Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • AREA (from an armour. area - the area, the space), range of distribution{propagation} above ground any phenomena, those or other kinds{views} (stems, sets, etc.) animal and plants, mineral wealths, etc. On geographical maps the area is transmitted by limitation by his{its} lines of miscellaneous colour and drawing, colour, a hatching, etc. methods.
  • AREOLOGY, the same, that chorology.
  • AREAL LINGUISTICS, section of the linguistics, investigator methods of linguistic geography regional{spatial} disposition of tongues and ranges of distribution{propagation} of the tongue phenomena.
  • AREGALA (Ariogala) (up to 1917 official title Ejragola), city (with 1956) in Lithuania, on r. Dubisa, in 46 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kedajnej. 4,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Factory of reinforced concrete constructions. It is known from 13 century.
  • BETEL PALM, stem of palms. Ok. 50 kinds{views}, in tropics of Asia and up to It is new. Guinea. Seeds widely cultivated{incubated} arekovoj palms (catechu) contain alkaloids an arecoline, etc., used in a veterinary science (as vermifuge); are part of the betel nut.
  • AREQUIPA (Arequipa), city in the south of Peru. 634 thousand inhabitants (1990). Woollen, tanning, a food-processing industry. University. It is based in 1540. An architectonic monument of 16-18 centuries.
  • AREKOVYE, the same, that palms.
  • ЗъСnС (Ahren) Uno (1897-1977), the Swedish architect, the town-planner. In 1921-23 worked with E.G.Asplundom who has rendered on him{it} the strong influence. Has developed philosophy of city planning and construction in Sweden. In 1930th was engaged in design of furniture and interiors.
  • ЗъСnС (an armour. arena, characters. - sand).. 1) the site powdered to sand in drevnerimskom an amphitheatre where descended crocked eggs of gladiators, horse contest{races} and t. p... 2) the Circular site (13 m across diameter) with a barrier to performances{statements} of actors in a circus... 3) the Site of negotiations of sporting competitions... 4) Figuratively - a field, a sphere of activity.
  • ARENGA, a stem of palms. Ok. 15 kinds{views}, in tropics of Asia and Australia. The sugar palm has the greatest value.
  • The LEASE (polsk. arenda), urgent and vozmezdnoe use by property. By agreement leases (property hiring) the lessor (lessor) is obliged to grant the leaser (employer) property in temporary possession and use or use for value for do-it-yourself implementation of enterprise activity or other purposes. In the Russian Federation the lease is supposed in all branches of a national economy and can be applied concerning property of all forms and kinds{views} of the property. The ground and other natural resources, property of the enterprises, associations, property complexes, other property necessary for the leaser for do-it-yourself implementation of economic or other activity can be on hire basis transferred{handed}.
  • The LEASE of the EQUIPMENT, see. Leasing.
  • ARENDAL (Arendal), city in the south of Norway, adm. ts. fjulke Eust-Agder. 20 thousand inhabitants (1988). A port on coast a hall. Bohus. Shipbuilding, nonferrous machine industry (smelting of aluminium in suburb Ejdehamn).
  • The LEASER, the party of the lease arrangement taking property of the lessor in urgent and vozmezdnoe economic use. Leasers can be state, cooperative and other public enterprises (organization), including organization of leasers, collectives of their subdividings, and also citizens or groups of citizens. Organizations of leasers form on strictly voluntary beginnings and have corporate franchises.
  • The RENT ENTERPRISE, the enterprise executing enterprise activity on the basis of a property complex taken by him{it} on hire basis. The property located in the property of the rent enterprise, is divided in the order, foreseen his{its} charter, on contributions of all of his{its} workers.
  • The LESSOR, the party of the lease arrangement, in management, possession, use and the order (operational management) or in which property there is a leased property. Lessors can be state organs, state, cooperative and other public enterprises (organization) and citizens.
  • ARENDT (Arendt) Hanna (1906-75), the german both American philosopher and the politologist, the writer widely known transactionses " the Origin of a totalitarianism ". With 1933 in emigration in Paris, with 1941 in New York.
