Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • The BIOGAS, will be derivated as a result of methane fermentation of different organic waste materials of an agriculture, lesoobrabatyvajushchej and a food-processing industry, a municipal services, etc.; will consist of methane (30-75 %) and carbon dioxide. It is used as fuel.
  • BIOGENESIS (from a biot... And... A genesis), education of organic compounds by living organisms. In a broad sense the biogenesis - the empirical generalization stating, that all alive descends only from alive. In it is grey. 19 century contrasted a biogenesis to unscientific submissions about an autogeny of organisms (worms, flies, etc.). As a hypothesis about eternity of life the biogenesis is untenable. Compare. An abiogenes.
  • BIOGENETICAL LAW, generalization according to which the ontogeny individuals (ontogenesis) is as though brief repetition (recapitulation) of the major stages of evolution (phylogenesis) of group to which this individual concerns. F.Mjullerom (1864) is established and E.Gekkelem (1866) is formulated.
  • BIOGENIC ROCKS, the same, that organogenic rocks.
  • BIOGENIC STIMULATORS, biologically active agents; will be derivated in animal and vegetative organisms at influence on them of adverse conditions of medium (external and internal) and collect in isolated tissues. At introduction in an organism boost processes of vital activity, including regeneration and growth, than use, napr., at histic therapy.
  • BIOGENIC ELEMENTS, the chemical elements permanently included in organisms and executing fixed biologic functions. The major biogenic elements - About (compounds ok. 70 % of mass of organisms), C (18 %), H (10 %), N, B, S, Ca, K, Na, Cl. Á. e., necessary for organisms in trace amount, call as microelements.
  • BIOGEOGRAPHY (from a biot... And the geography), studies distribution and distribution of living organisms on a terrestrial globe.
  • BIOGEOCHEMICAL SEARCHES, methods of searches of mineral wealths, founded on detection of heightened concentrations of ore-forming elements in soil and in leach of plants or the abnormal biological responses of vegetative organisms on action of chemical elements near to ore deposits.
  • BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, section of a geochemistry; studies chemical composition of a living substance and the geochemical processes weeping in ecumene of the Earth with the participation of living organisms; actuates also an organic geochemistry.
  • BIOGEOCENOSE (from a biot... geo... And grech. koinos - general), a uniform plot of a surface with fixed structure alive (biocoenosis) and inert (a ground atmospheric slice, solar energy, soil, etc.) components and dynamic interaction between them (an exchange of substance and power). The term was offered by V.N.Sukachyov (1940); it is used as a synonym of an ecosystem.
  • BIOGEOCENOLOGY (from biogeocenose and... logija), studies biogeocenoses.
  • BIOHERMS (from a biot... And grech. herma - a submerged pleat, a hill), the solid dome-shaped clump of the organogenic calcareous substance which have arisen at gradual growth at the bottom of a superficial water reservoir of colonys of attached organisms, depositing a lime (corals, pearlworts, algae, etc.); reaches tens meters in vertical direction and some kilometres on an expansion.
  • BIOLOGICAL HYDROACOUSTICS (from a biot..., gidro... And soundman), studies the notes issued by aquatic organisms. It is long-range at stock inventory of some kinds of fishes and establishment of their specific fitting. Uses methods of an echo ranging for precise definition of depth, firmness of a clump and speed of progression of shoals of a fish. The biological hydroacoustics in a VTR allows to distinguish a submersible, etc. from a shoal of a fish or a whale.
  • BIOGRAPHIC METHOD in literary criticism, interpretation of the literature as reflectances of the biography and features of the personality of the writer (initiator S.O.Sent-Bev). Absolutization of a biographic method results in derogation of a role of a spiritually - historical atmosphere, style of epoch, traditions and influences. In scientific literary criticism - one of principles of probe.
  • The BIOGRAPHIC METHOD, in social science is used: for the description of sample structure zoetic ways and features of the collective biography of separate generations on the basis of the analysis of sociohistorical data; for renovating the zoetic world of separate individuals on the basis of study of personal papers (correspondence, diaries, autobiographies, etc.).
  • The BIOGRAPHY (from a biot... And... grafija), 1) the description of human life; a genre of historical, art and scientific prose. The modern biography (napr., a series " Life of remarkable people ") reveals a historical, national and social condition, psychologic phylum of the personality, its cause-effect relations c sotsiokulturnym the world (compare. The autobiography)... 2) Human life as set of his acts, events and mentalities.
  • BIODOSE, erythema dose, minimum duration of ultra-violet lighting of the leather, necessary for originating weak, but clearly delineated erythema.
  • BIOZONE, the adjournments conforming to vertical distribution of any one regular group of minerals of organisms (a kind, a stem, a set).
  • BIOINDICATORS, organisms, presence, quantity or which intensity of development ministers a parameter of any natural processes or environmental conditions, availability of fixed substances in water or in soil, a pollution intensity, etc. See also Indicator plants.
  • BIOCATALYSIS, the same, that fermentation catalysis.
  • No comments: