Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ARIS the Egyptian (mind{wit}. 308), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor of the Maximin. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 19 (on January, 1).
  • ARISIMA Takeo (1878-1923), the Japanese writer. Has tested{experienced} influence tolstovstva. In the basis{fundamentals} of the novel " the History of one woman " (1913-19) - the tragical conflict of the personality and a society. Stories.
  • The ARISTARCH (mind{wit}. ok. 67), apostle from 70-ти, spodvizhnik apostle Paul (Particular act of apostles 19:29, etc.), diocesan Apamejsky (Syria); it is killed in Rome in persecution of emperor Nerona. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on April, 15 (28) and on September, 27 (on October, 10), in Roman catholic on August, 4.
  • ARISTARCH SAMOSSKY (kon. 4 century - 1-n a floor. 3 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek astronomer. First has stated idea of heliocentricism: asserted{approved}, that the Earth goes around of the fixed Sun located at the centre of an orb of fixed asters.
  • ARISTEJ, in the Grecian mythology the most ancient godhood preserving fields from a drought and a hail, the promoter of herds, the Savior zabludivshihsja travellers. Aristej has learned people to cultivation of bees, olivkovodstvu, to cultivation of a grape. According to serotinal{late} myths, was considered as son Apollo and nymphs of Cyrene, has received immortality. Son Aristeja and Autonoys were Akteon.
  • ARISTIDAS (ok. 540 - ok. 467 up to n. e.), the Athenian commander, political opponent Femistokla, one of organizers of the Delian union.
  • ARISTIDAS Junior (it is grey. 4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek artist, the son the Aristida of the Higher, pupil Nikomaha. Has written patterns: " Battle with persians " - for elatejskogo tyrant Mnasona, and for each of hundred figures the Eroded city both dying mother and the child ", uvezennuju Alexander the Great in Pellu, "Begging", "Ill", " the Tragedian with the boy ", " Tesej and Ariadna ", purchased Attalom for Pergamum and uvezennuju afterwards to Rome has received on 100 mines, ", etc. Apparently, the master especially managed to transmit in painting different spiritual conditions of the person.
  • ARISTINUM Alexey (12 century), the byzantian canonist, the writer of explanation of the church canons which have received a wide circulation in the orthodox world.
  • ARISTIPP (2-n a floor. 5 century - nach. 4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher from Cyrene in the Sowing. To Africa, pupil Sokrata, the founder kirenskoj schools, one of ancestors of hedonism.
  • ARISTOV Averky Borisovich (1903-73), the political figure. In 1952-53, 1955-60 secretary of a Central Committee of the CPSU. About 1961-73 salting of the USSR in Poland, Austria. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1952-71. The member of Presidium of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1952-53, 1957-61.
  • ARISTOV (Arrests) Victor Fedorovich (1943-94), the Russian producer of theatre and kino, the film writer, the actor. It was taken out in K.G.Muratovoj's films: " Learning a white light ", " Among grey stones ", " Vicissitude speed up ", " the Asthenic set of symptoms ". Has delivered films: "Powder" (1985), " difficultly first hundred flying " (1988), "Satan" (1990), " Rains in ocean " (1994, it is concluded J.B.Maminym).
  • ARISTOV Feodor Fedorovich (1888-1932), the Russian historian. Probeed a history, crop and ethnography Karpatskoj of Russia (special motion rusinov for national - cultural unity with Russia), Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey and other countries. The book " Karpato-Russian writers " (1914), etc.
  • ARISTOVSKY Vyacheslav Mihajlovich (1882-1950), the Russian microbiologist, academician AMN the USSR (1950). Transactionses on an immunology and a medical microbiology. Has developed a method of cultivation of spirochetes - causal organisms of a typhinia. Has offered the device for cultivation of anaerobes (apparatus Aristovskogo).
  • ARISTOBULUS (1 century), apostle from 70-ти (the Message to Romans 16:10), diocesan Vritanijsky (British). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on March, 16 (29) and on October, 31 (on November, 13).
  • ARISTOVSHCHINA, the consent in staroobrjadchestve, separated in 2-nd floor. 19 century from fedoseevtsev at occurrence{appearance} in their structure novozhenov. Demanded observance{holding} of asceticism. Followers aristovshchiny in minor quantity are present in northwest ranges of the Russian Federation and in Baltic.