  • ARENDT (Arendt) Erih (1903-84), the german poet. In 1933-50 in emigration, the participant of a civil war in Spain 1936-39 on the party of republicans. Civil and philosophical lyrics (collections " From the fiftieth anniversary ", 1968; " Memory{Remembrance} and a mode{an image} ", 1976).
  • ARENSBURG, the official title of. Kuressaare in Estonia up to 1917.
  • ARENSKY Anton Stepanovich (1861-1906), the Russian composer, the pianist, the conductor. Operas " Dream on Volga " (1888), "Rafael" (1894), " Nal and Damajanti " (1903), ballet " Night in Egypt " (" Egyptian nights ", 1900), products{creations} for a piano, romances, etc. Tutorials of harmony, the analysis of the musical forms. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1889).
  • ЗъСnСs, the aromatic hydrocarbons keeping one or several benzene rings (including condensate). Examples - benzole, a toluene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene.
  • AREOMETER (from grech. araios - not tight and... Meter), a gauge meter of firmness of liquids and solids. Action of an areometer is based the law on Archimedes.
  • AREOPAG (grech. Areios pagos, characters. - hill Aresa).. 1) in Other. Athenes a government body executed the state supervisory control, judicial and other functions; comprised of life-members - representatives of generic aristocracy... 2) Figuratively - collection of authoritative faces for the solution of any problems.
  • "AREOPAGITIKI", the religious - philosophical composition which has reached under name Dionisija Areopagita (1 century). Are built not earlier 2-nd floor. 5 century, find out relation from neoplatonizma, especially from Prokla. The doctrine " Areopagitiki about the god as superreasonable sameness of life and nonexistence and about the hierarchic device of a universal set and church has rendered major influence on philosophical thought of Byzantium and Zap. Europe (Eriugena, Nikolay Kuzansky).
  • ARES (Arej), in the Grecian mythology the god of artful, perfidious war, son Zevsa and Gery. To him there corresponds{meets} Roman Mars.
  • ARES BORGEZE, mottled statue Aresa in the Louvre. A Roman copy from a first copy of activity of ancient greek sculptor Alkamena (ok. 420 up to n. e.). Belonged to set Borgeze earlier.
  • ARESIBO (Arecibo), city and a port in Puerto Rico. 93 thousand inhabitants (1990). A sugar industry, manufacture of rum. Bliz Aresibo an ionospheric and radioastronomical observatory the USA; it is built with uptake in 1963 unique 300-th fixed parabolical radio telescopes. Probes: an ionosphere, discrete sources of radio emission, etc.
  • ARREST (from medieval an armour. arrestum - court, the decree), forced detention and receiving into prison. In the Russian Federation a kind{view} of punishment under criminal law. Will consist in the content of a face in stringent isolation. Arrest is applied as most a severe measure of suppression - taking into custody. Are stipulated also short-lived deprivation of liberty under the decree of the judge for some kinds{views} of administrative violations and short-lived detention of faces, suspected in committing a crime.
  • ARESTANTSKIE COMPANIES, in Russia with nach. 18 century special formations from convicted on activities in strengths, about 1825 kind{view} of punishment for small-sized criminal and political crimes, changed{interchanged} the Siberian reference. In arestantskih companies the army mode with the forced labour combined{blended}. In 1870 are converted to Correctional arestantskie branches (existed{breathed} up to 1917).
  • ARETINO (Aretino) Pjetro (1492-1556), the italian writer of Revitalization. Political pamphlets; satirical comedies (" the Comedy about court tempers ", 1534; "Hypocrite", 1542); tragedy "Goratsija" (1546). "Dialogues" (including "Reasonings", are issued 1534, 1536, 1539) have created Aretino european glory; historical and cultural value is represented with his{its} letters (ok. 3300; 1 issuing 1537).
  • ARETUZA (Aretusa), in the Grecian mythology nereida, a nymph of sources with the same name in Elide (Peloponnesus) and Sicily. Being salvaged from persuits of the river god of Alphaeus, the goddess turned into a source, but its{her} persecutor has become rekoju and his{its} waters were bridged to waters Aretuzy.
