow range. It is known from midpoint of 18 century as manor Golovinyh. At this time here the park amplate and re-planned in 1870th has been battered. To 1843 Abramtzevo S.T.Aksakov to whom there came writers N.V.Gogol, I.S.Turgenev, J.D.Samarin, poet F.I.Tyutchev has acquired, often there was actor M.S.Schepkin. Here Aksakov has written " the Childhood of the Bagrova-grandson ", " the Family chronicle ", many stories. In 1870 after Aksakov mors the farm has transfered to S.I.Mamontovu. From now on Abramtzevo becomes one of the centres of art life of Russia. Participants a mug of art youth in which have come V.M.Vasnetsov, Century. Д. and E.D.Polenovy, M.V.Nesterov, K.A.Korovin and many other, alive were interested in Russian history and crop, collected and studied products{creations} of country art, aspiring to revive national art handcrafts. In farm the comprehensive school for country children and stoljarno-rezchitskaja the workshop which has laid foundation abramtsevsko-kudrinskoj to a wood carving was discovered. Here, with the participation F.I.Shalyapin, K.S.Stanislavsky, the amateur theatricals serving with the basis{fundamentals} of the Moscow private{individual} Russian opera were regularly settled. Products{creations} of the ceramic workshop organized by M.A.Vrubel were very popular. Among majolikovyh activities of workshop: a panel " Princess the Dream " on a front of hostel " Метрополь " (under M.A.Vrubel sketch, 1899-1903), the decorative vases and sculptures in a modernist style. In 1870-1890-С in Abramtzevo a number{series} of constructions in " Russian style " is erected: the ceramic workshop (architect V.A.Gartman, 1872), "Tower" (architect I.P.Ropet, 1873), church (under V.M.Vasnetsova's design, 1881-82) .V 1918 in Abramtzevo has been open{discovered} a museum which exposition actuates: The memorial part dedicated Aksakovym, section of country art, majolikovuju workshop ("Studio"), picture passageway of the modern Russian artists, construction in park. Литература:Смирнов L. Item Museum - farm Abramtzevo. М., 1929. Masters Abramtzevo - kudrinskoj wood carvings. М., 1979. Abramtzevo: the Guidebook. М., 1979. Beloglazova N.M.Abramtsevo. М., 1981. National style in Russian art XIX - the beginnings of XX eyelid: the Exhibition catalogue. М., 1990. N.V.GaevskajaA. L.Iordanskij* * *
  • ABRAMTZEVO - KUDRINSKAJA the THREAD, the art craft of a wood carving formed at the end of 19 century in environs of situated near Moscow farm Abramtzevo. Originating of a craft is closely related with artists abramtsevskogo a mug and first of all E.D.Polenovoj who has organized in farm of S.I.Mamontova in 1882 stoljarno-rezchitskuju workshop in whom studied and cutters from neighboring villages of Khotkovo, Ahtyrki, Kudrin, the Verticil worked. At organization of workshop the special attention was given educational activity, building and maintenance creative nastroja among pupils. Besides education{learning} in workshop drawing, a fundamentals of painting was taught skills of a thread. Occupations in " Abramtsevskom a museum " were conducted: in farm the major collection of subjects of a folk art gathered. Graduates of workshop received in subarches instruments for organization of the affair. In 1890 one of pupils of Century. Item. Vornoskov has based in-house fabrication in a native torrent Kudrin and has become to work under orders abramtsevskoj workshop. This, originally small, workshop also has underlain the future craft. In kudrinskoj by workshop special style of an ortamental thread was formed, successful combinations ploskoreljefnoj a thread with geometrical have been retrieved, principles of organic use carved a decora in utilitarian subjects are incorporated. In the first years of activity the major help in a becoming special "vornoskovskogo" style professional artists - have rendered V.I.Sokolov, S.V.Malyutin, employees of the Handicraft museum. Items Vornoskova and it{him} posledovatelej - ladles, caskets, bochata, castors, the decorative dishes and the vases coated{obtected} with a rhythmic vegetative decorative pattern, are distinguished with a diversification of the toning which are emphasizing{are pointing out} natural beauty of a tree. In the basis{fundamentals} of a vegetative decorative pattern the decora, but also ortamental pictures staropechatnyh books lay not only samples of carved country items and home. Development of a decorative pattern kudrinskih masters went from connection of separate elements - sprigs, krausen, rosettes - to the whole ortamental compositions coating{covering} all item. In 1922 in Kudrin artel " Revitalization " which has become fast has been organized to develop, in midpoint of 1930th in her worked already more than 120 person. Items of artel were in great demand, were repeatedly marked by diplomas of the Russian and international exhibitions. In 1936 the unique order plumped: registration of one of orifices on an exhibition of a folk art in Tretjakovskoj to passageway. It is unique activity kudrintsev in range of monumental art. For the International exhibition in Paris in 1937 kudrintsy have preformed an extensive collection for which V.P.Vornoskova's many early things have been iterated. In consequent years developed a craft of the master and artists of miscellaneous generations - V.V.Vornoskov, M.V.Artemyev, A.I.Gulyayev, Z.N.Borodulin, T.V.Alhimovich, L.V.Barkan, N. Н. and G.I.Simankiny. Now the centre of a craft is in city Khotkovo of area Sergievo-Posadskogo where the factory of carved art items works. Masters abramtsevsko-kudrinskoj a thread plots Abramtsevsky artistic - industrial college of a name of V.M.Vasnetsova. Литература:Арбат J.A.Shest of golden nests. М., 1961. Vasilenko V.M.Russkaja a national thread and paintings on a tree // the Folk art. М., 1974. A fundamentals of art handcraft / the Baking plate red. V.A.Baradulina. М., 1979. Masters Abramtzevo - kudrinskoj wood carvings. М., 1979. National style in Russian art XIX - the beginnings of XX eyelid: the Exhibition catalogue. М., 1990. Mamontova N.N. " Russian style " second half XIX century and art crafts // Russian art XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries. М., 1992. N.V.GaevskajaA. L.Iordansky

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Как говорилось на Точнее, хочу любви. Влюбиться хочу!!! За всю жизнь влюблялась 7 раз (это мало?). Всё безответно. Я не абсолютно общительная, долго привыкаю к людям вообще. Сейчас не работаю, ищу, ищу, не найду. Хотя, может, с одного места работы позвонят. Но там женщины в большинстве случаев работают. Эххх.