Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ABRAMJAN Horen Babkenovich (r. 1930), the Armenian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1980). With 1951 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana (in 1980 - 85 and with 1988 main producer). In 1985-88 simultaneously main producer Leninakanskogo of theatre him{it}. Mravjana. The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • ABRAU-DJURSO, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr., in 14 kms from Novorossisk. 2,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Tourism. Vineyards; manufacture sparkling and table wines.
  • ABRAHAM AND SANTA-KLARA (Abraham a Santa Clara) (in the world Hans Ulrih Megerle, Megerle) (1644-1709), the augustinian outlet box, the ecclesiast and the satirist.
  • ABRAHAM (Abraham) Rajmund (r. 1933), the Austrian architect, lives in the USA. For his{its} creativity nach. 1970th are characteristic atypical design solutions (" the Dwelling with three walls ", 1972).
  • ABRAHAMS (Abrahams) Dzhim (r. 1944), the American film director and the scripter. Works basically in a genre of a comedy and a parody together with br. Zuker. Has self-contained delivered as the producer film "Big business" (1988). Has removed also films: " the Airplane! " (1980), "Top secret" (1984), "Hotheads" (1991), etc.
  • ABRAHAMS (Abrahams) Peter Genri (r. 1919), the writer of the republic of South Africa. Writes in English. Antiracist novels " Tropoju a thunder " (1948), " the Wreath to Michael Udomo " (1956), " In an authority of night " (1965.) Roman " the Island today " (1966) - about extirpation of inland states Caribbean a bass. For political independence. Stories. Verses.
  • ABREKI (it is probable, from oset. abyraeg, abreg), in past for peoples the Sowing. Caucasus exiles from a stem, conducting vagabond or predatory life. Abrekami also called singletons, fighters against an imperial mode.
  • ABRENE, the title of Pytalovo of the Pskov region in 1920-45.
  • APRICOT, stem of trees and bushes of a set pink; a fruit crop. 10 kinds{views}, basically in Asia. In edible fruits of Saccharum, organic acids, vitamins; dried{dehydrated} fruits - a dried apricot without stone, a dried stoneless apricot. Productivity 100 - 150 kg from a tree. A honey plant. The greatest taxes in Italy, the USA, Turkey, in Compare. Asia, Transcaucasia. APRICOTS Alexey Alekseevich (r. 1928), the Russian physics - theorist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Son A.I.Abrikosova. The main{basic} transactionses on solid-state physics, theories of a superconductivity, an astrophysics, etc. The Lenin premium (1966), the State premium of the USSR (1982).
  • APRICOTS Alexey Ivanovich (1875-1955), the Russian pathologist, academician AN the USSR (1939) and AMN (1944), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1945). Transactionses on structural botany of a tuberculosis, allergic responses, a septicaemia, a wound fever, a pathology of vegetative nervous system. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • APRICOTS Andrey Lvovich (1906-73), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1968). On the scene with 1926. With 1938 at Theatre him{it}. Vahtangova. It was taken out in films: " Quiet Don " (1931), "Alexander Nevsky" (1938), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • ABRIL (Abril) Victoria (r. 1959), a spanish film actress. On education the dancer. At kino debuted in 1976. It was taken out in N.Osimy's "black" comedies (" Maks, love washing ") and P.Almodovara (" Attach me! ", "Kika"). The premium of the Berlin film festival for the best women role in V.Arandy's film "Lovers" (1991).
  • SKETCH (a nem. Abrib), 1) a lineament{an outline} of a subject. 2) In a geodesy - the diagrammatic plan made by hand, with notation of data of the field measurements necessary for construction of the precise plan or a profile.
  • ABROGATSIJA (an armour. abrogatio), cancellation of the dead letter.
  • ABROSIM (Efores, Evor) Suzsky (Persian) (mind{wit}. 341), the martyr, the presbyter in Susa; pupil Milija; has suffered together with nymas in persecution SHapura II in Persia. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 10 (23).
  • ABROSIMOV Pavel Vasiljevich (1900-61), the Russian architect. The co-author: the Dwelling of government of Ukraine in Kiev (1934-38), a high-rise building of the Moscow State University (1949-53). The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • ABRUJ, the leader of revolt of poor in Sogde (Compare. Asia), suppressed{quenched} ok. 585. It is executed.
  • ABRUTSTSI (Abruzzi), range in Italy, on Apenninskom p-ove, for the Adriatic m. of 10,8 thousand км2. The population 1,2 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - L'Akuila. Pescara, Teramo actuates provinces L'Akuila, Kjeti.
  • ABSALJAMOV Abdurahman Safievich (1911-79), the tatar writer. Novels about Great Domestic war "Eaglets" (1949), "Gazinur" (1953), about Muse Dzhalile " Sail clouds " (1978), about the modern life "Whites" (1965).
  • ABSENTIA EPILEPTICA (from frants. absence, characters. - absence), the sudden, very short-lived unconsciousness originating at some forms of an epilepsy.
  • ABSENTEEISM (from an armour. absentia - absence), deflexion izbiratelej from voting at elections of representative bodies, chiefs of state, etc.
  • ABSENTEEISM agricultural, a land tenure at which the proprietor of ground, not participating in a process of manufacture, receives the money income by the way the rent or the profit.
  • ABSIDA, the same, that an apsis.
  • ABSOLJUT (from an armour. absolutus - unconditional, unlimited), in philosophy and religion - the unconditional, perfect beginning of life, loose from any attitudes{relations} and conditions (the god, the absolute personality - in theism, Unified - in neoplatonizme, etc.).
  • ABSOLJUTIZM (absolute monarchy), the form of a feudal state at which the monarch posesses a unlimited supreme authority. At absoljutizme the state reaches the most advanced stage of a centralization, there is a branched bureaucratic apparatus, a standing army and police; activity of organs of class representation, as a rule, ceases. Bloom absoljutizma in countries Zap. Europe in 17-18 centuries In Russia absoljutizm existed{breathed} in 18 - nach. 20 centuries (see. Autocracy).
  • ABSOLUTE VALUE (module) of a real number a, non-negative figure (it is meant |a |), defined so: if a і 0, |a | = a, if a <0, |a | =-a. Napr., |3 | = 3, |-5 | = - (-5) = 5, |0 | = 0. Absolute value (module) of a complex number z = x + iy (x and y real numbers) - figure +.
  • ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY, quantity of the steam keeping in 1 m3 of air. It is measured in grammes.
  • TRUE ALTITUDE of a point of a surface (altitude), distance (it is routine in м) in vertical direction from this point up to an average level of a surface of ocean. In the Russian Federation it is estimated from zero of a graduated pole in Kronstadt.
  • ABSOLUTE STELLAR MAGNITUDE (it is meant M), the quantity indicator of a luminosity of a heavenly body; stellar magnitude which would have a heavenly body on standard distance 10 parsec.
  • ABSOLUTE TRUE, see in an item. True.
  • The ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, see. Absoljutizm.
  • ABSOLUTE ERROR, see in an item. Error.
  • ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE (thermodynamic temperature), temperature T which is read out from an absolute zero. The concept of absolute temperature has been entered by U.Tomsonom (Kelvin) in this connection a scale of absolute temperature call as a Kelvin scale or a thermodynamic temperature scale. Unit of absolute temperature - kelvin (К). 1К = 1 °S. Values of absolute temperature are connected to temperature on Celcius a scale (t °S) a ratio t = T - 273,15 To.
  • ABSOLUTELY NEUTRAL{INERT} PARTICLE (truely neutral{inert} particle), fundamental particle or the bound system of fundamental particles for which all performances distinguishing a particle from an antiparticle, are peer to zero; therefore absolutely neutral{inert} particle is identical to the antiparticle. Examples: a photon, a neutral{an inert} pi meson, a positronium.
  • ABSOLUTE BLACK BODY, body which completely captures{absorbs;imbibes;occludes} all electromagnetic radiation dropping on him{it}; the radiation spectrum of an absolute black body is determined only by his{its} temperature, and the partition of energy in a nem is subject the Planck to a radiation law. Properties of an absolute black body the aperture in non-transparent a floor a body has.
  • ABSOLUTE (from an armour. absolutus), 1) irrelative, unconditional. 2) Perfect, full (napr., the absolute rest).
  • ABSOLUTE ZERO of temperature, zero reference datum of temperature on a thermodynamic temperature scale. The absolute zero is located on 273,16 °S below temperature of triple point of water for which the value 0,01 °S is accepted. The absolute zero is essentially unattainable (see. Nernsta the theorem).
  • PERFECT PITCH, see in an item. Ear the musical.
  • ABSORPTION (from an armour. absorbeo - I capture{absorb;imbibe;occlude}), a volume absorption of gases or steams{vapours} a liquid (absorbent) with education of a solution. In an industry execute in absorbers (ustar. - scrubbers), having a developed contact surface of an absorbent with captured{absorbed;imbibed;occluded} substance.