  • AREFA Pechersky (mind{wit}. ok. 1195), the outlet box - hermit, pogreben in Short-range (Antonievyh) caves Kievo-Pecherskoj laurels. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 28 (on October, 11), on October, 24 (on November, 6) and on 2 Sunday of quadragesima (cathedral Kievo-Pecherskih of fathers).
  • AREFYEV Anatoly Vasiljevich (r. 1918), the Russian theatrical artist, the national artist of the USSR (1967). Has played the important role in development Kirghiz teatralno-dekoratsionnogo arts.
  • AREZZO (Arezzo), city in Central Italy, on r. Arno, in region. Tuscany, adm. ts. prov. Arezzo. 92 thousand inhabitants (1985). It is known from 4 century up to n. e. Gothic churches the Dignity - Domeniko (13 century) and the Dignity - Franchesko (with 1322, frescos of the Pierrot della Francheska), a Gothic palace. F.Petrarki's Rhodinum, Dzh. Vazari (dwelling - museum).
  • ARZHN, an imperial tumulus of 8-7 centuries up to n. e. In Tuva (state farm Ujuk). An altitude of 4 m, a diameter of 120 m. of 70 funeral cribs with skeletons of horses, weapons, etc.
  • ARZHANIKOV Nikolay Sergeevich (1905-82), the scientist in range of aerodynamics. Worked in a TsAGI and MAI. Was engaged in pedagogical and organizing activity.
  • ARZHANOV Michael Aleksandrovich (1902-60), the Russian lawyer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses under the theory and histories of law, to state law.
  • ARZHENTO (Argento) Dario (r .1943), the italian film director and the scripter. Participat in building some films of S.Leone, B.Bertoluchchi in the capacity of the co-author of the script. Has delivered films of horrors in A.Hitchcock traditions: "Demons" (1986), "Trauma" (1993), etc.
  • ARZAMAS, city in the Russian Federation, the Nizhniy Novgorod region, on r. A fish belly. A railway junction. 112,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine-building, alimentary, mild, a building materials an industry. Pedagogical institute. Theatre. A.Gajdara's dwelling - museum. A study of local lore museum. Has arisen in 1578.
  • "ARZAMAS", literary circle in Saint Petersburg in 1815-18. Members a mug opposed adherents of the classicism entered{included} in a literary society " Conversation of fans{amateurs} of the Russian word ", in protection of sentimentalism and romanticism.
  • ARZEU, city and port in northwest of Algeria. St. 50 thousand inhabitants. Factories of liquified gas. A petrochemical industry. Export of petroleum and petroleum.
  • ARZNI, a urban settlement in Armenia, on r. Razdan, bliz zh.-d. An item. Abovjan. 5,4 thousand inhabitants (1990). Factories: mineral waters, flint glass. A balneal mountain health resort.
  • ARZUMANJAN Anushavan Agafonovich (1904-1965), the Russian economist, academician AN the USSR (1962). Transactionses on economic, state regulation of an economics of underdevelopment.
  • ARIABHATA (ok. 475-?), the indian astronomer and mathematician. The writer of the astronomical tract "Ariabhatiam" keeping also mathematical cramps.
  • "ARIABHATA", the first indian artificial satellite of the Earth which are put into orbit in 1975 Soviet launcher. Mass "Aariabhaty" of 358 kg. The title in honour Ariabhaty.
  • ARIADNA, in the Grecian mythology the daughter kritskogo tsar Minosa. Has helped the Athenian hero Teseju who has killed the Minotaur, to leave from a labyrinth, having supplied with his{its} ball of threads which end has been made fast at an orifice (" filament Ariadny ").
  • ARIADNA Promisskaja (Frigijskaja) (mind{wit}. Between 117-138), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor Adriana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 18 (on October, 1), in Roman catholic on November, 18.
  • "ARIANS", a series of 3-stepwise launchers on liquid fuel for start of artificial satellites of the Earth built by European space agency. On stream with 1979. A lift-off mass of launchers of "Arians - 1" - 207 t, "Arians - 2" - 214 t, "Arians - 3" - 233 t, "Arians - 4" - up to 460 t, a payload accordingly 1780, 2100, 2560 and up to 4300 kg.
  • ARIANS Antinojsky (mind{wit}. 287), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 14 (27), in Roman catholic on July, 6.
