Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • AUSTRALIA (Australia), Australian Soyuz (Commonwealth of Australia), the state in Austral hemisphere, on mainland Australia, about. Tasmania and accumbent islands. 7,7 million км2. The population 17,6 million person (1993), basically descendants of migrants from the Great Britain and Ireland. Native persons of 1,5 %, basically in depth areas. A urban population of 85,4 % (1986). The official language - English. The majority of believers - christians. Australia - the constitutional monarchy. Enters into Commonwealth. Under the form of the state structure - federation in structure of 6 staffs and 2 terrains. Capital - Canberra. The chief of state - queen of the Great Britain, introduced the general - governor. The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament (the House of Representatives and the Senate). A nature - see in an item. Australia (mainland). Up to it is grey. 19 century. Australia was used by the Great Britain as a place of the reference. With it is grey. 19 century. (with discovering gold, development of a sheep raising) the torrent of migrants from the Great Britain, achieving self-management for separate areas of country has increased. On January, 1 1901 the federation of 6 former English colonys which have received the rights of dominion is built. After 2-nd world war the economic and political role of Australia in Asian - pacific locale has amplified. Australia - industrial - agrarian country high-level development of market economy. A lobe in a gross internal product (1991-1992, %): an industry 29,6, village, a forestry and fishery 3,2. Get{procure} iron oxide (115 million t in 1991), bauxites, ilmenite, rutile, bismuth, lead, zinc, a nickel, uranium, a tungsten, gold, silver, stone and brown coal, petroleum, a natural gas. Manufacture of the electric power 157 billion kVtCHch (1991). Black and nonferrous machine industry (a refining of zinc, copper refining, aluminium, oil refining and a petrochemical industry. Are most developed: Machine industry (automotive industry, electrotechnical and radio electronic, stanko-and a locomotive engineering), chemical (manufacture of sulfuric acid, a superphosphate, synthetic rubber, plastics materials), a food-processing industry, which production (meat, a meal, canned milk, oil{butter}, etc.) Goes primarily for export. An agriculture vysokotovarno. The large landholding overtops{prevails}. Ok. 2/3 cost of agricultural production are given with animal husbandry. On a livestock ovets (148 million in 1991/92, predominary merino) and to a wool clip (1,1 million t in 1991/92) Australia takes one of master places in the world. Cultivated lands - ok. 6 % of terrain, meadows and pastures - 59 %, ok. 1/2 ploughland under wheat (the tax 15,7 million t in 1991/92). A fruit growing and wine growing. Length (1991, one thousand in km) railways 37,3, motorways 810. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 3,8 million t deadweight (1992). Primary ports: Sydney, Melbourne, Fremantle, Newcastle. Export: agricultural production (a wool, wheat, meat, oil{butter}, a cheese), mineral raw materials (ore of non-ferrous metals, mineral coal, iron oxide, bauxites). The main{basic} foreign trade partners: Japan, the USA, countries of European Economic Community, It is new. Zealand. Monetary unit - australian dollar
  • AUSTRALIA (Australia, from an armour. australis - austral), mainland in Austral hemisphere. 7631,5 thousand км2. Eastern coasts of Australia washes against Quiet ok., in a north, the west and the south - Indian ok. Bliz Australia large islands are located Is new. Guinea and Tasmania. Along a north-east shore of Australia - B.Barjernyj rif. Eastern part of Australia is taken by B.Vodorazdelnyj hr. (an altitude up to 2230 m, mount Kosciusko, a peak level of Australia). Mid-range of Australia - lowland with a hollow occupied about. Ejr, a western part - a tableland (400-500 м) with separate hrebtami and dining rooms mountains. The large part of Australia falls into ranges of the Australian ramp, eastern part will derivate the East - australian wrinkled geosynclinal belt. Australia - the most hot part dry Austral hemisphere, ok. 2/3 which has an arid and semidesert climate. The large part of Australia lays in tropics, a north - in subequatorial latitudes, a southwest - in subtropics. Mean temperatures of July from 12 up to 20 °C, January from 20 up to 30 °C and more. The amount of precipitation diminishes from the orient to the west from 1500 mm annually up to 300-250 mm and less. 60 % of the area of Australia - drainless ranges. The most high-water - r. Murray, the most lengthy - r. Darling; the majority of the rivers is charged with water only periodically{batchly} (t. n. Cries). In desert areas brine lakes Ejr, Torrens, Gerdner. The interior of Australia is occupied in deserts (B.Peschanaja pustynja, desert B. Victoria, the Gibson), framed by a belt of semideserts with an acanthous bush (skreb). In a north, the orient, a southeast and a southwest of a semidesert pass in savannahs which are replaced by woods from eucalyptuses, palms, tree ferns along coasts{littorals} and in mountains. The fauna is precinctive: pouched mammals (a kangoroo, an ascigerous mole, etc.), Oviparous mammals (a duckbill platypus, a duckbill), dvojakodyshashchaja a fish tseratod. National parks and reservations are most known: Maunt-Baffalo, Kostsjushko, Saut-West, etc. Parrots kakadu Are characteristic an ostrich of an emu, kazaury. Australia is open{discovered} in 1606 Dutch V.Janszonom and called Is new. Holland; in 19 century the title of Australia (" the Austral Earth ") was consolidated. In terrain of Australia the state Avstralija.* * *АВСТРАЛИЯИстория issledovanijaPervyj a stage - floats of the Dutch seamen of 17 century is located. 17 century up to Europeans were reached with separate cramps on Australia and New Guinea from the Portuguese seafarers. Year of discovering of Australia considers 1606 when Dutch seafarer V.Janszon inspected a plot of a western coast of peninsula Cape York peninsula in a north of continent. Within 17 century the main{basic} discoverings have been made by the Dutch travellers, except for spanish expedition 1606, in which L. Torres has discovered a channel between New Guinea and Australia (afterwards called as his{its} name). Owing to a priority of Dutchs originally Australia has received the title New Holland. In 1616 D.Hartog, being directed to an island Java, has discovered a plot of a western coast of continent which examination practically has been completely completed in 1618-22. An austral shore (his{its} western part) probeed in 1627 F.Tejsen and P.Nejts. Two travelings to Australia A.Tasman, first bended has committed Australia from the south and proved, that she represents separate mainland. In 1642 his{its} expedition has discovered an island called as him{it} in honour of the Dutch governor of East Indies by ground Van - Dimena (then this island has been renamed into Tasmania), and an island " the Earth of staffs " (present New Zealand). During the second traveling in 1644 he has studied boreal and northwest coasts of Australia. The second stage - the English and French marine expeditions 18 - the first half of 19 centuries. On a boundary of 18 century. The English seafarer and pirate U.Dampir has discovered group of the islands called as his{its} name for coasts of northwest Australia. In 1770 during first around-the-world cruise Dzh. Cook inspected eastern coast of Australia, has straightened{found} out an island rule{situation;position} of New Zealand. In 1788 in Sydney which then the Port - Dzhekson called, the colony for the English convicts has been based. In 1798 English topographer D.Bass has discovered a channel separable Tasmania from Australia (afterwards the channel is called as his{its} name). In 1797-1803 English explorer M.Flinders has bypassed Tasmania, all mainland and has charted an austral shore and the Major Barrier reef, has conducted filming a bay gulf of Carpentaria. In 1814 he has offered instead of New Holland to name austral mainland Australia. His{its} name calls many geographycal objects on mainland and in accumbent seas. In the same season{term} the French expedition led by N.Bodenom has discovered some islands and bays. Have finished activities on study of coasts of Australia F.King and D.Uiken in 1818-39. The third stage - overland expeditions of the first half of 19 century. Originally in this season{term} because of difficulties of overcoming of huge midland deserts of expedition have been concentrated primarily in offshore areas. C.Stert, T.Mitchell have passed through the Major Water-partite backbone, vyjdja to extensive plains, but not going deep into them, probeed in southeast Australia basin of the largest river of continent - Murray and its{her} in-leaks{influxes} - Darling. In 1840 Polish traveller P.Stsheletsky has discovered the highest top of Australia-. Kostsjushko. English explorer E.Ejr in 1841 has committed transition along an austral shore from Adelaide in a southeast part of mainland to a bay King - George. In 40th study of deserts of internal ranges of Australia starts. It is defaced in 1844-46 inspected sandy and rocky deserts in a southeast part of mainland. In 1844-45 german scientist of L. Lejhgardt has crossed north-east Australia, it was forwarded through rivers Dauson, Mackenzie and other, has reached{achieved} internal ranges of peninsula Arnhemland, and then a sea has returned to Sydney. In 1848 his{its} new expedition was missing. Unsuccessful searches of expedition were undertaken O.Gregori's by Englishman who has studied internal range of peninsula Arnhemland, has transfered through eastern surburb of central deserts. The fourth stage - midland expeditions of second half 19 - 20 centuries. First have crossed Australia from the south north-up, from Adelaide up to a bay gulf of Carpentaria, the English explorers R.Berk and U.Uils in 1860, on a return path in area of the river Cooper's Creek Berk has perished. Doubly has crossed mainland in 1862 Scottish explorer Dzh. Stjuart, the having paid major investment in study of central ranges. In E.Dzhajlsa consequent to expedition (1872-73, 1875-76), Dzh. Forrest (1869, 1870, 1874), D.Lindseja (1891), L. Uelsa (1896) and other English travellers explicitly inspected deserts of Central Australia: Major Sandy, the Gibson and Major desert Victoria. In the first third of 20 century, due to transactionses basically of the English geographers, were zakartirovany the main{basic} insufficiently studied ranges in an interior of Australia. Литература:Свет J.M.Istorija of discovering and probes of Australia and Oceania. М., 1967.. G.Mirlin
  • AVSTRALO-ASIAN MEDITERRANEAN the PEST, non-proprietary name of seas between Asia and Australia, in a western part Quiet ok. A gross area ok. 8 million км2. The largest starving: Southern - Chinese, JAvanskoe, Sulawesi, Sulu, Molukkskoe, etc.
