Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ABU HANIFA the HELL - DINAVERI (? - ok. 895), the Arabian philologist, the naturalist, the historian. " The book about poetry and poets ", " the Book about eloquence ", " the Book about plants ", the historical composition " the Book of the lengthy informations ".
  • ABU SHADI Ahmed Zaks (1892-1955), the Arabian writer (Egypt), the philologist. Collections of lyrical verses " Dews at dawn " (1910), " Visions of spring " (1933), plays in verses, historical stories; transactionses on Arabian poetics.
  • ABU JUSUF (731-798), the Arabian writer " Books about podati " - a source on a socio economic history Arabian halifata in 7-8 centuries.
  • ABU-BAKAR (an ice-film. fam. Abakarov) Ahmedhan (1931-91), darginsky the writer, the national writer of Dagestan (1969). Stories about life of the modern Dagestan: " Darginskie girls " (1958), " the Necklace for mine Serminaz " (1965), " the Sun in " the Nest of an eagle " (1975), " Mum, zazhgi the sun " (1983). Verses (the collection " Love a turquoise color ", 1982). Plays.
  • ABU-DABI (Abu-Zabi), capital (temporary) Consolidated Arab Emirates. St. 363 thousand inhabitants (1989). A port in Persian a hall. An international airport. Production and petroleum refining. Fishery.
  • ABU-DABI (Abu-Zabi), emirat (principality) in structure of Consolidated Arab Emirates. The area ok. 67 thousand км2. The population of 722 thousand person (1988). Main city - Abu-Dhabi.
  • ABUDZHA (Abuja), the capital of Nigeria (with 1991) is constructed in a central part of country. 298 thousand inhabitants (1993). The solution on transmission of capital from Lagos in Abudzhu is accepted in 1976.
  • ABUKARA (Abu-Korre) Theodore (8-9 centuries), diocesan of. Harran in Mesopotamia, the pupil over. John Damascene, the writer of apologetic compositions against heretics and moslems.
  • ABOUKIR, island and headland in delta of Nile (Egypt). About Aboukir 1-2.8.1798 during Egyptian expedition of Napoleon Bonaparte the English fleet (rear admiral G.Nelson) has routed the French fleet, and Bonaparte army has appeared severed in Egypt from France.
  • ABULADZE Tengiz Evgenjevich (1924-94), the Georgian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1980). Worked at studio " Gruzija-film ". Allegorical meaning, plastic expressiveness, cinema skilfulness acquired the increasing value in creativity Abuladze from early films (" Lurdzha Magdany ", 1955, together with R.D.Chheidze, " I, the grandmother, Iliko and Illarion ", 1963), before more mature activities ("Entreaty", 1968, " Drevo desires ", 1977), having reached{achieved} the best expression in "Repentance" (1987) - one of the first domestic antitotalitarian films. The lenin premium (1988).
  • ABULIJA (from and... - a negative prefix and grech. bule - will), painful lack of will, absence of desires and drives{excitings} to activity.
  • ABULHAJR (1693-1748), the Kazakh khan Junior zhuza, commanding the Kazakh home guard in extirpation with dzhungarami in 1720th. In 1731 has was naturalized Russian citizenship, than it was necessary started to apposition of Kazakhstan to Russia.
  • ABULHAJR (1412-68), the Uzbek khan (with 1428) from stem Dzhuchi. Has based in terrain from Siberia up to the Cheese - Darji the state of nomad tribes which has broken up after his{its} mors. Has sufferred a defeat from Kalmyks.
  • ABU-L-ALA al-Maarri, see. Maarri.
  • ABU-L-VEFA Mohammed ibn Mohammed (940-998, under other data, 997), the Arabian astronomer and mathematician from Khurasan. The commentator of transactionses of the Grecian mathematicians probeed motion of moon.
  • ABU-L-GAZI Bahadur-khan (1603-63), the Uzbek writer and the historian. Khivan khan. Books " Parentage drevo turkis " and " Parentage the Turkmen " - valuable literary and historical sources.
