Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • AVSTRO-HUNGARY in 1867-1918 dualistic (two-unified) monarchy led by the Austrian emperor (he the Hungarian king). It is built as a result of transformation{conversion} of the Austrian empire Gabsburgov on the basis of agreement 1867 between Austria and Hungary adjudicated, as well as Austria, a sovereign part of the state. It was divided into the Austrian empire (or TSislejtaniju) and the Kingdom of Hungarians (or Translejtaniju). Has broken up in 1918.
  • AVSTRO-ITALO-FRANTSUZSKAJA WAR 1859, Piedmont (one of the italian states) and France against Austria holding under the domination the Lombardo-venetian region. The main{basic} battles for Madzhenty (on June, 4) and Solferino (on June, 24) have concluded a defeat of the Austrian troops. Under the Zurich agreements (on November, 10 1859) Piedmont has received from Austria Lombardy, and under Turin agreement 1860 France from Piedmont (for rendering to him the help) - Savoy and Nice.
  • AVSTRO-ITALIAN WAR 1848-1849, for discharging of the italian states of the Austrian domination; began during revolutions in the italian states 1848-49. After defeats of italian army at Kustotse (on July, 25 1848), for Mortary (on March, 21 1849) and Novara (on March, 23 1849) the Austrian troops again occupied the Lombardo-venetian region free from under authority Gabsburgov during italian revolution.
  • AVSTRO-ITALIAN WAR 1866, national-liberation war of Italy against the Austrian domination, for completion of association of country. The main{basic} battles - at Kustotse (on June, 24) and about. Lissa (on July, 20) - have concluded a defeat of an italian troops. It was led simultaneously with avstro-Prussian war 1866. Has concluded armistice on August, 10; on the Austrian world (on October, 3) the Venetian region headed out from Austria to the Italian kingdom.
  • AVSTROMARKSIZM, ideological and the political trend which has been usual in nach. 20 century in the Austrian social democracy (K.Renner, O.Bauer, лю. and F.Adlery, R.Gilferding, etc.). For avstromarksizma the reformism are characteristic, attempt to bridge marxism with neokantianstvom, the program of a cultural - national autonomy. Between two world wars "avstromarksistskoj" called all Austrian social-democratic party which aspired{tried} to take a special intermediate item between social-democratic and communist motions. Some items avstromarksizma have found reflectance in program documents (1947, 1958, 1978) Socialist party of Austria.
  • AVSTRONEZIJSKIE TONGUES, the family of tongues traditionally subdivided into 4 groups: Indonesian, Polynesian, melanezijskie and mikronezijskie tongues. The nucleus of family avstronezijskih tongues calls as malajsko-Polynesian tongues. In the modern gradings avstronezijskie tongues of Taiwan are contrasted remaining avstronezijskim to tongues among which it is secreted okeanijskaja (vostochnoavstronezijskaja) a branch.
  • AVSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR 1866, has finished for the benefit of Prussia its{her} extirpation with Austria for supremacy among the German states. Began on June, 16 encroachment into Hannover, Giessen and Saxony of a troops of Prussia supplying{ensuring} due to the secret military agreement encased in April with Italy, performance{statement} last against Austria (see is simultaneous. Avstro-italian war 1866). Decisive battle of avstro-Prussian war in area Sadovy (on July, 3) has concluded full rout of the Austrian army. Under the Prague peace treaty Austria has recognized dissolution of the German union, having agreed to " the new device of Germany " (without sharing{participation} Austria), and promised to recognize the new union of the German states northward from r. Main led by Prussia (the Severo-German union).
  • AVSTROSLAVIZM, the program of a reorganization of the Austrian empire (about 1867 Austria-Hungarys) in a federative state under authority Gabsburgov, put forward in Czechia since 40th of 19 century up to nach. 1-st world war.
  • AVSTRO-TURKISH WARS of 16-18 centuries, primarily for boreal part Balkan p-ova and terrain of the Hungarian kingdom. Have begun osadoj Turks of Vienna (1529). Grand total of avstro-turkish wars 1540-47, 1551-62, 1566-68, 1660-64 was section of grounds of the Hungarian kingdom. War 1683-99 has ended in the defeat of Ottoman empire marked by an antiturkish coalition (Austria, Poland, Venice, with 1686 and Russia), and its{her} large territorial loss in Europe (see. Karlovitsky a congress 1698-99), as well as war 1716-18 (see in an item. Pozharevatskie peace treaties 1718). Avstro-turkish wars 1737-39 and 1788-90 (were interlaced with russko-turkish wars 1735-39 and 1787-1791) are as a whole not successful for Austria (has returned to Ottoman empire a part of Serbia and Walachia).
  • AVSJUK Grigory Aleksandrovich (1906-88), the Russian fiziko-geographer, academician AN the USSR (1984). Transactionses on probe of a temperature schedule of icehouses. The chief (with 1956) the Soviet glaciological probes under international programs.
  • AUTARCHY (from grech. autarkeia - self-satisfaction), building of a selfcontained economy within the framework of separate country.
  • AVTITSY Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • AVTITSY Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • AVTOBANK, the Russian joint-stock business bank of development of motor industry. It is based in 1988, Moscow. Branches in N.Novgorode, Vladimir, Krasnoyarsk, Kazan, Izhevsk. An ownership capital of 1,607 bln. rbl. (1997).
  • The AUTOBIOGRAPHY (from avto... And the biography), a prosaic genre, the description of natural life; it is close to memoirs, but it is more concentrated on the personality and an inner life of the writer (" Was{Former} and a duma " by A.I.Gertsena).
  • AUTOMATIC LOCK-OUT railway, a traffic regulating system of trains on signals of the automatic traffic signals working under influence of trains (by means of the electrical signals passing on rails).
  • AUTOMATIC LOCK-OUT, automatic change of a mode of behavior of the machine, the device, system (down to a full stop), called by sudden violation{disturbance} of normal conditions of their operation; set{combination} of the means automatically executing such change of a mode. It is applied to protection of staff at originating emergencies, for an avoidance of extension{issue} of spoilage at discord and breakage of the technological machine, for good safety motions.
  • The BUS from avto (mobile) and (omni) a glass bead, multipiece (9-170 passengers) the automobile{car} with a body primarily carload type. For urban buses a top speed not less than 70 km/h, for interurban not less than 100 km/h. Length of microbuss less than 5 m, and the jointed buses and bus trains up to 24 m.
  • ROAD SERVICE STATION, see in an item. Passenger depot.
  • AUTOWAVES, one of kinds{views} samopodderzhivajushchih waves in the active mediuims keeping internal sources of power. Autowaves represent spreading mud processes of self-oscillations in the widespread vibratory systems. Examples of autowaves: vibratory chemical changes in reactive medium, burning, a contact catalysis, distribution{propagation} of exaltations in the systems keeping biological membranes, etc.
  • AUTOGAMY (from avto... And grech. gamos - spoilage), 1) an autogamy and an autogamy for higher plants, napr., for wheat. 2) the Autogamy for unicells (interflow of two nucleus), napr., for Diatoms, some Protozoa.
  • AUTOGENESIS (from avto... And... A genesis), the doctrine explaining evolution of organisms by action only of internal incorporeal factors (" a principle of perfecting ", "growing energy", etc.). The autogenesis is close to a vitalism. Compare. Ektogenez.
  • The SELF-EXCITED OSCILLATOR (self-excited generator), produces the electrical (electromagnetic) oscillations bolstered as a result of feed of a part of an ac voltage from an output of a self-excited oscillator on his{its} orifice (on the reaction circuit). It is applied, napr., in radio transmitters.
  • The AUTOGRAPH (from avto... And... Columns), 1) autographic, routinely memorable inscription, a signature. 2) the Autographic author's handwritten text.
  • SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF MOTORING AND ROAD IMPROVEMENT, in 1927-35 voluntary society of assistance to development of a motoring and improvement of roads in the Russian Federation.
  • AUTOMOBILE TRACK (from avto... And grech. dromos - trot race, a place for trot race), the terrain used for occupations by automobile sport, competitions and education{learning} of motor-men.
  • GYROPLANE (frants. autogyr, from avto and grech. gyros - a circle, rotation), the flight vehicle, which upward force forms by the bearing screw - a curl rotated loosely, under action of ram air. The gyroplane represents a transition type between an airplane and helicopter. H.Siervoj in 1919 is invented. Many were engaged in development of models of gyroplanes design office up to nach. 1940 gg, now he is used basically in the sporting purposes.
  • POWER TRUCK (from avto... And English car - the carriage), a dummy car with an internal-combustion engine and a service platform.
  • AUTOCEPHALOUS CHURCH (from avto... And grech. kephale - a head), in orthodoxy administrative do-it-yourself church.
  • AUTOCLAVE (from avto... And an armour. clavis - a key), the pressurized apparatus for realization of many physico-chemical processes at heating and a supertension (that picks up speed processes), and also for degermination of medical instruments and dressing materials.
  • STEAM-CURED MATERIALS, building timbers and items on the basis of a lime, cements and inorganic fillers (napr., a lime sand brick, cellular concrete), exposed to machining in autoclaves (at pressure 0,9-1,6 MPa, temperature 175-200 °C).
  • SELF-OSCILLATIONS, undamped oscillations, which can exist{breathe} in a vibratory system for want of periodic{batch} external actions (as against forced vibrations) at the expense of availability in system of the active component supplying imminent energy losses in the hardware system. The voltage and the season{term} self-oscillations are determined by properties of the system and do not depend on final change of initial conditions. Examples of self-oscillations - oscillations of a floating lever of hours, skripichnoj catguts at motion of a bow, a current in the radio generator.
  • AUTOCOLLIMATION (from avto... And collimo, instead of correct an armour. collineo - I refer endways), automatic recurring of the light beam which has left locus of a lens, back to locus if behind a lens the flat mirror strictly perpendicularly to optic axis is located. The optical-mechanical device is based on autocollimations for precise angular measurements - the autocollimator.
  • AUTOCRACY (from avto... And kratija), the form of government with unlimited uncontrolled sovereignty of one face (tyranny Other. The orient, empire Rome, Byzantium, the absolute monarchies, etc.).
  • AUTOLYSIS (from avto... And grech. lysis - decomposition, disintegration), an autolytic decomposition of tissues and cells under action of their natural hydrolases. Descends in an organism at a number{series} of physiological processes (a metamorphosis, a fission, etc.), in infarctions, and also at decomposition of corpses. The autolysis of microorganisms is supervised at ageing microbial crop, damage of cells by different agents.
  • AUTOCHOIR, in the Grecian mythology the son of Hermes and Hiony, grandfather Odisseja. It was glorified by the finesse, ability to reincarnate and do{make} subjects invisible or up to unrecognizability to variate them. Has learned Gerakla to art of extirpation.
  • AUTOLITHOGRAPHY (from avto... And a lithograph), a lithograph where the plotting on a stone is put by the writer, instead of the master - litograf.
  • MOTORING-HIGHWAY (from avto... And an armour. magistralis - main), the same, that a traffic way.
  • The AUTOMATIC CONTROL UNIT, personal rifle automatic weapons. True fire up to 400 m, firing rate can reach 1000 outrigger booms in one minute.
  • The AUTOMATIC CONTROL UNIT (from grech. automatos - automatic), 1) the device (set{combination} of devices), executing{designing} under the given program without direct sharing{participation} the person all operations during obtaining, transformations{conversions}, drives and distributions (use) of power, materials or informations. The program of the automatic control unit is set in his{its} design (hours, a penny-in-the-slot machine) or from the outside - by means of punched cards, magnetic tapes, etc. (a computer, the software-controlled machine), profiling or simulators (AVM, the servo-mechanism, the interpolator). 2) In cybernetics - mathematical model of the real-life or essentially possible{probable} systems executing transformation{conversion} of a digital information.



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