  • ARIANA, the ancient greek title of eastern part of the Iranian plateau (the modern Herat).
  • ARIANISM, flow in christianity in 4-6 centuries. His{its} initiator - the priest Arius (mind{wit}. In 336) from Alexandria. Arians did not accept one of the main{basic} tenets of official Christian church about edinosushchnosti the God - father and the God - son (Christ); under the doctrine of Arius, the Christ as creation of the God - father - the entity, is lower his{its} standing. The arianism is convicted as heresy by church cathedrals 325, 381.
  • ARIBALL (aryballos), an ancient greek toilet vessel for aromatic oils; spherical, with a fine-bored throat, routinely painted.
  • ARIDNAJA VEGETATION (from an armour. aridus - dry), vegetation of terrains with rainless (aridnym) a climate. Xerothytes, ephemeroids, ephemers are characteristic.
  • ARIDNYJ the CLIMATE, in geomorphological grading climates - arid climate with heats of air and a trace amount of a rainfall; svojstven to deserts and semideserts.
  • ARIZONA (Arizona), staff on a southwest the USA. 295 thousand км2. The population 3,9 million person (1993). Adm. ts. - Phoenix.
  • ARIZONSKY the CRATER (crater Barrindzhera), bliz Uinslou in Arizona (USA). A diameter of 1200 m, depth of 175 m, an origin meteoritic: inside and around Arizonskogo a crater debris meteoritic nikelistogo gland are retrieved.
  • ARIAS (arijtsy), the title of peoples, inherings to indoevropejskoj (first of all indoiranskoj) a linguistic community. In the racist literature of an aria (predominary germen) were declared by the "maximum" aryan strain.
  • ARIAS (mind{wit}. In 336), the presbyter in Alexandria, laid foundation t. n. To arian spores in Christian divinity. Jesus Christ - asserted{approved}, that 2 face of the Trinity - not edinosushchen to the God to the Father, but is created by him{it}. The doctrine of Arius - arianism - has been convicted as heretical ecumenical Nicaean (325) and Konstantinopolskim (381) cathedrals.
  • ARYAN STRAIN, the term used in racist concepts for notation of the "maximum" racial type - blond arijtsev (ariev), osnovatelej a great civilization (see. Racism).
  • ARIJTSY, see. Ariuses.
  • ARIKA (Arica), city and seaport in a north of Chile. 195 thousand inhabitants (1991). Alimentary, a chemical industry. Avtovelosborka. Fishery. A seaside resort.
  • ARYLATING, see. An alkylation.
  • ARILLUS, a pulpy excrescence on a seed of some plants; a version of an aril.
  • ARIN-REEDS (Arinberd), see. Erebuni.
  • ARINKIN Michael Innokentjevich (1876-1948), the Russian therapist, academician AMN (1945), the general - lieutenant of a medical service. Has developed (1927) method of intravital probe of bone marrow (sternal puncture), probeed reticuloendothelial system. The state premium of the USSR (1947).
  • ARIOVIST (Ariovistus) (1 century up to n. e.), the leader of the German nation svevov. Attempts Ariovista to become stronger in terrain Galii have reduced in crash with cecidiums and war with Rome. Ok. 58 up to n. e. It is battered by Caesar.
  • ARIOZO (ital. arioso, characters. - like Arius).. 1) in opera music of 19 century a small aria with melodikoj it is melodic - deklamatsionnogo or pesennogo character... 2) Melodic character of performance{fulfillment}.
  • ARION (7-6 centuries up to n e.), the ancient greek poet to which name the legend of wonderful salvage (a dolphin captivated by singing Ariona is connected, has washed it{him} ashore), inspired many poets ("Arion" A.S.Pushkin).
  • ARIOSTO (Ariosto) Ludoviko (1474-1533), the italian poet. The heroic knightly poem " Frantic Roland " (1516), prolonging " In love Rolanda " M.Bojardo, proniknuta the thin irony, embodies humanistic ideas of Renaissance. Lyrics on latin (1494-1504) and italian (1517-25) tongues; comedies ("Magician", 1520; "Svodnja", 1528).



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