  • ABU-L-FARADZH (a literary name Grigory John Bar-Ebrej) (1226-86), the syrian writer, the scientist. The chapter monofisitov. Transactionses on medicine, histories, philosophy, grammar. " The book of entertaining histories " moralizing and satirical character.
  • ABU-L-FARADZH AL-ISFAHANI (897-967?), the Arabian writer, the scientist, the musician. Transactionses on an ancient history, philology. The maker of the fundamental anthology Arabian and arabojazychnoj poetry of 7-10 centuries " the Book of songs ".
  • ABU-L-FIDA (1273-1331), the Arabian historian and the geographer. Compositions on an overall history (up to 1329) and geography in tables with coordinates of districts.
  • "ABUMUSLIMNAME", persian " the national novel " 11-13 centuries. Collection of legends, the bound with name Abu Muslima, popular in Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Compare. Asia.
  • ABUNG (self-title), people in Indonesia. Number of 300 thousand person (1992). Tongue lampung. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ABU-SAFA, an oil deposit in Saudi Arabia, in aquatory Persian a hall. (Persian gulf oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open{discovered} in 1963. Deposits on depth ok. 2000 m. Reserves 561 million t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,88 g / sm3.
  • ABU-SIMBEL, district on western coast of Nile (Egypt). 2 rocky drevneegipetskih a temple 1-st floor. 13 century up to n. e. Statues, reliefs. On a front of a main temple of 4 sitting colossuses Ramsesa II (at construction Asuanskoj of a dam are transferred in 1967 on a rock for a wash of the river).
  • ABKHAZIA (Republic Abkhazia) in Georgia, in a northwest part of Transcaucasia. 8,6 thousand км2. The population of 533,8 thousand person (1991), urban 48 %; abhazy (93,3 thousand person, 1989), Georgians, Armenians, Russian. 5 areas, 7 cities, 4 urban settlements (1991). Capital - Sukhumi. It is washed against by Black m. It is located on B.Kavkaza's downslopes and on Kolhidskoj nizm. A climate the wet subtropical. Mean temperatures of January on a shore 4 - 7 °C, in mountains from 2 up to-2 °C, July accordingly 22 - 24 °C and 16 - 18 °C. A rainfall of 1300-2400 mm annually. The rivers - Kodori, Bzyb; an eskar. Ritsa. Woods coated{obtected} 55 % of terrain; on a shore subtropical vegetation. Reservations: Ritsinsky, Pitsunda-Mjussersky. In 6-4 centuries up to n. e. Terrain Abkhazia - part Kolhidkogo of a kingdom, to kon. 1 century n. e. Principalities abazgov, apsilov, etc. In 8 century there was an Abkhazian kingdom (with 975 - in consolidated Georgia). In 2-nd floor. 13 century it is conquered by mongolo-tartars, from 16 century. Depending on Turkey. In nach. 17 century. The Abkhazian principality, his{its} population struggled against a turkish yoke. In 1810 has come in Russia (from 1864 Sukhumi okroes.). 4.3.1921 it is derivated Abkhazian SSR. From 16.12.1921 Abkhazian SSR in structure Georgian SSR, with 1931 on rights ASSR. Since December 1990 Abkhazian autonomous republic, since July 1992 Republic Abkhazia. In 1992-94 in terrain of Abkhazia there was an armed conflict concerning its{her} status. Flavoring (tea, tobacco, vinodelcheskaja, canning, etc.), mild (kozhevenno-boot, manufacture of silk fabrics), wood-working, a machine industry, manufacture of building timbers; production of mineral coal. Tkvarchelskaja a state district power station, the Sukhumi river plant. The major agricultural crops: tea, citrous, tobacco, efirnomaslichnye, tung. A fruit growing and wine growing. Crops of corn. A main port - Sukhumi. Bayshore health resorts: Sukhumi, Gagra, Pitsunda, Is new. Athos, Gudauta.