  • AVSTRALO-ANTARCTIC HOLLOW, submerged hollow in a southeast Indian ok., bliz Antarctica. In a north and the orient it is limited to Avstralo-antarctic raising, in the south a continental slope of Antarctica, in the west submerged hr. Kerguelen. Length of 4500 kms, width of 1500 kms; prevailing{dominating} depths of 4000-5000 m, the greatest - 6089 m (bliz hr. Kerguelen).
  • AVSTRALO-ANTARCTIC RAISING, submerged raising in a southeast part Indian ok., bridging an austral part Central - indian hr. With Southern - pacific raising. Length ok. 6000 kms, width up to 800 kms, a critical depth above a crest of 1145 m.
  • AVSTRALOIDNAJA the STRAIN (australian strain), enters in major equatorial (negro-avstraloidnuju) strain. The dark leather, broad naze, a prognathism, a corrugated hair, the strong growth of a hair on a face and a body are characteristic. It is distributed in Australia, JUzh. Asia and Oceania. Many anthropologists secrete australian strain in do-it-yourself major strain.
  • AVSTRALOPITEKI (from an armour. australis - austral and grech. pithekos - the monkey), the required maximum humanoid primates moved on two legs. Finds of skeleton residues in the south and the orient Africa (zindzhantrop, etc.) are numerous. Lived ok. 3 million flying back.
  • The AUSTRIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, is based in 1847 in Vienna. In 1991 ok. 120 full members, over 70 corresponding members, 20 honorary members, 16 institutes, ok. 40 scientific commissions.
  • The AUSTRIAN SCHOOL in political economy. Has arisen in 80th of 19 century in Austria (K.Menger, E.Bem-Baverk, F.Vizer, etc.). In 20th of 20 its{her} century preemnitsej " the pullet{young man} Austrian school " (L.Mizes, F.Hayek, G.Haberler, etc.) has become. A basic element of the theory of the Austrian school - the doctrine about limiting{marginal} utility (see. Limiting{marginal} utility the theory). Similar rules{situations;positions} have been pushed U.Dzhevonsom and A.Marshallom (Great Britain), L.Valrasom (Switzerland), Dzh. B.Clark (USA). Philosophy of the Austrian school are developed in theory a limit of efficiency (see. Productivity{output} of the theory).
  • The AUSTRIAN NATIONAL BANK (Osterreichische Nationalbank), a state central bank of Austria. It is based in 1922.7 branches. The sum of assets 223 billion Austrian schillings (181 billion dol. The USA) (kon. 1980th).
  • The AUSTRIAN PATRIMONY, war for the Austrian patrimony (1740-48) coalitions of France, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Spain, Piedmont, etc., challenging Maria Terezii's succession laws on possessions of the Austrian corona and aspiring{trying} to their section, against Austria backed{promoted;supported} by England, Netherlands and Russia. On Ahenskomu to the world 1748 Maria Terezija has saved a large part of the possessions, but almost all Silesia has transfered to Prussia.
  • The AUSTRIANS (the self-title - esterrajher), people, the main{basic} population of Austria (7,15 million person). An aggregate number 8,8 million person (1992). Live also in the USA (1270 thousand person), Germany (180 thousand person), Canada (40 thousand person), etc. countries. Tongue - german. Roman catholics believing main{basic}.
  • AUSTRIA, the Austrian Republic (Republik Osterreich), the state in Center. To Europe, in a bass. Danube. 83,8 thousand км2. The population 7,9 million person (1993), 98 % - the Austrians. A urban population of 64,5 % (1991). The official language - german. The majority of believers - roman catholics. Austria - federation in structure of 9 grounds, including. Vienna, capital of Austria. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament (National advice{council} and Federal advice{council}). A large part of terrain take Vost. The Alpes (a peak level - mountain Grosglokner, 3797 м) and their piedmonts; low plain across Danube. St. 2/5 terrains - mountain forests; above - meadows. A climate moderate, continental, in the west the wet; mean temperatures of January from-1 up to-4 °C, July 15-18 °C. A rainfall of 500-900 mm annually, in mountains up to 2000 mm. The rivers a bass. Danube, an eskar. Nojzidler-Ze, Bodenskoe. Reservations: Nojzidlerze-Zevinkel, Karvendelbirge, etc. In 6-7 centuries. The terrain of Austria was occupied German and in part with slavonic nations. With 1156 Austria - duchy (with 1453 ertsgertsogstvo). In 1282 in Austria were affirmed Gabsburgi. Since 16 century. Austria has become the political centre formed in conditions{situation} of approach of Ottoman empire on JUgo-Vost. Europe multinational monarchy Gabsburgov (16-18 centuries included Czechia, Silesia, Hungary, a part Polish, zapadnoukrainskih, juzhnoslavjanskih, italian, etc. grounds). In kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries. Austria (with 1804 - the Austrian empire) participat in wars with France, in building in 1815 Sacred unions. Austria combated Prussia for hegemony in Germany, ended in a defeat of Austria in avstro-Prussian war 1866. In 1867 Austrian empire is converted to a two-unified monarchy - Austria-Hungary. In 1888 the Social-democratic party of Austria was formed. In 1-st world war Austria-Hungary participat in the union with Germany. Austria-Hungary in kon. 1918 has broken up, on its{her} debris the states - Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia are built; parts of terrain were part of Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Italy. On November, 12 1918 Austria is professed by republic. Sen-ZHermensky the peace treaty 1919 has defined{determined} its{her} modern borders{limits}. In March 1938 fascist troops occupied Austria; its{her} apposition to Germany (anshljus) is professed. In the spring 1945 Austria has been free of fascist domination. She has been temporarily occupied by a troops of the USSR, the USA, the Great Britain and France; the end of occupation has put the State agreement for restoration of independent and democratic Austria (1955). In October 1955 Austrian parliament has passed the law on the permanent neutrality of Austria. In 1945-66 the authority had coalition governments of the Austrian people party (ANP; it is based in 1945 on the basis 19 century built in 80th. Hristiansko-social consignment) and Socialist party of Austria (SPA), in 1966-1970 - government ANP, in 1970-83 - government of SPA, in 1983-86 - government of SPA and the Austrian consignment of freedom (it is based in 1955), since January 1987 - government of SPA and ANP. Austria - one of most economically developed countries of Europe. St. 20 % of an industrial output forms in a state sector (metallurgical, mining branches, energetics). The role of the capital of Germany is great. A lobe in a runway (1991, %): an industry, including construction, 36,3, village and a forestry 2,8. Production of iron oxide, a magnesite, brown coal, petroleum, black lead, zinc-lead and tungsten ores. Manufacture of the electric power 51,1 billion kVt·ch (1992), including over 2/3 on a river plant. Are most developed: a machine industry (transport, agricultural, electrical industry), iron and steel industry (4,3 million t steel, 3,7 million. t hire in 1990), manufacture of aluminium, chemical, pulp and paper, wood-working, textile, kozhevenno-boot, a tailoring industry. The agriculture is intensive and vysokotovarno; the large landholding prevails{dominates}. Master branch - a dairy husbandry. A livestock (1991, one million) a large horned stock 2,6, pigs 3,7. A poultry breeding. Cultivate wheat, barley, sugar-beet, feed crops. A fruit growing and wine growing. Length (1992, one thousand in km) railways 6,7, motorways 125. Main river harbors: Linz, Vienna. Export: machines and the equipment, the textile and sewing goods, a paper, forest products, shoe, the foodstuffs, the electric power. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: Germany, etc. countries of European Economic Community. Foreign tourism (ok. 15 million hours annually). Monetary unit - an Austrian schilling.
  • AVSTROAZIATSKIE TONGUES (austroaziatskie), family of the tongues distributed in JUgo-Vost. And JUzh. Asia. Actuates groups of tongues: semang-sakaj (aslianskuju), vjetmyongskuju, the mon-khmer, palaung-va, nikobarskogo tongue, tongue khasi, munda, nagali tongues.

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