Wednesday, May 16, 2007

  • BOTANICAL GARDEN, research, uchebno-auxiliary and cultural and educational establishment. In the basis of a botanical garden - collections of the alive plants cultivated in an open ground and greenhouses. In the largest botanical gardens up to 20-30 thousand kinds of plants. The Main botanical garden of the Russian Academy of Science and a botanical garden of the Moscow state university (Moscow), Nikitsky (Crimea), Sukhumi and Batumi (Georgia), a botanical garden of Botanical institute Russian AN (Saint Petersburg), a botanical garden in Kju (Great Britain), in Uppsala (Sweden), a botanical garden of Calcutta, Bejtenzorgsky a botanical garden on are widely known about. Java, etc.
  • HAULM, above-ground vegetative mass vegetable, feed and technical korneklubneplodov. I skin, a dry and ensilaged haulm feed to a large horned stock, in small amounts to pigs and sheeps.
  • SMALL POT (Bothe) Walter (1891-1957), german physics. Has developed (1924) coincidence method and has applied it to probe of ultrarays. Transactionses on a nuclear physics. The Nobel Prize (1954).
  • BOTEV, the highest top of mountains Stara Planina in Bulgaria (2376 ì).
  • BOTEV Hristo (1848-76), the Bulgarian poet, the publicist. With 1874 member of the Bulgarian revolutionary central committee. Botev - one of initiators of the Bulgarian literary criticism. Poetry Boteva proniknuta lyricism, civil fervor. Has perished in fight with a turkish troops.
  • BOTKIN Mihail Petrovich (1839-1914), the Russian painter and graver, the collector of works of art. The brother of Century. Ï. both S.P.Botkinyh. Historical and genre painting. The writer of the book about artist A.A.Ivanov (1880).
  • BOTKIN Sergey Petrovich (1832-89), the Russian therapist, one of founders of clinic of internal diseases as scientific discipline in Russia, the founder of the largest school of Russian clinicians. The brother of Century. Ï. and M.P.Botkinyh. In 1860-61 has organized kliniko-experimental laboratory where the first probes in Russia on clinical pharmacology and experimental therapy are conducted. Has stated the supposition about a zymotic nature of a catarrhal icterus (hepatitis).
  • BOTKIN DISEASE, see in an item. A hepatitis virus.
  • BOTLIHSKY TONGUE, see in an item. The Dagestan tongues.
  • GULF OF BOTHNIA (the Swede. Bottniska viken, fin. Pohjanlahti), boreal part of Baltic m., between Sweden and Finland. Length of 668 kms, width up to 240 kms, depth up to 290 m. Solidifies in the winter. Primary ports: Vasa, Oulu, Pori, Luleo, Sandsvall.
  • BOTOGOLSKY the BARREN AREA, a hills in Vost. Sajane. An altitude up to 2509 m. Deposits of black lead and nefelinovogo sienita.
  • BOTOSHANI (Botosani), city on north-east of Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Botoshani. 126 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, chemical, glass, textile, sewing, furniture, a food-processing industry.
  • BOTROP (Bottrop), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. A port on the channel Rhine - Herne. 119 thousand inhabitants (1992). A coal mining. A chemical industry, a machine industry.
  • BOTSWANA, Republic Botswana (Republic of Botswana), the state in the south of Africa. 581,7 thousand êì2. The population 1,4 million person (1993), primarily tsvany. A urban population - 24,1 % (1991). The official language - English and tsvana. St. 1/2 believers holds on to traditional convictions, remaining - christians. Administrative territorial division: 13 districts, including 4 urban. Capital - Gaborone. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly. Botswana takes hollow Kalahari. A climate subtropical, in a north - tropical, Mean temperatures of January from 21 up to 27 °C, July ok. 16 °C. A rainfall from 250 up to 600 mm annually. Savannah and desertificated savanna. National parks - Imebok, CHobe, the Ntskaj-pan. In 1885-1966 terrain of the modern Botswana was the British protectorate Bechuanaland which in September 1966 is professed by independent Republic Botswana. Party in power - Democratic party of Botswana (it is based in 1962). Botswana - agrarian country with a developing mining industry. A lobe in a gross internal product (1990-91, %): an agriculture 5,2, an industry 45,6, including mining 41,6. Main branch of an agriculture - otgonno-pascual cattle breeding. The main agricultural crops: a sorghum and corn. Production of diamonds, copper, nickeliferous, manganese ores. Manufacture of the electric power 929 million kVt·ch (1991). Export: diamonds, a cooper-nickel concentrate, meat, skins, leathers. Length of railways of 887 kms, motorways of 19,2 thousand in km (1992). The main foreign trade partners: the republic of South Africa, countries of European Economic Community, the USA. Monetary unit - a pool.
  • BOTTA (Botta) Mario (r .1943), the Swiss architect. Has tested L.Kana and Le Corbusier influence. In designs Botta the modern methods constructions (concrete structure) are bridged to an aboriginal traditional typology (the dwelling in Riva Dignity Vitale, 1972-73).
  • BOTTICELLI (Botticelli) Sandro (an ice-film. A name and fam. Alessandro Filipepi, Filipepi) (1445-1510), the italian painter. The representative of Early Revitalization. Was close to Medici yard and humanistic circles of Florence. Products on religious and mythological themes ("Spring", ok. 1477-78; " the Birth of Venus ", ok. 1483-84) are noted by the spiritualized poetry, the game of linear rhythms, the thin colour. Under influence of social shocks of 90th Botticelli art becomes tense - drama ("Defamation", after 1495). Drawings to " the Heavenly comedy " Dante, distinguishing refined portraits ("Dzhuliano Medici").
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