  • The ABKHAZIAN UNIVERSITY, Sukhumi, is based in 1979 on the basis the Sukhumi pedagogical institute (it is built in 1932). Plots experts on philology, histories, to the right, biology, geography, economy, physics, mathematics, etc. In 1991 over 3,8 thousand students.
  • The ABKHAZIAN BACKBONE, on B.Kavkaza's austral downslope. Length of 60 kms, an altitude up to 3156 m. The crest is sharply dismembered; icehouses. On downslopes a beech family and pihtovo-spruce forests.
  • The ABKHAZIAN TONGUE, falls into to the Caucasian (iberijsko-Caucasian) tongues (abhazsko-adygskaja group). Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • ABHAZSKO-ADYGSKIE TONGUES, western group of the Caucasian (iberijsko-Caucasian) tongues. Will consist from Abkhazian, Abasin, adygejskogo, kabardino-Circassian, ubyhskogo tongues.
  • The ABKHAZIAN REVOLT, July 1866, country motion in Abkhazia. Ok. 20 thousand participants. It is suppressed{quenched} by a troops.
  • The ABKHAZIAN KINGDOM, the state in 8-10 centuries in Transcaucasia with capital Kutatisi (Kutaisi). In 975 has come in consolidated Georgia
  • ABHAZY (the self-title - apsua), an aboriginal population of Abkhazia. Number in Georgia 96 thousand person, including in Abkhazia 93 thousand person (1992). Live also in the Russian Federation (6 thousand person), Turkey (6 thousand person) and Arabian countries. An aggregate number of 115 thousand person. Tongue Abkhazian. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}, are orthodox.
  • ABHIRATI (sanskr. Enjoying), in the Buddhism paradise, a mythical happy edge{boundarouse} on the orient which steers budda Akshobhja.
  • ABY, city in Other. Greeces, in Fokide. Was well-known for oracle Apollo (from here one of nicknames of the god - Abej). City dwellers abanty after ruin of their country by the persian tsar Kserksom have moved on about. Euboea. From now on the island has become to call Abantida.
  • ABYLKASYMOVA Majramkan (r. 1936), the Kirghiz poetess, the national poetess of Kirghizia (1980). Collections of verses and poems " it is a lot of colours " (1965) This spring, " Belief in heart I keep " (1968), "Fatherland" (1973), " the Inexhaustible song " (1977), " Blue-eyed wash Issyk Kul " (1986).
  • ABE Kobo (1924-93), the Japanese writer. In novels - parables " Woman in sands " (1962), " the Another's face " (1964), " the Incinerated map " (1967) - a moral - philosophical problematics, motives of a hopelessness, tragical loneliness in the modern world; in the grotesque - fancy novel "Person - box" (1973), "Ark" the Japanese flowering cherry " " (1984) and in plays (" the Man, turning into dubinku ", 1960;, etc.), not loose from elements of the rationalistic analysis, - intensifying of social - critical tendencies is total the hero hostile to the world.
  • AB, the state in Center. To Burma in 14-18 centuries (with like capital), aggregated the milled Burma. In 1752 has ceased to exist{breathe}, but the title Ava was applied and in 19 century (to all Burma).
  • AB (Ava) (mind{wit}. In 1127), the german religious poetess.
  • ABADDON, in a judaism the angel of the abyss and morses, olitsetvorenie sheola. In the New testament the Abaddon (grech. The apollyon - ruiner) - the leader of a horde of the grasshopper tormenting people (John Bogoslova's Revelation, 9:11).
  • AVADHARA, gornoklimatichesky and a balneal health resort in Georgia, in Abkhazia, to north-east from Gagry.
  • AVAZ Flocks - ogly (1884-1919), the Uzbek poet - educator. Convicted to know and authorities. The collection of lyrics " Happiness of prosperity ".
  • AVALLON, in the Celtic mythology an island of beatas located on the west where after battle at Kamlane lethally injured king Arthur has been transferred.
