Thursday, May 17, 2007

  • BUCHANAN George William (1854-1924), the English diplomat. In 1910-18 salting in Russia. Within 1-st world war has been connected to cadets and oktjabristami, sustained the Providing government, it is close to A.F.Kerenskomu. One of organizers of anti-soviet plots. It is withdrawn.
  • BUCHANAN (Buchanan) Patrik Joseph (r. 1938), the American political figure, a body, a newscaster. The mate of president R.Nixon on media relations. In 1983 has based the natural broadcasting company.
  • BJANKI-BANDINELLI (Bianchi-Bandinelli) Ranuchcho (1900-75), the italian archeologist and the historian of art, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on etrusskomu, to antique, medieval art.
  • BJANCHOTI (Biancioti) Ektor (r. 1930), the French writer of the Argentina origin. The member of the French academy. Roman " the Tract about seasons " (1977), autobiographical dilogija " Everything, that will tell night to day " (1992), " Such slow walk of love " (1995).
  • BEBBEDZH ×., see. C.Bebbidzh.
  • BEDHEM (Badham) John (r. 1939), the American producer. In first becoming known film " the Fever on Saturday in the evening " (1977) has shown the new pullet hero - the working guy which role has executed Dzh. Travolta. In 1980th has removed witty anti-war tapes " Military games " è "Short-circuit".
  • BEJDOU (a whale. Boreal Ladle), in the Chinese mythology spirit of mia maid of the Major She-bear. Was considered as the manager of destinies, stood up to to malicious forces.
  • PEIPING, see. Peking.
  • BEJTSZJAN, the river in the south of China, the left-handed component r. Si Kiang. 468 kms, the area of basin of 45,9 thousand êì2. Summer high waters. It is navigable in a lower reaches; it is used for an irrigation.
  • BEI SHAN, mountains in China, between desert Alashan and eastern tip Tjan-SHanja. An altitude up to 2791 m (. Matszun-shan). Rocky deserts and semideserts, solonchaks.
  • BEJJANSKIE MILITARISTS (characters. - boreal militarists), a proimperialist grouping; overtopped in China in 1912-27. It is based Yuan SHikaem. Signals Commands Bejjanskih of militarists have been battered by National - revolutionary army during Boreal marching 1926-27.
  • BACON (Bacon) Nataniel (1642 or 1647-1676), the chief of revolt of farmers (1676) in Virginia against the English colonial authorities.
  • BACON Rodzher (ok. 1214-92), the English philosopher and the scientist, the outlet box - franciscan. The professor in Oxford. Attached great importance to mathematics and experience - both to a research experiment, and internal mystical "inspiration". Was engaged in optics, astronomy, alchemy; has anticipated many latest discoverings.
  • BACON Frensis (1561-1626), the English philosopher, ancestor of the English materialism. The lord - chancellor at king Jacob I. In the tract " New organon " (1620) has proclaimed the purpose of science increase of an authority of the person above a nature, has offered reform of a scientific method - refinement of reason from fallacies ("graven images", or "attributes"), the circulation to experience and his machining by means of induction, which basis - experiment. The writer of a Utopia " New Atlantida " .BEKON (Bacon) Frensis (on January, 22 1561, the London - on April, 9 1626, Hajget), the English philosopher and the political figure. Life and creativity Descended from family " new noblemen ", in due course supporting the English monarchy in feudal civil strifes; his father some time held office a lord - saver of a royal seal. In the age of 12 flying Bacon has acted in the Cambridge university; in 23 years he already was the member of a House of Commons of the English parliament where acted the opponent of queen of Elizabeth I on some questions. In 1597 Experiences, or manuals moral and political ", representing highly artistic essays on different themes - from morally - household up to political are published ". In 1605 activity " About dignity and augmentation of sciences ", representing the first part of the grandiose plan of Bacon - " Great restoration of sciences ", predpolagavshego 6 stages has been published in English. At king Jacob I which has entered on a holy table in 1603, Bacon political elevation starts: is a Prosecutor General 1612 he, in 1617 - a lord - saver of a seal, in 1618 - the lord - chancellor. In 1620 Bacon publishes one of the best products - " New Organon ". In 1621 has been accused of bribery and for some days it committed to prison; despite of consequent justifying, Bacon did not return any more in policy. The last years of life was engaged in a scientific experimentation and has died in 1626, having caught a cold after conducted experience. Bacon impressed on broad designs of transformation of science. By word his personal doctor well-known for U.Garveja, " he philosophized as the lord - chancellor "; in a social Utopia " New Atlantida " he managed to anticipate the plan of building in 60 years of 17 century of the London Royal society. Bacon first was approximated to comprehension of science as social institute. He disjointed the theory of dual true differentiating functions of science and religion; his item in relation to religion is close deizmu. Bacon winged expressions about science and its roles were repeatedly elected by well-known philosophers and scientists in the capacity of epigraphs for the products. The grading of sciences Bekonovskaja grading of sciences representing alternative Aristotelian, long time recognized basic many european scientists and philosophers. Division of all sciences on historical, poetic and philosophical is determined for Bacon by psychologic criterion. So, the history is the knowledge resting on memory; she is divided on the natural history circumscribing natural phenomena (including miracles and every possible deviations), and civil. The poetry is based on fancy. In the basis of philosophy - mind. She is divided on the natural philosophy, heavenly philosophy (natural theology) and human philosophy (investigator moral and the public