Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, the section of biology investigator mechanisms and propulsions of an ontogeny of organisms. Developmental biology - preemnitsa before the experimental direction which have arisen in an embryology - development mechanics; it was formed to it is grey. 20 century on the basis of an embryology on its joint with a cytology, genetics, physiology and a molecular biology.
  • BIOLUMINESCENCE (from a biot... And a luminescence), a luminescence of living organisms (some bacteria, mushrooms, Invertebrata, fishes), stipulated by enzyme oxidation of special substances (for the considerable figure of kinds - luciferins). A bioluminescence - a kind of chemiluminescence.
  • BIOME (English biome), set of different groups of organisms and mediums of their habitation in fixed native zones and belts, napr., in a moderate belt steppe, a taiga, in an arid belt desert.
  • BIOMASS (from a biot... And mass), total mass of individuals of one kind, group of kinds or communities as a whole (plants, microorganisms and animal) per unit of a surface or volume of a locality; express in mass crude or dry matter (g / m2, kg / ga, g / m3, etc.) more often. The biomass of plants calls as biomass, a biomass animal - zoomassoj. A general biomass of living organisms of ecumene, on different assessments, from 1,8·1012 t up to 2,4·1012 t dry matter.
  • The BIOMETEOROLOGY, studies influence of the physical and chemical processes descending in an atmosphere, influence of a climate and weather per capita, animal and plants.
  • BIOMETRY (from a biot... And... metrija), section of biology, which primal problems - planning of the quantitative biological experiments and machining of outcomes by methods of mathematical statistics. The fundamentals of a biometry are incorporated in kon. 19 century activities of the English scientists F.Galtona and K.Pirsona.
  • BIOMECHANICS (from a biot... And the mechanics), studies mechanical properties of living tissues, organs and an organism as a whole, and also an origin in them mechanic the phenomena (at motions, respiration, etc.).
  • BIOMORPHE (from a biot... And grech. morphe - the form, a kind), the same, that a life-form for plants.
  • BIONDI (Biondi) Mettju Nicolas (r. 1965) the American sportsman (float). The repeated champion of Olympic Games: 1984 - in relay race of 4100 m freestyle, 1988 - 5 golden medals: 50 m, 100 m, 400 m, 800 m freestyle; 1992 - 2 golden medals: in combined relay race of 4100 m and relay race of 4100 m freestyle. The repeated champion of the world.
  • The INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, studies complexes of biopolymers or low molecular weight natural substances with ions of the metals present in living organisms (Na +, K +, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Fe2 +). Investigates a role of these ions in fulfilment of biologic functions of ferments, etc. It was formed in do-it-yourself range in 50th of 20 century. Operational use is connected to synthesis metallsoderzhashchih medicinal preparations.
  • The BIONICS, studies features of a structure and vital activity of organisms for building new devices, mechanisms, systems and perfectings existing. Perspective directions: study of nervous system of the person and animal, sense bodys, principles of navigation, orientation and a detection and ranging, used animal, for perfecting computer facilities, development of new sensors and warning systems, etc.
  • The BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY, studies communication between a structure of organic substances and their biologic functions. Objects of probes: biopolymers, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, etc. It was formed in do-it-yourself range in 50th of 20 century on the joint of biochemistry and an organic chemistry. The bioorganic chemistry is closely related with practical problems of medicine, an agriculture, chemical, alimentary and a microbiological industry.
  • BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE (IBH) him. Academicians M.M.Shemjakina and J.A.Ovchinnikova of the Russian Academy of Science, it is based in 1959 in Moscow (up to 1974 Institute of chemistry of natural connections). Analyses of the organic compounds participating in biological processes, including biopolymers, etc.
  • BIOFIELD, the term used for argument of the parapsychological phenomena, in particular therapeutic influences by a method t. n. Contactless massage, etc. The Capability of registration of a biofield scientific methods invokes controversies.
  • BIOPOLYMERS, high molecular weight (molecular weight 103 - 109) natural connections - proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and also their derivative. Are the structural basis of living organisms and play defining role during vital activity.
  • BIOPSY (from a biot... And grech. opsis - a kind, a show), an intravital cut of a scrap of a tissue or an organ for microscopic examinations with the diagnostic purpose.
  • BIORHYTHMS, the same, that biological rhythms.
  • BIOSYNTHESIS, education of substances necessary for an organism in living cells including biocatalysts - ferments. Routinely as a result of a biosynthesis from simple mother substances the composite connections down to huge molecules of proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides will be derivated more. In an industry use microbialogic synthesis - a biosynthesis microorganisms of antibiotics, hormones, vitamins, amino asids, etc.
  • BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, the section of a stratigraphy investigator distribution in sedimental adjournments of fossils of organisms with the purpose of making out of relative age of these adjournments.
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