Sunday, April 8, 2007

AUGUST PUTSCH 19 - 21 avg. 1991, the attempt of anticonstitutional tumble implemented a conservative side panel of a guiding of the USSR and the CPSU. Authorities of the partijno-state nomenclature have been directed on restoration in full. Rebelion has headed State committee on state of emergency (GKCHP) in O.D.Baklanova, V.A.Krjuchkova, V.S.Pavlova, B.K.Pugo, V.A.Starodubtsev, A.I.Tizjakova and G.I.Janaeva's structure. For collimating to the actions of colour of legitimacy putchisty have declared, that the president of the USSR M.S.Gorbachev cannot execute the responsibilities on a level of health. His{its} functions have been assigned to vice-president Janaeva. A troops have been entered into Moscow, and Gorbachev is quenched on a rate in Crimea. Activity of opposition CPSU of public associations and extension{issue} democratic presses were provided against, censorship was recovered{restored}. Resistance to rebelion Would render a guiding of the Russian Federation led by the president of RSFSR. N. Yeltsin, leaning{basing} on support of Russians, first of all the populations of Moscow. In crashes with a troops 3 persons have perished. Putsch has ended in a fall. His{its} outcomes were fall of a communist mode and speedup of disintegration of the USSR. In 1994 arrested on business GKCHP have been amnestied by the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
AVDA Persian (mind{wit}. 418 or 421), the martyr, diocesan Susa in Persia. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 31 (on April, 13).
AVDAKOV Nikolay Stepanovich (1847-1915), the Russian businessman, the mining geologist. In 1900-05 chairman of advice{council} of cross-overs gornopromyshlennikov the South of Russia, with 1907 chairman of advice{council} of cross-overs of representatives of an industry and trade. With 1906 member of the Council of state.
AVDEEV Valentine Nikolaevich (1915-72), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on designing and "know-how" of electronic devices.
AVDEEV Ivan Vasiljevich (1818-65), the Russian chemist - neorganik. Transactionses on chemistry of metals of the second and third periods of elements. Has defined{determined} (1842) precise structure of series of compounds and minerals of beryllium, experimentally has placed{installed} the formula of a beryllium oxide, has studied his{its} chemical properties.
AVDEEV Mihail Vasiljevich (1821-76), the Russian writer, the critic. In trilogy "Tamarin" (1852) - tragedy of " the superfluous person ". A burning social problematics in novels "Reef" (1860), " Mezh two fires " (1868). Stories, travelling sketches. The book of literary - critiques " our society (1820-1870) in heroes and heroines of the literature " (1874).
AVDEEV Sergey Vasiljevich (1956), pilot - astronaut of the Russian Federation (1993), the Hero of the Russian Federation (1993). Flight on " Soyuz TM-15 " and an orbital complex "World" (July 1992 - February 1993).
AVDEEVKA, city (1956) on Ukraine, Donetsk region. A depot. 40 thousand inhabitants (1991). Cokery; manufacture of a building materials, sewing and notions items. It is based in 1884.
AVDEEVSKAJA PARKING, epoch of a serotinal{late} paleolith, for a seconds. Avdeevka about Kursk. Residues of dugs out, silicon and bone instruments, figurines of women, mammoths.
AVDEENKO Alexander Ostapovich (r. 1908), the Russian writer. " I like the autobiographical novel " (kn. 1, 1933, kn. 2, 1967), the military - adventure story " Above Tissoj " (1954), the novel " In sweat of the face " (the separate issuing 1979). The book of memories "Excommencement" (1989).
AVDELAJ (Abdalaikl) Selevkijsky (mind{wit}. 344), the martyr, the presbyter damaged in Selevkii in persecution SHapura II together with over. Simeonom, diocesan Selevkii and Ktezifonta. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
AVDIEVSKY Anatoly Timofeevich (r. 1933), the Ukrainian choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1983). With 1966 artistic administrator and the main conductor of the Ukrainian national chorus him{it}. G.G.Verevki. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
AVDIES Persian (mind{wit}. 362 or 364), the Christian martyr damaged in Persia in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 9 (22).
OBADIAH (9 century up to n. e.), the hebrew prophet, one of twelve small prophets. The writer of the book of the Old Testament wearing his{its} name. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and the Latin church on November, 19.
OBADIAH (Avid) Persian (mind{wit}. 412), the Christian martyr damaged in Persia in persecution of tsar Jezdegerda I. For confession of the Christ has been killed by thorny sticks. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 5 (18).
AVDIKY Persian (mind{wit}. ok. 380), the martyr, the deacon damaged in Persia in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 10 (23).
AVDIFAKS Persijanin, Roman (mind{wit}. 269), the Christian martyr, the son of martyrs Marina and Marthas, the brother of Habacuc damaged together with them in Rome in persecution of emperor Klavdija II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19).
AVDON (Abdan) Persian, Roman (mind{wit}. ok. 251), the Christian martyr, the persian prince. Together with over. Sennisom has buried bodies of christians, killed in Kordule (Korduve) in persecution of emperor Detsija, for what have been executed in Rome. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on July, 30.
GLOBE FLOWERS, a set of birds of order zhuravleobraznyh. Length 40-55 see 9 kinds{views}, basically in tropics and subtropics (except for the Sowing. America), in deserts and steppes, on coasts of the rivers and seas. Are awake in twilights and at night; well run and fly.
AVDUYEVSKY Vsevolod Sergeevich (r. 1920), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1979). Transactionses on aerodynamics and heat exchange at high speeds, hydromechanics of planetary atmospheres. The lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1978).
AB MARY (an armour. Ave Maria - be pleased, Maria), a roman catholic pray, and also a piece of music written on the canonical or loose text, including the circulation to maiden Maria. Arias and songs Ave Maria - are known for F.Shuberta, L.Kerubini, S.Guno, etc.
AVEJDE Oscar (1837-97), one of chiefs of Polish revolt 1863-64, the member of Central national committee and ZHonda Narodovogo. It is banished in Vjatskuju lips. " The note about Polish revolt 1863 ".
ABEL, in the Bible the son of Adam and Eve, " the shepherd ovets ", killed with envy the higher brother Cain - the farmer when the god of Jahveh has preferred gifts of Abel. Figuratively - an innocent victim of cruelty.
ABEL (1757-1841), an outlet box - predictor, from peasants. For the forecasts (days of mors of Ekaterina II and Paul I, irruption of the Frenchmen and incinerating of Moscow, etc.) multiply hitted in prisons, having conducted in the conclusion ok. 20 flying. Has died in an imprisonment in Suzdal Spaso-Evfimjevskom a monastery.
AVELLANEDA (Avellaneda), city on the orient of Argentina, in B.Buenos-Ajresa's structure. 347 tys.zhitelej (1991). A port in a hall. La Plata. Textile, mjasohladobojnaja, metallurgical, oil refining, a leather and foot-wear industry. A ship repair.
AVEN Oleg Ivanovich (1927-92), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses under the analysis and synthesis of the automized guidance systems and methods of their designing, evaluation test and optimisations of computing systems.
AVEN Peter Olegovich (r. 1955), российcкий the statesman, the financier. Son O.I.Aven. In 1989-91 leading expert of International institute of applied{economic} systems analysis (Austria). In 1991-92 chairman of State committee of foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation. With 1992 minister for external economic ties of the Russian Federation. With 1993 president of "Alpha - bank".
AVENARIUS Vasily Petrovich (1839-1923), the Russian writer. The didactic stories of an antinigilistic directivity convicting moral licentiousness (" the Modern idyll ", 1865; "Epidemic", 1867). Books for children: " the Fairy tale on a bee mohnatke " (1879), " That a room speaks " (1880). The sci-fi story " the Unusual history about revived pompejtse " (1889). Popular biographies of writers (a story about D.I.Fonvizin, A.S.Pushkin, N.V.Gogole).
AVENARIUS Michael Petrovich (1835-95), Russian physics, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1876). Probeed thermoelectric phenomena and critical states.
AVENARIUS (Avenarius) Rihard (1843-1896), the Swiss philosopher, one of founders empiriokrititsizma (mahizma). Considered{counted}, that in experience the contrast of a matter and spirit is taken out; has put forward the theory of " a principled coordination " according to which " without the subject there is no object " (without consciousness - matters).
ABNER Indian (4 century), under the legend, indian tsar, father Saint Ioasafa. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 19 (on December, 2).
AVENTIN (Aventinus), one of 7 hills on which has arisen Other. Rome. According to the legend, on Aventin plebeians in the season{term} of extirpation with patritsijami left.
AVENUE (frants. avenue), in France, the USA, the Great Britain and some other countries the broad street routinely surrounded with trees.
AVERBAH Ilya Aleksandrovich (1934-86), the Russian film director and the scripter, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1976). Films: "Class of risk" (1969), "Monologue" (1973), " Another's letters " (1976), "Declaration of love" (1978), "Voice" (1982), etc.
AVERBAH Leopold Leonidovich (1903-39), the Russian critic, the publicist. The managing editor of the log-book " On a literary post{station} " (1926-32), the secretary general and active figure RAPP. Staked on the proletarian literature, pursued{adopted} a policy of replacement{expulsions} of writers of "fellow travellers". Collections of points: " the Cultural revolution and problems of the modern literature " (1928), " About problems of the proletarian literature " (1928), etc. It is repressed.
AVERBAH Michael Iosifovich (1872-1944), the Russian ophthalmologist, academician AN the USSR (1939), one of organizers of Ophthalmologic institute him{it}. Helmholtz (1935). Transactionses on physiological optician, an ophthalmosurgery, to professional damages of eyes. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
AVERBAH Jury Lvovich (r. 1922), the Russian chess player; the international grandmaster (1952), the checkrow writer and the theorist. The outstanding figure of international and domestic checkrow motion. With 1962 managing editor of the log-book " Chess in Russia " (up to 1992 " Chess in the USSR "). The champion of the USSR (1954). The winner of some large international tournaments, including in Moscow (1962), Rio de Janeiro (1965), Poljanitse-Zdruj (Poland, 1975). One of writers multivolume theoretical transactionses " the Checkrow terminals " (1 issuing; 1956-58).
AVERINTSEV Sergey Sergeevich (r. 1937), the Russian philologist, the culturologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Investigates and transfers{translates} products{creations} pozdneantichnoj, rannehristianskoj and the medieval literature of the Mediterranean locale (including byzantian, latin and syrian). Transactionses on philosophy of crop of 20 century; transfers{translations} of european prose and poetry of 20 century. The state premium of the USSR (1990).
AVERKAMP (Avercamp) Hendrik (1585-1634), the Netherlands painter. Characteristic for the Netherlands realism nach. 17 century zhanrovo-landscape patterns ("Ice skating").
AVERKIEV Dmitry Vasiljevich (1836-1905), the Russian writer, the publicist, the theatrical critic. Historical plays (" the Comedy about the Russian nobleman Frole Skobeeve... ", 1869; " Kashirskaja olden time ", 1872;, etc.) reconstruct an atmosphere of left epoch through destiny of the private{individual} person. The book " About a drama. Critical reasoning " (1893). Publicism of a conservative directivity.
AVERKY (1 century), the Christian martyr, under the legend, the son of apostle from 70-ти Alphaeus. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 26 (on June, 8).
AVERKY Ierapolsky (mind{wit}. ok. 167), diocesan Ierapolsky (in Phrygia), ravnoapostolnyj, chudotvorets. Preached in Syria, Mesopotamia and M.Azii. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on October, 22 (on November, 4).
AVERN (lake Avernijskoe), lake in Campania (Italy), sovr. Averno. In an antiquity was considered as one of orifices in Aid.
AVERROIZM, a direction in Western-European philosophy of 13-16 centuries, developing ideas Ibn Rushda (Averroesa) about eternity and nesotvorennosti the world, about unified, general for all people world reason as substantsialnoj to the basis{fundamentals} personal a shower (denial of their immortality from here followed), and also the doctrine about dual true. Has arisen at the Parisian university, stood up to{countered;resisted} as avgustianstvu, and to thomism. Has been convicted by a latin church. The main representative - Siger Brabant (see also Paduanskaja school).
AVERROES, see Ibn Rushd.
AVERS (frants. avers, from an armour adversus - versed a face), a front face of a coin or a medal.
AVERCHENKO Arcady Timofeevich (1881-1925), the Russian writer. In stories, plays and feuilletons (collections " Cheerful oysters ", 1910, " About good in effect people ", 1914; stories " Podhodtsev and two other ", 1917) - the comical plotting of the Russian household activities and tempers. After 1917 in emigration. The book of pamphlets " in a spin of revolution " (1921) satirically anthemed Dozen knives new build in Russia and its{her} leaders. The comic novel " the Joke of the patron of art " (1925).
"AVESTA", drevneiransky a religious monument; in zoroastrizme collection of sacred books. "Avesta" has arisen, probably, in 1-st floor. 1-st thousand up to n. e. Text "Avesty" is codified at Sasanidah (3-7 centuries). Contains the canopy of religious and legal instructions, prayful canticles, hymns zoroastrijskim to godhoods. Actuates many mythological elements.
AVESTSKY TONGUE (avestijsky), a literary language on which it is written "Avesta". Falls into indoevropejskoj to family of tongues (the Iranian group). Dead tongue. It is used in worship service for adherents zoroastrizma.
AVETISJAN Avet Markosovich (1897-1971), the Armenian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1962). On the scene with 1917. With 1922 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
AVETISJAN Minas Karapetovich (1928-75), the Armenian painter, the schedule{chart}, the theatrical artist, the deserved artist of Armenia (1968). Creativity Avetisjana, the bound with national art traditions, distinguish epicheskaja solemnity figurative building, drama passion of sounding of colour ("Memory", 1973).
AVZON (Avson), in Other. Rome the first tsar of Italy, was considered as son Odisseja and Stone hammers. The first inhabitants of Italy on his{its} name become to call avzonami, country often called Avzoniej.
AVZONIJA, see. Avzon.
AVI SHAUL (an ice-film. fam. Mandel) Mordechai (1898-1988), the Israeli writer. Wrote in a Hebrew. Dramas "Necklace" (1928), "Jew Zjuss" (1933), collections of stories (" Tsar Karakash and other ordinary histories ", 1965) the modern social subjects. Collections of verses (" Verses of impatience ", 1982, etc.).
AVIA... (from an armour. avis - a bird), the part of the composite words meaning: "air" (napr., airmail).
GYRO HORIZON, gyroscopic instrument for definition of bank angles and a pitch of a flight vehicle.
AIRLINE, see. An airway.
AVIAL (abbr. from air aluminium), alloy Al (basis{fundamentals}) with additives Mg, Si, Mn (or Cr), Cu (in the sum ok. 3 %). A high plasticity and satisfactory rust resistance. Produce wrought and extrusions of the composite form (napr., longerons of vanes of screws of helicopters).
MODEL AEROPLANE FLYING, designing and construction of models of flight vehicles in the technical or sporting purposes.
AIRMODEL SPORT, competitions on designing and manufacturing of volant models (airplanes, gliders, helicopters, missiles, etc.) and to steering of them in tests for speed, time in flight and workmanship of aerobatic manoeuvres. An international airmodel commission (it is based in 1923) in structure of International air federation (see. Aircraft sport); world championships with 1925.
AIRCRAFT-CARRIER, battle surface ship, which main{basic} impact - carrier planes and helicopters. Have appeared in 1-Ї world war. In 2-Ї world war the USA, the Great Britain, Japan and France were applied on fleets. In consequent the USA have received development primarily in Naval Forces. Are sectioned on multiple objective, impact both antisubmarine; routine and nuclear. The equipment of an aircraft-carrier ensures basing, take-off and planting up to 100 machines.
AVIAHIM, mass public organization in the USSR, existing in 1925-27. Has arisen as association of the Society of friends to air fleet and Dobrohima. Was engaged in propagation of achievements of aircraft, organization of propaganda and record flights. Conducted a collection of contributions with the purpose of construction of airplanes, buildings of clubs, etc. In 1927 Aviahim it was aggregated with the Society of assistance to the defence in Osoaviahim.
AIR MEDICINE, the section of medicine investigator conditions of professional work of aviation specialists and developing measures, directed on conservation of their health, increase of functionability and a safety-of-life function.
AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY (aviaraketno-space industry), the branch of a machine industry effecting flight vehicles for the civil and military purposes: airplanes, helicopters, space vehicles and the ships{spacecrafts}, missiles, and also their parts, clusters and units. Has arisen in nach. 20 century, large branch has become within between two world wars. One of most technically developed branches of a machine industry with a large-scale of cooperation and concentration of manufacture.
AIRSPORT, the collective title of air kinds{views} of sport. See. Airmodel sport, Parachuting, Glider sport, Aircraft sport.
AIR TRANSPORT, see. The transport.
AIR MATERIALS the INSTITUTE research (IAM), is built in 1932 in Moscow on the basis a department of a TsAGI. Probes on materials technology, development of steels, alloys, etc. materials.
AIRCRAFT (frants. aviation, from an armour. avis - a bird), concept, the bound with atmospheric flights of apparatuses is heavier than air. As aircraft call also the organization (service) using for flights these apparatuses. Distinguish a civil aviation and a naval aviation. The basis{fundamentals} of development of means of aircraft - a number{series} of scientific disciplines: aerodynamics, the theory of engines, etc.; a fundamentals of application - air navigation, tactics of air forces, etc. Practically the aircraft has become to develop in nach. 20 century. The first successful flight of an airplane of the American artificers of brothers У. and O.Right with an internal-combustion engine - on December, 17 1903. After this in Europe, primarily in France, build A.Santos-Djumon, F.Ferber's airplanes, etc. In Russia in 1909-14 J.M.Gakkelja, D.P.Grigorovich, I.I.Sikorsky airplanes have appeared, etc. With it is grey. 20th in aircraft construction have started to use duraljumin (the first Soviet all-metal aeroplanes are constructed And. N. Tupolevym in 1924-25); to it is grey. 30th there was a final transition from a biplane to a monoplane. In kon. 30th the jet engine has appeared; in the USSR a maiden flight on an airplane with a liquid jet engine - in 1942. With nach. 50th become to use jets and in a civil aviation (in the USSR That - 104, 1955), widely developed a helicopter construction, in air force supersonic aeroplanes have appeared. To nach. 90th production aeroplanes have reached{achieved} speed of 3000-3500 km/h, a ceiling over 30 kms and distance up to 15000 kms.
AIRCRAFT MARINE, a stem of forces of navy (Navies). Will consist of parts of marine missile-carrying aircraft, antisubmarine, fighting, the attack, etc. kinds{views} of aircraft.
AIR DEFENSE AVIATION, service arm of air defence. Will consist of parts of fighter aviation (IA) and subdividings of a military-transport aviation and helicopters.
ABIB (Having twisted) Alexandria (mind{wit}. ok. 250), the martyr, the deacon damaged together with presbyter Favstom in Alexandria in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 6 (19).
ABIB (Abib) Nekressky (Kahetinsky) (mind{wit}. kon. 6 century), the martyr, diocesan Nekressky (in Kahetii), Saint John Zedaznijskogo's who has come from nymas from Antioch to Georgia with the sermon of christianity the pupil. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 7 (20) and on November, 29 (on December, 12), in Roman catholic - on November, 12 and 29.
ABIB Persian (mind{wit}. ok. 330), the Christian martyr damaged in Persia in persecution SHapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on March, 28 (on April, 10).
ABIB Samosatsky (mind{wit}. 297), the Christian martyr damaged in. Samosaty (in Syria) in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 29 (on February, 11).
ABIB Edessky (mind{wit}. 322), the martyr, the deacon in Edessa; has suffered in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 15 (28).
AVIDNOST (from an armour. avidus - greedy), properties of antigens and the anti-bodies, defining power of binding of complementary epines of their molecules. Shows in toughness of the derivated complex.
LIGHT AEROPLANE (from frants. aviette), a low-powered airplane, routinely one or two-place.
AVIZHJUS Jonas (r. 1922), the Lithuanian writer, the national writer of Lithuania (1986). In stories about village and novels " the Glass mountain " (1961), " Village at the crossroads " (1964), " Lost krov " (kn. 1-4, 1970-88), " Hameleonovy colours " (1979), "Djagimaj" (1981) - drama destinies of heroes in the composite moments of a history of the Lithuanian society. The lenin premium (1976).
The NOTE (ital. avviso), the notice on changes in a condition of the clearing, sent by one contractor other.
AVILA (Avila) Huan (1500-69), the spanish ecclesiast, " apostle of andalusia ".
AVILES (Aviles), city and a port in Spain, in Biskajskom a hall. 87 thousand inhabitants (1981). Black and nonferrous machine industry. Fishery. A seaside resort.
AVILOV Mihail Ivanovich (1882-1954), the Russian painter, the national artist of Russia (1953), the full member AH the USSR (1947). Epicheskie battle cloths: " Outbreak of Polish front by 1-st Horse army in 1920 year " (1928); " Duel Peresveta with CHelubeem " (1943). The state premium of the USSR (1946).
AVIM the Maccabee (mind{wit}. 166 up to n. e.), under the legend, the antiquated martyr, one of seven brothers, killed in persecution of Antiochus IV Epifana for failure{refusal} to break a law Moiseyev (2 Maccabean, 7). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 1 (14).
AVIGNON (Avignon), city in the south of France, on r. Rhone, an administrative centre dep. Vokljuz. Ok. 100 thousand inhabitants (1990). Metal-working, textile, alimentary, a footwear industry. A complex of a papal palace (14 century) with frescos (14-15 centuries). It is based at-sight drevnerimskoj colony (1 century). A residence of Popes in 1309-77 (enforced, under pressure the French kings - t. n. Capture of dads). In 1348-1791 (officially with 1797) papal possession.
AVINONSKOE CAPTURE of DADS, enforced (under pressure the French kings) stay of Popes in Avignon in 1309-77 (with a rest in 1367-70).



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