  • ARISTOCRACY (from grech. aristos - the best and... kratija).. 1) the form of state board at which the authority belongs to representatives generic znati... 2) In slaveholding and a feudal state - the most privileged estate; fixed advantage saves in a bourgeois state.
  • ARISTOKSEN from Tarenta (4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, pupil Aristotelja, the representative peripateticheskoj schools. The initiator of a genre of biographies of philosophers (transactionses about Pythagoreans); his{its} musicological synthesis worked upon the european theory of music within many centuries.
  • ARISTONIK (mind{wit}. 129 or 128 up to n. e.), the illegitimate son pergamskogo tsar Evmena II, the leader of antiRoman revolt loose, slaves and a mercenaries in 133 (or 132) - 129 in Pergamum (has sparked after mors of tsar of Pergamum Attala III which have bequeathed the kingdom to Rome). After a defeat at Stratonikee it is taken in a film and it is executed.
  • ARISTOTELIZM, philosophical flows and the schools were under influence of doctrine Aristotelja. About aristotelizme in antiquity see. Peripateticheskaja school. In Middle Ages, often in combination with neoplatonizmom, (John Damascene) and the byzantian philosophy, in Arabian (Kindi, Farabi and especially Ibn Rushd) and jewish (M.Majmonid) of philosophy has become popular in Grecian patristike; with kon. 12 century aristotelizm push aside in Zap. To Europe platonizm and in 13 century becomes the philosophical basis{fundamentals} of scholasticism (Albert Veliky, Thomas Aquinas and thomism, averroizm); in 14-16 centuries determines philosophy paduanskoj schools. Scholastic aristotelizm, prevailing at Western-European universities down to 17-18 centuries, exposed to sharp criticism since Renaissance.
  • ARISTOTEL (384-322 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher. Studied for Platona in Athenes; in 335 has based Likej, or peripateticheskuju school. The tutor Alexander the Great. Compositions Aristotelja envelop all branches of then knowledge. The founder of formal logic. The creator of a syllogistics. " The first philosophy " (it is called as a metaphysics later) contains the doctrine about philosophy of life: capabilities and implementation (see. The certificate{act} and a potency), the form and a matter, an efficient cause and the purpose (see. Entelehija). Straddled with materialism and idealism; ideas (forms, eidoses) - internal propulsions of things, nonseparable from them. Istochnik of motion and volatile life - perpetually and fixed "mind{wit}", nus (pervodvigatel). Stages{steps} of a nature: the inorganic world, a plant, animal, the person. " Mind{Wit} ", reason, distinguishes the person from animal. A central principle of ethics - reasonable conduct, moderation (metriopatija). The person - an entity public. The best forms of state - a monarchy, aristocracy, "policy" (moderate democracy), the worst - tyranny, an oligarchy, ohlokratija. Essence of art - mimesis (mimesis), the purpose of tragedy - "refinement" of spirit (katarsis). The main{basic} compositions: logic canopy "Organon" ("Grades", " About interpretation ", "Analysts" 1-n and 2-n, "Topeka") ", the Metaphysics ", "Physics", " About originating animal ", " About a shower ", "Ethics", "Policy", "Rhetoric", "Poetics". See. Aristotelizm.