phenomena). In natural philosophy Bacon secretes theoretical (probe of the causes, and the preference is returned material and to efficient causes before formal and target), and practical (" natural magic ") parts. As naturalistic philosophy representative Bacon sympathized with atomistic tradition of ancient Greeks, however completely to her was not joined. A critical part of system Considering, that elimination of fallacies and prejudices - a starting-point of correct philosophizing, Bacon critically fell into to scholasticism. He saw main defect of aristotelevsko-scholastic logic in a volume, that she misss problems of education of concepts, components of a parcel of syllogistic conclusions. Bacon criticized also the Renaissance humanistic learning, preklonjavshujusja before antique authorities and podmenjavshuju philosophy rhetoric and philology. At last, Bacon struggled with so-called by " fancy learning ", resting not on a significant experiment, and on stories not yielding to check about miracles, hermits, martyrs and so forth. The Basis of a critical part of philosophy of Bacon is compounded with the doctrine about the so-called "graven images" deforming our knowledges. It, at first, inborn " graven images of a stem ". In their basis subjective certificate of sense bodys and every possible fallacies of reason (empty abstraction, search of the purposes in a nature, etc.) . Second, " graven images of a cave ", the knowledges stipulated by relation to personalities, physical and spiritual properties, and also limitation of personal experience of people. Thirdly, " graven images of the market, or the area ", having social headstreams. Bacon invokes to not exaggerate a role of words to the detriment of to the facts and concepts standing up for by words. Fourthly, Bacon offers to eradicate " graven images of theatre ", in which basis uncritical following to authorities. An inductive methodology Bacon regarded necessary to create a correct method with which help it would be possible to ascend gradually from isolated facts to broad generalizations. In an antiquity all discoverings were done only naturally whereas the correct method should rested on experiments (teleologically put experiences) which should be systematized in " a natural history ". As a whole induction acts for Bacon not only as one of kinds of an inferencing, but also as logic of a discovery, a methodology of concept formation, founded on experience. Bekonovsky induktivizm has received development in 19 eyelid in activities of John Stjuarta Millja, etc. In 20 century the treatment of induction as logic of discovering has been subjected to criticism K.Popper by school, etc. Bacon perceived the methodology as fixed combination of empiricism and rationalism, assimilating to its way of action of the bee processing the gathered nectar, as against the ant (flat empiricism) or a spider (the scholasticism torn off from experience). Bacon distinguished experiences fruitful, that is at once giving fixed outcomes, and experiences svetonosnye which practical favour is appreciable not at once but which in the issue give maximum outcome. The texnocratic school In " New Atlantide " (1623-24) is told about mysterious country Bensalem over which the dwelling " supervises " Solomons, or " the Society for knowledge of true nature of all things ", integrating main wise men of country. Bacon Utopia differs from communist and socialist Utopias the strongly pronounced texnocratic character: on an island reigns a cult of technological inventions which act the main cause preuspejanija the populations. Atlanta have aggressive and enterprise spirit, and secret export of cramps on achievements and secrets of other countries with members " Solomonova at home " is encouraged. " New Atlantida " has remained unfinished. Ñî÷èíåíèÿ:Ñî÷èíåíèÿ: in 2 t. Ì., 1977-1978. A history of board of king Genriha VII. Ì., 1990. The works. / Collected and ed. by J. Spedding, R. L. Ellis, D. D. Heath. London, 1887-1901. V. 1-7. Literatura:Subbotin A.L.Frensis Bacon. Ì., 1974. Quinton A. Francis Bacon. Oxford, 1980. A.F.Grjaznov
  • BACON (Bacon) Frensis (1909-92), the English artist. Since 1950th one of the largest representatives new figuratsii. His picturesque portraits, figurate compositions, replicas of patterns of aged masters are full acute tragic element, gloomy sensation " a hell on ground ".
  • BELZA Igor Fedorovich (1904-93), the Russian musicologist, the composer, the literary critic, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1974), the doctor of art criticism, the professor. Transactionses about the musical crop of Poland and Czechia, Slovakia, Russia, the musical romanticism, etc.
  • BELS (Bel) (Bels) Albert (an ice-film. A name and fam. JAnis TSirulis, Cirulis) (r. 1938), the Latvian writer. In novels "Inspector" (1967), "Cell" (1972), "Proving ground" (1977), "Hiding place" (1984), "Sleeplessness" (it is published in 1986) and stories investigates an inner life of the person, relation of the personality and a society.
  • BELTS (Beltsy), city (with 1818) in Moldova, on r. Reut. A railway junction. 164,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Flavoring, mild, a woodworking industry, an electrotechnical and agricultural machine industry; manufacture of a building materials. Pedagogical institute. Theatre. An Istoriko-study of local lore museum, picture passageway. It is based in 15 century.
  • BELCHESKU (Balchesku) (Balcescu) Nikolay (1819-52), the Romanian historian, the publicist. During Revolution 1848 in Walachia the member of the providing government; then has emigrated to Transylvania, supported association of the Romanian and Hungarian revolutionary movement.
  • BELECHANU (Balaceanu) Emanoil (Manolake) (?-1842), the Romanian socialist - Utopian. In 1835 has based (in manor Skeeni, area Ploeshti) falanster (community) which has been declared pirate and in 1837 it is routed by a governmental troops; Belechanu has been banished.
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