Tuesday, May 29, 2007

  • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY INSTITUTE (IBR) him{it}. N.K.Koltsov of the Russian Academy of Science, it is based in 1967 in Moscow on the basis Institute of structural botany by him{it}. Severtsova AN the USSR. Study of an ontogeny animal and problems of steering of processes of an ontogenesis.
  • BIOLOGY of AUSTRAL SEAS INSTITUTE him{it}. A.O.Kovalevskogo AN Ukraine, is organized in 1963 in Sevastopol on the basis Sevastopol (founded in 1871-72) and Karadagskoj (founded in 1907) biological stations; in 1964 the structure of institute included the Odessa biological station (founded in 1954). The main{basic} probes on problems of a biological effeciency, organization of guarding{preservation} of biological resources starving.
  • The BIOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE, system of scientific titles in latin tongue in botany, zoology, a mycology and a microbiology for groups of organisms, the bound this or that degree of kindred, - taksonov. Botanical, zoological and other the nomenclature develop the conforming international committees, then them assert{approve} on international congresses and emit the international codes valid for legislative documents. Exist{breathe} also anatomic, biochemical and other the nomenclature. See also the Binominal nomenclature.
  • The BIOLOGICAL CLEANING of waste waters, founded on ability of microorganisms to collapse (to mineralize) organic substances (contaminations{pollutions}) keeping in waste waters. Implements on irrigated fields, in aerotanks, bacteria beds, etc.
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECIENCY, reproduction of a biomass of plants, microorganisms and animal, included in this or that ecosystem; routinely expresses in mass of production for year per unit area or a unit volume (waters, a ground); in more fine-bored sense - reproduction of wildings and the plants used by the person. The highest biological effeciency in tropical forests (up to 7 kg / m2. year). Production of plants of ecumene estimates in 170 · 109 t, production animal - ok. 400 · 107 t. Study of a biological effeciency - one of primal problems of the International biological program.
  • BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES, proteinaceous - lipide structures of molecular dimensions (no more than 10 nm depth), located on a surface of cells (plasma membrane) and intracellular particles - nucleus, mitochondrions, etc. Having selective permeability, adjust{regulate} in cells salt content, Saccharums, amino asids and other metabolic product.
  • BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS (biorhythms), cycle variations of intensity and character of biological processes and the phenomena. One biological rhythms are rather independent (napr., frequency of reductions of heart, respiration), other are connected to the adaptation of organisms to geophysical cycles - diurnal (napr., oscillations of fission rate of cells, a metabolism, a motor performance animal), pitch tidal (napr., biological processes for organisms, the bound with a level of marine inflows), annual (change of number and activity animal, growth and development of plants, etc.). Science about biological rhythms - a chronobiology.
  • "BIOLOGICAL CLOCK", ability animal and the person to orient in time; it is based on stringent periodicity of physico-chemical and physiological processes in cells - biological rhythms.
  • BIOLOGICAL AGE, in gerontology - a true degree of ageing of an organism. It is determined by special devices on physical condition (cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, muscle systems, etc.). The flying not always coincides chronological age figure lived the person.
  • BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE of protection of plants, reduction of number or externination of pests, weeds and causal organisms of diseases of agricultural crops with the help of other organisms (entomophages, antagonists, pathogens) or active agents produced by them biologically (antibiotics, hormones, attractants).
  • The BACTERIA BED, structure for a bioscrubbling of waste waters. Represents the reservoir{tank} with a false bottom, gap-filling a coarse filter medium (slag, gravel, an expanded clay, etc.). Waste water, passing through a filter medium, will derivate on his{its} surface a biological film from clumps of the microorganisms blasting organic substances of waste waters.
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECT of RADIANCES, the biochemical, physiological, genetic and other changes originating in living cells and organisms as a result of action of ionizing radiations and ultraviolet rays. In the basis{fundamentals} of biological effect of radiance processes of ionization and exaltation of molecules, radiation chemical reaction, varying functions of biopolymers, primarily DNK lay. At large doses of irradiation genetic action of radiances and different unfavorable consequences, down to death of cells and organisms strengthen. See also Critical organs.
  • BIOLOGICAL DIRECTION, the sociological doctrine and school 2-nd floor. 19 century tolerating concepts and laws of biology on a society that result ined to abbreviated interpretation of the public phenomena (see Spenser Ã., Rasovo-anthropological school, Organic school, the Social darvinism).
  • BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION, set{combination} of the enzymatic redox reactions weeping in living cells. During a biological oxidation there is a scission of nutrients, and power released{exempted} at it is stocked in convenient for use by cells to the form t. n. High-energy connections - adenozintrifosfatov, etc. These connections then are spent for maintenance of all processes of vital activity; the part of power dissipates by the way heat. The considerable proportion of reactions of a biological oxidation implements in mitochondrions.
  • BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS INSTITUTE (IBF) the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1952 in Moscow (laboratory AN of the USSR with 1950), with 1967 in Pushchinskom a centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science (the Moscow region). In 1990 it separate into the Institute of biophysics of a cell of the Russian Academy of Science and Institute of general biophysics of the Russian Academy of Science.
  • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, the section of biology investigator mechanisms and propulsions of an ontogeny of organisms. Developmental biology - preemnitsa before the experimental direction which have arisen in an embryology - development mechanics; it was formed to it is grey. 20 century on the basis of an embryology on its{her} joint with a cytology, genetics, physiology and a molecular biology.
  • BIOLUMINESCENCE (from a biot... And a luminescence), a luminescence of living organisms (some bacteria, mushrooms, Invertebrata, fishes), stipulated by enzyme oxidation of special substances (for the considerable figure of kinds{views} - luciferins). A bioluminescence - a kind{view} of chemiluminescence.
  • BIOME (English biome), set{combination} of different groups of organisms and mediums of their habitation in fixed native zones and belts, napr., in a moderate belt steppe, a taiga, in an arid belt desert.
  • BIOMASS (from a biot... And mass), total mass of individuals of one kind{view}, group of kinds{views} or communities as a whole (plants, microorganisms and animal) per unit of a surface or volume of a locality; express in mass crude or dry matter (g / m2, kg / ga, g / m3, etc.) more often. The biomass of plants calls as biomass, a biomass animal - zoomassoj. A general biomass of living organisms of ecumene, on different assessments{evaluations}, from 1,8·1012 t up to 2,4·1012 t dry matter.
  • No comments: