Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • AUTOMATION, application of means, economic-mathematical methods and the guidance systems releasing the person in part or completely from direct sharing{participation} during obtaining, transformation{conversion}, drive and use of power, materials or informations. Are automated: 1) technological, power, transport, etc. productions; 2) designing of the composite units, courts, industrial structures, industrial complexes; 3) organization, planning{glide} and steering within the framework of shop, the enterprises, constructions, branches, an army part, connection, etc.; 4) scientific probes, medical and technical diagnosing, the count and machining of statistical data, programming, engineering calculations, etc. The Purpose of automation - a raising the productivity and efficacyy of transactionses, an improvement of the quality of production, optimisation of steering, elimination of the person from activity in conditions, dangerous for health. Automation - one of main routes of technological advance.
  • The AUTOMIZED GUIDANCE SYSTEM (automatic control system), set{combination} of mathematical methods, means (a computer, a communication facility, display units, etc.) and the organizational complexes ensuring rational steering by the composite object (process) according to a specified goal. The automatic control system will consist of a fundamentals and the functional part. Into the basis{fundamentals} enter information, technical and software. To the functional part attribute a panel of the interdependent programs computerizing concrete control functions (planning{glide}, financial - accounting activity, etc.). Distinguish an automatic control system objects (production processes - ASUTP, the enterprise - ASUP, branch - OASU) and the functional automized systems, napr., designing, calculations, material, etc. maintenance.
  • The AUTOMIZED JOB (automated workplace), job of the operator, the traffic controller, the designer, the technologist, etc., equipped with a means of computer facilities for automation of processes of a thorough revision and an information display, necessary for fulfilment of a work quota.
  • AUTOMATISM (fiziol)., ability of a cell, a tissue or an organ to rhythmic, periodic{batch} or aperiodic spontaneous activity without apparent communications{connections} with external inducements (napr., reductions of heart).
  • AUTOMATICS, 1) range of theoretical and applied{economic} knowledge of automatically operative units and systems. 2) Set{Combination} of mechanisms and the devices which are operating automatically.
  • The AUTOMATIC TRANSFER LINE, machine systems, the main{basic} and the auxiliary equipment, manufacturing automatically executing{designing} all process or a thorough revision of a product of manufacture or his{its} part. Distinguish automatic transfer lines: special (machining of fixed items), specialized (machining of of the same type production in some range of parameters) and generalpurpose (manufacturing of the broad nomenclature of of the same type production).
  • AUTOMATIC ROTOR LINE, see. A rotor line.
  • An AUTOMATIC GUIDANCE SYSTEM, set{combination} of a controlled plant and automatic measuring and control devices in which information processing, formation of commands and their transformation{conversion} to influences on a controlled plant implement without sharing{participation} the person.
  • AUTOMATIC HOUSE TELEPHONE SYSTEM (ATS), ensures all wanted connections in a voice circuit (without sharing{participation} the person) for organization of negotiations on calling signals from a telephone apparatus.
  • The AUTOMATIC WEAPONS, fire-arms (machine guns, guns, guns - machine guns, automatic rifles, machine-gun cannons, etc.) in which power of powder gases at an outrigger boom is used for the report a pool (gear) of motion, reloads and manufactures of the alternate outrigger boom. Has appeared in 2-nd floor. 19 century.
  • AVTOMEDONT (Avtomedon), in the Grecian mythology (for Gomera) voznichy Ahilla.
  • The AUTOMOBILE{CAR} (from avto... And an armour. mobilis - mobile, easily moving), the transport trackless machine primarily on wheels, set in motion by the natural engine (internal combustion, electrical or steam{vapour}). The first automobile{car} with the steam engine is constructed Z.Kjunjo (France) in 1769-70, with an internal-combustion engine - G.Dajmlerom, K.Benz (Germany) in 1885-86. Rotation from the engine is transmitted to a clutch coupling, a gear box, a differential and sprockets (the master bridge). Automobiles{cars} passenger (automobile and buses), cargo, special (fire fighting, sanitarian, etc.) and racing distinguish. Speed of cars up to 300 km/h, racing up to 1020 km/h (1993), carrying capacity of lorries up to 180 t.
  • MOTOR INDUSTRY, the branch of a machine industry effecting automobile and lorries (including special destination), buses, trailers, and also their parts, clusters and units. Has arisen in kon. 19 century in France, Germany, the USA, the Great Britain. In Russia the production extension{issue} of automobiles{cars} began from Russko-Baltic factory; in total in 1909-15 it is made over 600 automobiles{cars}. The motor industry is defined by a high level of specialization, broad cooperation, the advanced technology, including application of conveyer assembly. Annually in the world effect 40-45 million automobiles{cars}, from them over 1/4 cargo and buses. Ok. All 1/2 made new automobiles{cars} goes on changing leaving out of operation as a result of wearing or ustarelosti.
  • The AUTOMOBILE TROOPS, special troops for a logistics flow, evacuations injured, troop movements. In some armies call as a transport troops.
  • The AUTOMOBILE AND AUTOMOTOR INSTITUTE Central research (US), is based in 1918 in Moscow (up to 1921 laboratory of technological department VSNH). Probes and developments on designing automobiles{cars} and their equipment. With 1989 NPO on motor-vehicles, automobile, tractor and kombajnovym to engines (NPO us).
  • MOTOR PARK, 1) set{combination} of different automobiles{cars}, haulage trucks, buses and trailers of the enterprise, establishment, department (including in military unit, connection), as a whole in country and in the world. 2) the Specially equipped stowage (parking), supply and maintenance supports of motor-vehicles.
  • ROAD TRAIN, the automobile{car} with a semitrailer truck, one or several trailers, attached tjagovo-clutch or reference - sellar devices and having general with the automobile{car} a braking system and an electrical equipment. Are cargo, passenger (the bus to the trailer) and special.
  • AUTOMOBILE SPORT, competitions on racing, sporting, stock cars (races on highway and an automobile track, rally, rounds on establishment Record-type, etc.) and maps - on karting. In International automobile federation (FIA; it is based in 1904) 97 countries (1992). World championships with 1925, Europe with 1935.
  • MOTOR TRANSPORT, see. The transport.
  • AVTOMODELIZM, designing and construction of models atomobilej in the technical or sporting purposes.
  • SELF-SIMILARITY, the special symmetry of physical system consisting in a volume, that change of scales of the explanatory variables circumscribing systems, can be balanced a homothetic transformation (see. Similarities the theory) other dynamic variable. Self-similarity is inherent{intrinsic} in many physical systems and essentially simplifies the description of the phenomena in these systems (napr., in an aeromechanics and an elementary particle physics). See also the Similarity physical, Similarities criteria.
  • SELF-SIMILAR SPORT, competitions on designing and pattern making of automobiles{cars}, steering of them in a performance trials on special lines{routes}. In European federation of self-similar sport (it is based in 1949) 9 countries (1991). Championships of Europe with 1949. In World organization of self-similar sport (WMCR; it is based in 1979) 11 countries (1992). World championships with 1980.
  • MOTORAILER (frants. automotrice, characters. - samodvizhushchajasja), a self-propelled railway vehicle with an internal-combustion engine. To a motorailer sometimes hook on 1-2 rail cars.
  • AUTONYMAS (from avto... And grech. onyma - a name), a genuine name of the writer writing under an alias.
  • AUTONOMAS Italijsky (mind{wit}. 313), the martyr, diocesan Italijsky. During persecution of emperor Diokletiana has expelled in Vifiniju where has been killed by local residents adder's tongues. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 12 (25).
  • The AUTONOMY, 1) in konstitutsinnom the right - the right of terrain self-contained to execute the government in the limits given her by the constitution. 2) Independence of any scientific or educational establishment - napr., a university autonomy.
  • AUTONOMY (from avto... And grech. nomos - the law), in ethics - natural regularity, opredeljaemost any the phenomena his{its} internal laws. Contrast of an autonomy - geteronomija.
  • INDEPENDENT{AUTONOMOUS} ETHICS, see in an item. Ethics.
  • SELF-SUFFICIENCY of the SHIP{SPACECRAFT}, duration of continuous float of the ship{spacecraft} without restocking; a battle self-sufficiency of the ships{spacecrafts} - duration of continuous management of operations without refill boezapasa (and for aircraft-carriers and aviation fuel). A self-sufficiency of the ships{spacecrafts} of different classes with a routine (non-nuclear) power plant - from 7 till 90 day.
  • The INDEPENDENT{AUTONOMOUS} ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY, ensures with the electric power the devices irrelevant with power line (LEP). Distinguish independent{autonomous} electric power supplies, structurally consolidated with consumers (accumulator, solar batteries, etc.), and offset type (a mobile electric power station, the railway mobile power plant, etc.).
  • AVTONOMOV Alexander Isidorovich (1890-1919), the participant of the Civil war; in 1918 commander-in-chief army, armed forces of the Kuban Soviet republic.
  • The AUTOMATIC OPERATOR (from avto... And an armour. operor - I work), 1) the automatic operator of the rig - the device for automatic changeover of the instrument in the multioperational rig. The supervisory control of a rule{situation;position} of each instrument implements automatically. 2) the Automatic operator of a waterpower plant - the system of automatic devices ensuring feed of a firing command and a shut-down of units of a river plant at change of a mode of their activity owing to change of a head and the charge, and also a load of electrical power system which structure includes a river plant.
  • The AUTOPILOT (from avto... And frants. pilote - the chief, a leader), the device for an automatic stabilization and flight control of a flight vehicle. Signals of the current and required rules{situations;positions} of the apparatus in the space file in the computing circuit which gives signals to actuators, control control surfaces or a power plant. The autopilot executes{designs} the given mission plan, releasing the pilot from hard work on steering of an airplane in prolonged flights.
  • AUTOPOLYPLOIDY (from avto... And a polyploidy), a hereditary variation consisting in aliquot increase of figure of sets of chromosomes in cells of plants, less often animal the same kind{view}. On the basis of a synthetic autopolyploidy new forms and grades of a buckwheat are received{obtained}, neigh, sugar-beet, etc.
  • SELF-PORTRAIT (from avto... And a portrait), the portrait of the artist plump by him{it}. In a self-portrait the artist expresses the self-consciousness, an assessment{evaluation} of the natural personality and creative principles.
  • AUTOMATIC POSITION PLOTTER, the device, automatically charting a vessel on a navigational chart on the basis of indications{readings} of a gyrocompass and data about covered distance. Earlier an automatic position plotter called as an odograph.
  • AUTORADIOGRAPHY (from avto... And a radiography), a method of registration rasprelenija radoactive substances in object. The film with a sensing emulsion to a radioactive radiation is imposed on a surface (cut). Radoactive substances as though themselves photograph (from here the title). Places of a blackening on a film after a development correspond{meet} to localization of hot particles. It is used in biology, medicine, technique.
  • The AUTOABSTRACT (from avto... And the abstract), run-down by the writer of the content of the scientific product{creation}, activity.
  • The AUTHORIZED TRANSFER{TRANSLATION}, the transfer{translation} approved by the writer of a first copy.
  • AUTHORITARIANISM (from an armour. auctoritas - an authority), system of an authority, characteristic for anti-democratic political modes. Routinely combines{blends} with personal dictatorship. The Asian tyrannies concern to historical forms of authoritarianism, tyrannical and absoljutistskie forms of government of an antiquity, a Middle Ages and new time, military - police and fascist modes, different versions of a totalitarianism.
  • AUTHORITY (from an armour. auctoritas - an authority, influence), in a broad sense - the conventional influence of a face or organization in different orbs of public life, founded on knowledge, moral dignities, experience; in fine-bored - one of forms of implementation of an authority.
  • AUTHOR'S TABLES, in library business an alphabetic list of the widespread initial combinations of letters numbered by Arabic numeralses on which the author's mark - a graphical symbol of a surname of the writer or the first word of the title of product{creation} is determined. Are applied to arrangement of products{creations} of a seal{printing} in alphabetic order.
  • The AUTHOR'S AGREEMENT, the agreement between the writer (or his{its} successors) and publishing house, theatre, a film studio, etc. about use of a literary work, science or art (publishing, postanovochnyj, stsenarnyj, etc. the author's agreement). In the Russian right conditions of the author's agreement are determined by civil procedure law.
  • The SIGNATURE, unit of volume of a literary work, is peer to 40 thousand printed characters, or 700 lines of a poetic material, or 3 thousand in sm2 of a stamped actuarial material.
  • The COPYRIGHT, the section of a civic right regulating attitudes{relations}, the bound with building and use (the issuing, performance{fulfillment}, etc.) products{creations} of science, the literature and the art, the expressed in oral, written or other objective form conceding their reproduction. The copyright is distributed to products{creations} both exhausted, and not issued. It is adjusted{regulated} by the national law and international conventions on guarding{preservation} copyrights. Copyrights fall into to figure of objects of intellectual property.
  • GYROPILOT (gyropilot), a navigation device for automatic deduction of a vessel on a selected heading. Action of a gyropilot is based on automatic closing of a steering mechanism at deviation{rejection} of a vessel from a course. The gyropilot works in combination to a gyrocompass or other course indicators.
  • AVTORHANOV Abdurahman Genazovich (1908-97), the Russian historian and the writer. Up to 1943 in the USSR (in 1937 it is repressed), then the Sowing is deported with occupied a german troops. Caucasus to Germany where has remained after war. Transactionses about totalitarian system in the USSR - " the History of personality cult in the USSR " (a course of lectures via radio), " Technology of an authority " (1959, it is published in Russia 1991), " the Riddle of mors of Stalin (plot Berii) " (1976, is published in Russia 1992); " Empire of the Kremlin. The Soviet phylum of a colonialism " (1988, Vilnius, 1990); "Memoirs" (1983).
  • MOTOR SHOW, exhibition (or its{her} section) for demonstrating new models of automobiles{cars}.
  • AUTOMATIC RELEASE, in a photo - the device ensuring an automatic operation of a gate of the camera through 10-15 with ambassador of his{its} inclusion.
  • AUTOSTERILITY (from avto... And a sterility) (self-sterility), disability of plants and bisexual animal for which normal men's and women gametes will be derivated, to an autogamy. These organisms have routinely amphimixis.
  • AUTOMATIC STOP (from avto... And English stop - a shut-down), the device (electrical, mechanic) for an automatic braking of a train at the approach to a line signal forbidding motion.
  • TRAFFIC WAY (ital. autostrada) (motoring-highway), a highway, routinely major expansion and high throughput, with a middle strip for a uncoupling of the counter traffic streams, not having traverses flush with other ways. It is intended for a mass high-speed vehicular traffic.
  • AUTOSTRIPS, see. Strips.
  • AUTOMATIC COUPLER, the device for an automatic clutch (at impact or pressing) locomotives and rail cars with a manual declutching.
  • AUTOTYPE (from avto... And grech. typos - an impress, the form), 1) a mechanical process of manufacturing of printed forms with relief printing areas. It is applied to reproduction of half-tone images (pictures, pasteless drawings, etc.) by a means of a relief printing. 2) the Reprint with raster (see. A screen) a wood block.
  • FISSION (from avto... And grech. tome - blocking off) (autotomy), ability some animal at a sharp irritation spontaneously to reject{jettison} parts of the body (actinia reject{jettison} feelers, cancers - a claw, the lizard - a tail). The lost parts of a body are routinely recovered{restored}.
  • AUTOTRANSFORMER, the electrical transformer with one winding having of a little bit{some} breedings for connection to the ac source and to a load. Potent autotransformers are applied to communication{connection} of the electrical networks{grids} having close values of pressure{voltage;stresses}, low-powered adjustable - in laboratory practice.



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