  • AVALOKITESHVARA (sanskr. All-seeing the lord), in the Buddhism bodhisatva, olitsetvorenie wisdom and mercy. In China it was honored under name Guan-in.
  • The GUARANTEE (frants. aval), the guarantee under the bill, the check plot; can be given for all sum or its{her} part for any person in charge: the drawer, the acceptor, the drawer of the cheque, the holder of the cheque.
  • AVAN... (from frants. avant - ahead), a part of the composite words conforming on value to words "forward", "forward{front}" (an advance-guard, a forehole).
  • ADVANCE-GUARD (from avan... And frants. garde - the sentinel), 1) the subdividing following on a flight ahead of mainsprings with the purpose to not admit of sudden assault on them of the opponent. Advance-guards can be sent also in approach, at persuit, during road. 2) the Forward part of a society, people.
  • "ADVANCE-GUARD", direction in the French kino (with 1918). Figures of "Advance-guard" led searches of an original indicative means. With it is grey. 20th have prevailed over creativity of "avant-gardists" formalistic tendencies, in 30th the part of them has transfered on an item of realistic art.
  • AVANT-GARDISM (advance-guard), the cumulative name of art tendencies, more radical, than a modernism. Their early boundary in from - art of 1910th designated fovizmom and a cubism. The ratio avangardistskogo arts with preceding styles, with traditsionalizmom as such was especially sharp and polemical. Having reduced to potent updating all art tongue, the avant-gardism has given special scale to Utopian hopes for a capability of a reorganization of a society by means of art as his{its} bloom has coincided with a wave of wars and revolutions. In second half of 20 century his{its} philosophy have undergone to sharp criticism in a postmodernism.
  • AVANESOV Ruben Ivanovich (1902-82), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member AN the USSR (1958). One of osnovatelej the Moscow phonologic school. Transactionses on historical and descriptive phonetics, phonology, Russian dialectology, a history of Russian, Russian orfoepii and spellings. The state premium of the USSR (1971).
  • FORE BAY (from avan... And a port), 1) an external part of a port (behind natural shade), intended for parking the courts expecting the approach to berthes, loading and unload. 2) One of two ports, located in a mouth of a navigable river, is lower than the second (main{basic}) port. 3) the Water space before navigation passes of water reservoir.
  • OUTPOST (from avan... And frants. poste - a post{station}), the forward post{station} which is put out by a troops for ohranenija. In the Russian army the term was applied in 18-19 centuries.
  • ADVANCE (frants. avance), a money or other property value giving on account of laying ahead payments (for fulfilment of activity, cession of goods, on account of the due salary, on charges on business trip, etc.).
  • " AVANTI! " (" L'Avanti! "), the daily newspaper of Italian socialist party. It is emited in Rome and Milan. It is based in 1896.
  • AVANTITUL (from avan... And a title), the home page of the book precedent to a banner page. On avantitule seat the title of publishing house, to his{its} mark, the name of a series, the title of the book or other cramps.
  • ADVENTURE (frants. aventure), 1) an adventure, adventure. 2) the Hazardous, doubtful enterprise designed for random success; the business undertaken disregarding of substantial capabilities.
  • ADVENTURISM, conduct, the activity somebody defined by hazardous unscrupulous acts for the sake of achievement of light success, profit; tendency to adventures.
  • AVENTURINE, dense diaphanous acinose crystal with uniformly dissipated inclusions of mica or a haematite; an ornamental stone. Colour as-polished siver-white, reddish - brown, it is rare - green. Flickering luster with floods is characteristic.
  • EMERGENCY PROTECTION of a nuclear reactor, the system of devices intended for the fast arrest of chain reaction in an active zone of a nuclear reactor. Basic elements of emergency protection - rod stock with a neutron absorber (napr., B, Cd).
  • EMERGENCY in the maritime law, 1) general average - the average general costs caused designedly with the purposes of salvage and freight from a common peril menacing to him{it}; are distributed proportionally cost of a vessel, the freight and freight. 2) the Particular average - the average general costs caused to a vessel or freight for want of general danger to them.
  • EMERGENCY (ital. avaria, from the arab. The avar - damage, damage), failure, damage of any mechanism, the device, the machine, etc. in an operating time, motions. Figuratively - an accident, failure.
  • AVARO-ANDO-TSEZSKIE TONGUES, see. The Dagestan tongues.
  • AVARIAN KAGANAT, state association of avars in Pannonii in it is grey. 6 - kon. 8 centuries. Incursions on slavs, Byzantium, etc. It is routed by francs.
  • AVARIAN MUSICAL - DRAMA THEATRE him{it}. G.Tsadasy, is based in 1935 in Makhachkala, up to 1963 drama theatre. Actors: Z.Nabieva, B.Inusilov, M.A.Abdulhalikov, P.H.Hizroeva, S.M.Medzhidova, etc. Main producer H.A.Abdugapurov (with 1971).
  • AVARIAN TONGUE, falls into to the Caucasian (iberijsko-Caucasian) tongues (the Dagestan tongues). Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • AVARIAN HANSTVO, the state in Dagestan in 12-19 centuries with capital Hunzah. With 1803 in structure of Russia, in 1843-59 in imamate SHamilja. In 1864 it is abolished.
  • AVARUA (Avarua), main city and a port of islands of Cook (possession It is new. Zealand) in Quiet ok., on about. Rarotonga. 9,3 thousand inhabitants (1986).
  • AVARTSY (the self-title - maarulal), people in the Russian Federation (primarily in Dagestan, 496 thousand person) and in a north of Azerbaijan (44 thousand person). Number in the Russian Federation (switching on ando-tsezskie peoples and archintsev) 544 thousand person (1992). Tongue avarian. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • AVARS (obry), the breeding union, primarily tjurkojazychnyh nations. Committed incursions on slavs, francs, Byzantium. In 6 century have formed in a bass. Danube state association Avarian kaganat.
  • AVATAR [sanskr. - "nishozhdenie" (god)], in induizme implementation of god Vishnu into appearance of heroes of Krishna, the Frame, a wild boar, a dwarf and so forth, committing exploits on ground. In myths are most known 10 Avatar Vishnu.
  • AVACHINSKAJA the LIP, a bay Quiet ok. For a southeast coast p-ova Kamchatka. Length of 24 kms, width for an orifice of 3 kms, depth up to 26 m. Runs r. Avacha. A port - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka.
  • AVACHINSKAJA MOUND (Avacha), an active volcano in a southeast of Kamchatka, northward from. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka. 2741 m. A cone - in an ancient crater of a burning mountain.
  • AVVAD Taufik JUsef (1908-89), the Arabian writer (Lebanon). Collections of stories about simple people " the Lame boy " (1936), " the Woollen jacket " (1937), social novels "Flatbread" (1938), " Bejrutskie mills " (1972).
  • HABACUC (7 century up to n. e.), the hebrew prophet, one of twelve small prophets. The writer of the book of the Old Testament wearing his{its} name. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 2 (15).
  • HABACUC Petrovich (1620 or 1621-82), the chapter staroobrjadchestva and the ideologist of split in an orthodox church, protopop, the writer. In 1646-47 member " the Mug of adherents of godliness ". Has acted against reform Nikona. It is banished with family in 1653 to Tobolsk, then in Dauriju. In 1663 it is reset to Moscow, kept extirpation with official church. In 1664 it is banished to Mezen. In 1666-67 it is convicted on a church cathedral and it is banished in Pustozersk where 15 flying has conducted in earth{ground} prison, has written "ZHitie" and many other compositions. Under the imperial decree it incinerated.
  • HABACUC Persijanin, Roman (mind{wit}. 269), the Christian martyr, son Marina and Marthas, brother Avdifaksa damaged together with them in Rome in persecution Klavdija II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19).
  • AVGIEVY STABLES, in the Grecian mythology huge and hardly low-purity stables of tsar Elidy Avgija, acceptable from sewage disposals in one day Geraklom, directed to them waters of the river (one of it{him} of 12 exploits). Figuratively - marginal disorder, neglect.