  • ABS-PLASTIC, crashproof plastic on the basis of copolymer of acrylonitrile with a butadien and styrol. It is applied in manufacture of bodies of a wireless and teleinstrumentation, component parts of automobiles{cars}, refrigerators, furniture.
  • ABSTINENT SET OF SYMPTOMS, the painful condition developing for drug addicts at the arrest of method of a junk (alcohol for ill alkogolizmom - t. n. A set of symptoms of a hang-over).
  • ABSTINENCE (an armour. abstinentia), full forbearance from something, napr. From the use of alcoholic drinks, tobacco.
  • The ABSTRACT ART (abstractionism, pointless art, not imaging art), set{combination} of directions in from - crop of 20 century changing naturalistic, easily recognized concreteness more or less loose game of lines, paints and forms (the scene and a subject are only guessed, symbolically are implied or peter generally). Since the old days pointless creativity existed{breathed} by the way a decorative pattern or non-finito, but only in the off-the-shelf history was issued in the special aesthetic program. Among ancestors of the abstract art - V.V.Kandinsky, K.S.Malevich, P.Mondrian, masters orfizma. There were some his{its} versions: geometrical abstraction, the abstract ekspressionizm, informel, tashizm, postpicturesque abstraction.
  • The ABSTRACT EKSPRESSIONIZM, a version of the abstract art. Has arisen under influence of surrealism with his{its} idea of " the automatic letter ". It was most brightly exhibited in painting - in the loose compositions created by large, impulsive Unguentum, sometimes - in technique of " painting of action " (English action painting) when the certificate{act} of the hagiographa of a pattern turned to peculiar performance. The American version of the abstract ekspressionizma, usual in 1940th (is most known for A.Gorki, В. de Kuning, to R.Mozervell, Dzh. Pollock). European analogs of the abstract ekspressionizma often mean concept tashizma.
  • ABSTRACTION (from an armour. abstractio - an abstraction) (abstract), the form of knowledge, founded on imaginary secretion of essential properties and communications{connections} of a subject and an abstraction from other, his{its} private{individual} properties and communications{connections}; general concept - as outcome of process of abstraction; a synonym "imaginary", "conceptual". The main{basic} phylums of abstraction: isolating{insulating} abstraction (dividing into parts probed the phenomena from some wholeness), extending abstraction (producing the generalized pattern the phenomena), idealization (replacement substantial empirical the phenomena the idealized scheme). The concept "abstract" is contrasted concrete. See. Climbing from the abstract to concrete.
  • NONSENSE (from an armour. absurdus - absurd), nonsense, absurdity.
  • NONSENSE the DRAMA, flow in Western-European dramatic art and theatre 2-nd floor. 20 century. Represents the world as nonsense. Maps pessimism, uncommunicativeness, a presentiment of death. Acts, speeches of characters are alogical, the plot is collapseed. Creators - S.Bekket, E.Ionesko (France).
  • ABSCESS (an armour. abscessus - an abscess, an abscess), a restricted clump of pus in tissues or organs owing to their inflammation with fusion of tissues and education of a cavity. Develops it is acute, with a pain, temperature rise, violation{disturbance} of function of an organ; demands surgical treatment.
  • ABSTSIZOVAJA the ACID, the hormone of plants regulating processes of a wilting, a defoliation, dormancy. Growth of plants inhibits{brakes}. On a chemical nature isoprenoid.
  • ABSCISSA (from an armour. abscissa - severed), one of Cartesian axials of a point, routinely first, meant by x character.
  • ABU BEKR (572-634), the first caliph (with 632) in Arabian halifate. One of the nearest spodvizhnikov Mohammed.
  • ABU BEKR KELEVI (?-1366), the handicraftsman, the leader of revolt serbedarov (1365-1366) in Samarkand. It is executed.
  • ABU MUSLIM (ok. 727-755), the leader of revolt 747-750 in Khurasan against Omejjadov, reduced in authority Abbasidov. It is killed under the order abbasidskogo caliph al-Mansura, afraid influence Abu Muslima.
  • ABU NUVAS (between 762-813), the Arabian poet. Love and gedonicheskaja lyrics.
  • ABU to TAMMS (ok. 796-843), the Arabian poet. Elegicheskie, panegyrical, satirical verses. The maker of the anthology of Arabian poetry.
  • ABU FIRAS (932-967), the Arabian poet. Verses on military exploits, love lyrics, patriotic elegii.

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