Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • ECUMENE (from a biot... And an orb), the range of active life enveloping a heel of an atmosphere, a hydrosphere and a top of a lithosphere. In ecumene living organisms (living substance) and medium of their habitation are organo connected and interact one another, derivating integrated dynamic system. The term "ecumene" is entered into 1875 E.Zjussom. The doctrine about ecumene as about an active environment of the Earth, in which cumulative activity of living organisms (including the person) it shows as the geochemical factor of an epicyclic scale and value, it is built by V.I.Vernadskim (1926).
  • BIOSPHERE RESERVE, protected area (reservation, national park, etc.) on which protection of the most representative for the given zone of natural complexes combines with scientific probes, long-time monitoring of medium and education in range of nature protection. Building of biosphere reserves (with 1973) is connected to the program " the Person and ecumene ". To 1994 in the world was over 300 biosphere reserves; in Russia - 17, including. Sihote-Alinsky, Prioksko-terrasnyj, etc.
  • BIOTA (from grech. biote - life), set of kinds of plants, animal and microorganisms, consolidated general range of distribution. As against a biocoenosis, it can be defined by absence of ecological relationships between kinds.
  • BIOTELEMETRY (from a biot... A body... And... metrija), measurement apart the parameters defining a condition of biological objects (napr., pulse, temperature, a blood pressure for astronauts, sportsmen); implements a means of a telemechanics.
  • BIOTHERMAL HOLE (Bekkari a hole), deepened in ground (on 9-10 ì) a structure from vlago-and a heat-resistant material for a disinfection of corpses animal (except for perished from a Siberian plague). During decomposition corpses through 30-40 sut are pulped, fit for fertilizer.
  • ENGINEERING SYSTEM, set interdependent and interdependent biological and engineering systems or objects. Napr., the onboard engineering system of the spacecraft actuates a galley, units of regeneration of air and water, the device of power supply, a thermal control, sometimes a space greenhouse.
  • BIOTEHNIJA (from a biot... And grech. techne - skill, skill), section ohotovedenija. A primal problem biotehnii - development of measures on guarding and increase of number of wildings, improvement of their productive qualities. Biotechnical activities carry out in reservations, huntings.
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY, use of living organisms and biological processes in a commercial production. Microbialogic synthesis of ferments, vitamins, amino asids, antibiotics, etc. develops. Industrial obtaining other biologically active agents (hormone drugs, the connections challenging immunity, etc.) with the help of methods of genetic engineering and crop animal and plant cells Is long-range.
  • BIOTIN (vitamin H), water-soluble vitamin; a coenzyme participating in transport reactions CO2 to organic compounds, napr. At a biosynthesis of fatty acids. Kidneys, peas, a bean are most affluent a biotin a liver. In an organism animal and the person it is synthesized by a microflora of an intestines. Defect of a biotin invokes primarily defeats of a leather.
  • BIOTITE, porodoobrazujushchy a mineral from group of micas, K (Mg, Fe) 3 [AlSi3O10] (OH, F) 2. Black, brown, brown crystals, foliaceous units. Hardness 2,5 - 3,5; firmness 2,7 - 3,3 g / sm3; it is easily disjoined on nonrigid leaflets. It is distributed in eruptive and metamorphic breeds; in pegmatitah there are crystals the area up to 7 m2.
  • BIOTOPE (from a biot... And grech. topos - a place), a plot of a surface (a dry matter or a water reservoir) with the of the same type ecological conditions, occupied in a fixed biocoenosis.
  • The BIOFUEL, organic materials (a dung, peat, etc.), secreting at decomposition is warm. Use for a heating of hotbets, a heated ground.
  • BIOFACTORY (biocombine), the enterprise producing biological preparations (vaccines, wheys, etc.) for diagnosis, prophylaxis of diseases and treatment of sick animals.
  • BIOPHYSICS, the science investigator the physical and physico-chemical phenomena in living organisms, structure and properties of biopolymers, influence of different physical factors on alive systems. The first attempts to apply physical ideas and methods to study of an organism (motion of blood, a sound perception and light, etc.) have been made in 17 century. Hereinafter milestones of development of biophysics are connected to study of "animal electricity" (L.Galvani), development physiological soundmen and opticians (G.Gelmgolts), mechanics and energetics of living organisms, ion (P.P.Lazarev) and membranous (J.Bernstein) the theory of exaltation. In it is grey. 20 century as do-it-yourself directions were secured a radiobiology, a bioenergetics, photobiology, etc. On the other hand, biophysics actuate in a complex of the sciences called as a physico-chemical biology.
  • The BIOFILTER, the same, that the bacteria bed.
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY of MICROORGANISMS INSTITUTE (IBFM) the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1965 in Moscow, with 1966 in Pushchinskom a centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science (the Moscow region). Probes on biochemistry and physiologies of microorganisms, a molecular biology and bioorganic chemistry.
  • BIOCHEMISTRY INSTITUTE (INBI) him. A.N.Baha of the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1935 in Moscow. Probes on a metabolism and powers in living organisms, on technical biochemistry.
  • BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY at the Russian Academy of Science. It is built in 1992 on the basis of the All-Union biochemical society (1958-91). Republican advice - in Moscow. In 1993 over 4 thousand members.
  • The BIOCHEMISTRY, studies chemicals included in organisms, their structure, distribution, metamorphosises and functions. The first cramps on biochemistry are connected to economic activities of the person (machining vegetative and raw animal material, use of different phylums of fermentation, etc.) And medicine. Principled value for development of biochemistry the first synthesis of natural substance - a urea (had F.Veler, 1828), undermined submissions about the "vital force" participating ostensibly in synthesis of different substances by an organism. Using achievements general, analytical and an organic chemistry, the biochemistry in 19 century was formed in do-it-yourself science. An introduction in biology of ideas and methods of physics and chemistry and tendency to explain such biological phenomena as a heredity, variability, a muscle contraction, etc., a structure and properties of biopolymers has reduced in it is grey. 20 century to secretion from biochemistry of a molecular biology. Requirements of a national economy for obtaining, a storage and machining of different kinds of raw material have reduced in development of technical biochemistry. Alongside with a molecular biology, biophysics, bioorganic chemistry biochemistry actuate in a complex of sciences - a physico-chemical biology.
  • BIOCOENOSIS (from a biot... And grech. koinos - general) (coenosis), phytome, animal and the microorganisms populating the given plot dry or a water reservoir and defined by fixed attitudes among themselves and an adaptableness to environmental conditions (napr., a biocoenosis of lake, a wood).
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