  • AUGITE (from grech. auge - luster), porodoobrazujushchy a mineral of subclass of chain silikates, (Ca, Mg, Fe2 +, Fe3 +, Al, Тi) [(Si, Al) 2О6]. Impurity{additives} Na, K, Mn, less often Ni, V, Cr. Green, brown up to black crystals, solid acinose masses. Hardness 5-6; firmness of 3,2-3,6 g / sm3. A constituent part predominary the main{basic} and ultramain{ultrabasic} rocks.
  • AVGURY (an armour. augures), in Other. Rome the most ancient board of the sacrificers interpreting will of gods primarily ground auspitsy.
  • AUGUST (an armour. Augustus, 8-th month of year (31 day). The title named Roman emperor of August.
  • AUGUST II (August) the Strong (1670-1733), kurfjurst saxony (under name Fridriha of August I) with 1694, king Polish in 1697-1706, 1709-33. The participant of Boreal war 1700-21 on the party of Russia.
  • AUGUST III (August) Fridrih (1696-1763), king Polish and kurfjurst saxony with 1733. It was affirmed on a holy table as a result of war for the Polish patrimony 1733-35. Board of August III - time of political crisis of Speech Pospolitoj.
  • AUGUST (Augustus) (up to 27 up to n. e. Oktavian) (63 up to n. e. - 14 n. e.), Roman emperor with 27 up to n. e. Grandnephew Caesar adopted by him{it} in the will. Victory in 31 up to n. e. At the Share above the Roman commander Mark Anthony and egyptian queen Kleopatroj has finished civil wars (43-31 up to n. e.), begun after Caesar's mors; has centred in the arms{hand} an authority, having saved, however, traditional republican establishments; this mode has received the title principate. Later the term "August" (an armour. Exalted by gods) has acquired in importance a title of emperor.
  • AUGUST JAn (1500-1572), the Czech ecclesiast, belonged to a community of the Czech brothers. Has constituted confession of belief of the community (1535), Luther received approval.
  • AVGUSTALY, in Other. Rome sacrificers, vedavshie departure of a cult of emperor.
  • AUGUSTINE (mind{wit}. 604 or 605), the first archbishop Kenterberijsky (c 601), " apostle of England ", sent by a dad Grigory I Great in the chapter of Christian mission to England in 596.
  • AUGUSTINE (Vinogradsky Alexey Vasiljevich) (1766-1819), the Russian spiritual writer and the ecclesiast, archbishop Moscow and Kolomna (1818). "Compositions" are issued in 1856.
  • AUGUSTINE Blessed (Augustinus Sanctus) Avrely (354-430), the Christian theologian and the church figure, the main representative western patristiki. Diocesan of. Gippon (the Sowing. Africa); an ancestor of Christian philosophy of a history (the composition " About a hail bozhiem "); to " an earth hail " - to the state contrasted misticheski perceived " the God's hail " - church. Has advanced the doctrine about grace and predetermining, settled it{him} against Pelagija (see. Pelagianstvo). Depth of the psychologic analysis the autobiographical "Confession" figuring a becoming of the personality differs. Christian neoplatonizm Augustine overtopped{prevailed} in Western-European philosophy and roman catholic theology down to 13 century.
  • AVGUSTINTSY, members of mendicant order, founded in it is grey. 13 century in Italy. The charter is attributed to Augustine (from here the title). The order avgustintsev acted in many countries Zap. And Center. Europe.
  • AVGUSTINCHICH Antun (1900-79), the Croatian sculptor, the honorary member AH the USSR (1973). Pupil I.Meshtrovicha. Indicative, heroic monuments on spirit (a monument of the Soviet Army in Batina-Skela, 1945-47, to Country revolt 1573 in Stubitse, 1973; a monument of the World for the building of the United Nations in New York, 1952-55), portraits, statues and torses.

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