  • ARISTOFAN (ok. 445 - ok. 385 up to n. e.), The ancient greek poet - komediograf, " father of a comedy ". Views Aristofana on the burning problems of epoch sharply expressed in his{its} creativity, served the interests peasantry of that time; he with nonconfidence fell into radical demagogy, uvlekavshej urban bottoms ("Riders"), and to individualisticheskoj philosophy of sophists ("Cloud"), fairly seeing in a volume and the friend symptoms of crisis of the Athenian democracy. In comedies Aristofana - responses to actual events, performances{statements} against military policy ("Lisistrata"), ponoshenie substantial personalities (Sokrata - in "Clouds"), fancy situations ("Aharnjane", "Birds") .ARISTOFAN (ok. 445 - ok. 385 up to n. e., Athenes), ancient greek komediograf, in an antiquity has received a name " the father of a comedy ". From 40 written Aristofanom comedies 11 plays bodily and some tens fragments have reached. Early products{creations} Was born in Attica in solvent family. Phillip, father Aristofana, possessed an allotment on island Egina that has given a halter to contemporaries to consider{count}, that Aristofan not the Athenian stem though he was the Athenian citizen. The first plays could not exhibit under a specific name as was unknown and had no capability to pay chorus. Under an another's name first comedy Aristofana "Feasting" (427), by kept fragments - satyr on sophistical education and "cool" philosophy has been submitted{shown}. In 426 on Great Dionisijah has delivered the comedy "Babylonians" dedicated relations of athenians and their allies. For this play Aristofan has been involved{attracted} with the leader of the Athenian people, the bribe taker and demagogue Kleonom, vysmejannym in a comedy, in court for the offence of people and his{its} representatives before allies. Particularses of court are unknown, apparently, Aristofan has easily enough got off charges. Themes and heroes of plays of Play Aristofana differ boldness of imagination, frivolous humour, mercilessness of accusations, freedom of political criticism. Objects his{its} satyrs were the modern to him the Athenian society, cool philosophy and the literature, and also an aggressive policy of Athenes, hardships Peloponnesskoj of war on which the large part of life Aristofana was came. His{its} hints and concrete attacks, the nuances of performances sometimes escaping us, were clear to contemporaries, found for them the ready response. Comedies Aristofana are always actual and have almost publicistic effect. - the main{basic} in controversies of political parties in Athenes that time - plays Aristofana "Aharnjane" (425 are dedicated a theme of "war and peace"; it is put on behalf of the poet and actor Kallistrata) and "World" (421). The scene of comedy "Lisistrata" (411) put after a disastrous defeat for Athenes of the Sicilian expedition in 413, is exclusive in all world literature. Women Ellady, aspiring to finish with war, under leadership afinjanki Lisistraty (grech. Blighting army) seize{catch} an acropolis in Athenes and swear up to the arrest of war to refuse men in love. War of athenians with the Spartans, turned thus in war of women and men, endes in the union and a universal peace. The comedy is full humour, a farce, rough jokes, harlot, but racy scenes. In comedies Aristofan ridicules as upstarts, shouters and neuchej from bottoms, and aristocrats and "golden" youth. Almost in each comedy Aristofan ridicules the leader of Athenes Kleona, which in "Riders" (424; first comedy Aristofana under his{its} specific name) deduces the shouter and neuchem, the flattering and artful slave to aging and blunt People (People). Main characters of a comedy of "Wasp" (422; it is put on behalf of Filonida) have received the names defining their attitude{relation} to Kleonu: Filokleon (Kleonoljub) and Bdilekleon (Kleononenavistnik). Subject of ridiculing - passion of athenians to the common barratry and, concretely, the law on increase of a pay to the judges, advanced in public assembly Kleonom. Chorus in "Wasps" - the old man - judge, searching pozhivy and introduced by the way wasps with stings which outline on the opponent of courts, " an enemy of democracy " and " the adherent of tyranny " Bdilekleona. The causes of faults of society Aristofan sees in war and representatives of new philosophy and the literature, loosening traditional foundations of a society. In a mode{an image} of the charlatan, lzhemudretsa and in faults in "Clouds" (423) he deduces the trainer Sokrata. Clouds - chorus from 24 girls - a numeral of a vagueness and a vagueness of tongue of representatives of new philosophy. On Great Dionisijah 411 Aristofan puts " Women on holiday Fesmofory " where ridicules Evripida and his{its} junior contemporary of the playwright of Agathon. Political attacks in a comedy no, as a whole she represents a parody to tragedies Evripida "Elena" и "Andromeda". The chorus will consist of women convoked to denounce discrediting them Evripida. The friend to the latter disguised as a coat frock should shadow it{him}, but the fraud is disclosed, and the hero, being salvaged for an altar, attempts to find an output and recalls for this purpose subject courses evripidovskih tragedies. In 405 on Lenejah the comedy of "Frog" which not only has received the first award has been put, but even has been submitted{shown} doubly, that happened extremely rarely. A theme of this comedy written after mors in 406 Sofokla and Evripida, - destiny of tragical poetry. The god of theatre Dionis departs to a underground kingdom to introduce therefrom Evripida as on ground tragical poets were transferred{translated}. However after contest{race} Evripida with Eshilom during which playwrights explain dignities of the products{creations} and even weigh phrases, Dionis picks up on ground Eshila which heroes are rare, and tragedies educate valour and raised civil feelings. The comic effect of traveling Dionisa on aidu and contest{races} strengthens also that, that the chorus in a comedy is submitted{shown} by the way frogs. Comedies Aristofana of "Bird" (414) concern to a genre of a Utopia, " Women in public assembly " (392), "Oof" ("Plutos") (388). In the "Birds" written in the form of a fairy tale, alongside with people birds (chorus) which between heaven and earth create the kingdom, city Tuchekukuevsk act also; domination of gods is overthrown, the world correct feathery. In " Women in public assembly " afinjanki under leadership Praksagory (she reminds Lisistratu) start to steer the state that results it{him} in prosperity, men idle, life is full feastings and enjoyings. Plays "Oof" and " Women in public assembly " hardly differ from written in time Peloponnesskoj of war. Satyr in them it is extenuated, attacks on separate political figures no; the role of the chorus is reduced, many consignments are substituted by the musical interludes. Last comedies Aristofana "Eolosikon" also "Broke" have been submitted{shown} already after mors of the playwright by his{its} son Ararom in 387. Сочинения:Комедии. М., 1955. T. 1-2. Литература:Головня V.V.Aristofan. М., 1955. Sobolevsky S.I.Aristofan and his{its} time. М., 1957. V.E.Suslenkov
  • ARISTE (Ariste) Paul (1905-90), Estonian jazykoved, academician AN of Estonia (1954). Transactionses in range finno-ugrovedenija, the pribaltijsko-Finnish tongues, the Estonian tongue, general linguistics.
  • ARRHYTHMIA of HEART, violation{disturbance} of frequency or sequence of cordial reductions: an acceleration (tachycardia) or slowdown (bradycardia) of a rhythm, anticipatory reductions (ekstrasistolija), disorganization of rhythmic activity (ciliary arrhythmia), etc. There Can be inquest of diseases of a muscle of heart, neurosises, an alcoholic and nicotinic intoxication, etc. See also a Heart block.

  • ARITHMETIC (from grech. arithmos figure), a part of mathematics; studies Protozoa of property of figures, first of all natural (the whole positive) both fractional, and actions above them. Development of arithmetic has reduced in secretion from it{her} algebras and figures of the theory.
  • ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION, sequence of numbers from which each following is received from previous by gaining of a dividend and, called as a common difference; napr., 2, 5, 8, 11...; and = 3.
  • ARITHMETICAL MEAN, value (a), received by division of the sum several (n) values (a1, a2..., an) on figure of summands: a = (a1 + a2 +... + an)/n.
  • ARITHMETIC ORGAN, part of a computer in which are directly executed{designed} arithmetical and logic operations above figures.
  • ADDING MACHINE (from grech. arithmos - figure and... Meter), the desktop mechanic computer hand-operated for fulfilment of build, subtraction, multiplication and division. The pilot model of the adding machines which were become popular in 1-st floor. 20 century, the computing machine invented in 1890 Russian artificer V.T.Odnerom has served. Are nowadays extruded by electronic microcalculators.
  • The ARIEL, the guide of Uranus, is open{discovered} by U.Lassellom (1851), distance from Uranus of 191000 kms, a diameter ok. 1130 kms. Cycle time (earth day) 2 sut 12 h of 29 min.
  • ARIA (ital. aria), the sequence (number) concluded on construction in opera, an operetta, oratorios or a cantata, executed by the singer - soloist in tracking an orchestra. Melodiousness, a latitude of melodic respiration are characteristic for an aria. There are arias and by the way the do-it-yourself concert vocal or tool{instrument} play.
  • ARK (persian)., strength, a citadel in medieval cities Compare. Asia (Bukhara, Khiva).
  • ARK... (from an armour. arkus - an arch), the part of the composite words meaning: the arc. See, napr., Revertive trigonometrical ratioses.
  • ARC (from an armour. arkus - an arch), curvilinear blanking of a wall opening or the space between two supports (piles, columns, pylons).
  • ARC TRIUMPHAL, a triumphal arch, a permanent or temporary monumental border of passage (routinely arch), solemn structure in honour of military victories and other significant events (an arc of Titus in Rome, 81; the Triumphal arch in Moscow, 1827-34, recovered{restored} in 1968 on a square. Victories).
  • ARCADES (Arkas), in the Grecian mythology son Zevsa and nymphs Kallisto. Attempted to kill on a hunt the mother who was transformed{who was turned into} by Artemis in a she-bear. Matereubijstvo has prevented Zevs, having converted the Arcade and Kallisto in mia maids of the Small and Major She-bear. See also Arktos.
  • ARCADE (frants. arcade), a number{series} of the equal arcs resting on columns or piles.
  • ARKADAK, city (with 1963) in the Russian Federation, the Saratov region. A depot. 14,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). The alimentary enterprises.
  • ARCADY, range in a central part of Peloponnesus (Greece). In the antique literature and later (primarily in pastorals of 16-18 centuries) it was figured by paradise country with patriarchal singleness of tempers. Figuratively - happy country.
  • ARKADEV (Kuderko) Arcady Ivanovich (r. 1907), the Ukrainian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1977). On the scene with 1925. With 1935 in troupe of theatre Kiev IN, with 1954 at Lvov Russian theatre Prikarpatskogo IN. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ARKADEV Vladimir Konstantinovich (1884-1953), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1927). Basic transactionses on a magnetodynamics. For the first time supervised (1913) ferromagnetic resonance.
  • ARKALYK, city (with 1965) in Kazakhstan, the centre of region Turgajskoj. A depot. 64,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A meat-packing factory, ceramic factory, etc. Production of bauxites. Pedagogical institute.
  • LARIAT (the turki. - a chain cable), the lengthy cord with a mobile hinge strain on the extremity for catching animal.
  • LARIAT, huzul national men's dance. The musical dimension 2/4.
  • ARKANSAS (Arkansas), the river in the USA, dextral in-leak{influx} of Mississipi. 2410 kms, the area of basin of 416 thousand км2. Average discharge of water ok. 1300 m3 / with. It is navigable on 1000 kms from a mouth. In a bass. Arkansas - large water reservoirs.
  • ARKANSAS, staff in the south the USA. 138 thousand км2. The population 2,4 million person (1993). Adm. ts. - Little Rock.
  • LARIATS Arcady Mihajlovich (r. 1933), the Russian writer. Satirical and comic stories. Plays (together with G.I.Gorinym): " Wedding to all Europe " (1966), "Bank" (1968), " Small comedies of a major house " (1973). Books: " Solo for a duet " (1975, together with Gorinym), etc.
  • ARKATAG (Przhevalskogo a backbone), in mountains Kun-lunja (China). Length ok. 650 kms. An altitude up to 7723 m (Ulugh Muztagh). Icehouses. Deserts ShChebnistye.
  • ARKATURA (a nem. Arkatur), a number{series} of the decorative false arcs on an elevation of building or on walls of internal rooms.
  • ARKASHON (Arcachon), a climatic health resort in France, on coast Biskajskogo a hall. Atlantic ok., to a southwest from Bordeaux. The centre largest in Europe on a catching of oysters.
  • ARKBALLISTA (toksoballista), the propellant machine used by european armies in Middle Ages, similar on major arbalet; the lengthy onions on a frame with two sprockets; the side rail was stringed by a capstan{winch}; metaa\c of a boom, and also stone and leaden spherical gears.
  • ARC-BOUTANT (frants. arcboutant), outside stone poluarka, relaying a thrust of the canopy of a main nave to external reference piles - to buttresses. Arc-boutants have arisen in the Gothic architecture. Case histories see at an item. A buttress.
  • ARKEBUZA (frants. arquebuse), an arquebuse, the wick muzzle-loading gun; one of initial samples of manual fire-arms from 1-st third of 15 century. It was charged about a barrel stone, and then leaden bullets. The powder charge was ignited by hand through a cartridge case vent in a trunk. In 16 century it is substituted by a musket.
  • ARKELAJ Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • ARKESILAJ (ok. 315 - ok. 240 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, the chapter platonovskoj Academies after Krateta, the founder t. n. Mean academy. Having proclaimed the purpose of philosophy not possession true, and absence of fallacies, held on to a principle " forbearance from judgments " (epoch).
  • ARKIGRAM (Arkigrem), architectonic association of the English and American stylists, architects and explorers of an environment. The log-book - the manifest " Arkigram megezin " is published with 1961. The group which is headed by P.Cook, opposes monotony and pathos monumentalism in the post-war architecture.
  • ARKIZUM (Archizoom), association of six Florentine stylists and architects (A.Brantsi, Z.Korretti, P.Diganello, M.Monotstsi, Д. and L.Bartolini); it is derivated in 1966. Represents anti-funktsionalistskoe a direction in italian design. Designs of group are widely illuminated on pages of the log-book "Domus" and the Milan log-book "In".



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